The Chinese text below was taken from "Pingtung County Hometown DNA" 屏東縣鄉土 DNA. The Chinese was written under the direction of the Pingtung County Government, and the English was written/translated by me. This book was published by Jade Mountain 玉山社 in 2008.
This book was written by and for the use of local teachers. It presents units of study with regard to local history and local products, with a curriculum for grades 1-2, 3-4, 5-6 and 7-8. I'll be excerpting from the 7-8 grade curriculum for each of these entries.
There are nine units in this book. This entry is the third.
Hengchun's Ancient City (1)
一 , 自然地理 One: Physical Geography
1. 恆春的特有種生物 Hengchun's Endemic Species
恆春半島擁有豐富多變的地形 , 因此不僅擁有特有的植物生態 , 如特有的熱帶植物林和低海拔闊葉樹林 , 也提供了良好的棲息環境 , 孕育出多樣化的動物 , 根據調查 , 鳥類二百二十種 , 蝴蝶約二百一十五種 , 爬蟲類約四十三種 , 各種昆蟲數量也相當多 . The Hengchun Peninsula has a rich and varied terrain. Because of this it has a unique plant ecology, with distinctive tropical forests and broad-leaf forests at lower elevations. This is a favorable habitat that gives rise to a diverse array of animals. According to a survey [it's home to] 220 types of bird, 215 types of butterfly, 43 types of reptile and many, many types of insect. (2)
二 , 歷史背景 Historical Background
1. 恆春建城背景 Background Behind the Building of Hengchun's Old City
牡丹社事件 (附錄1) , 日軍自社寮登陸 , 隨後紮營準備屯田久駐 , 顯露侵台野心 , 但日軍因戰及疾病死傷 (附錄2) 加以各國詰責 , 難特久戰 . 英美唯恐戰爭影響經濟利益 , 出面調停 , 清廷則命沈葆楨統籌台灣海防事務 . 當時 , 清廷海防尚弱 , 內憂外患 (附錄3) , 於是接受英美調停 , 清廷賠款五十萬兩 , 承認日本征台為保民義舉 , 亦默琉球為日本藩屬 . 事件後 , 清庭意識到日本為大患 , 逐派沈葆楨來台統籌台灣海防 (附錄4) , 重視恆春 , 設縣建城 , 開山撫番 , 移民寶邊 (附錄5) . 先後十九任知縣的施政重點 , 大體依據沈葆楨 , 丁日昌及劉銘傳所立之四原則 (附錄6) 建設 . The Mudan Incident (Appendix 1) [occurred] when the Japanese army landed in the area, and attempted to set up a permanent base of operations here. This [action] revealed their plan to annex Taiwan, [and for this reason] they were condemned by many nations. They suffered greatly from disease, and also suffered many casualties (Appendix 2). The Japanese had difficulty fighting a long term engagement.
Worried that the military conflict would affect their economic interests in the area, the United Kingdom and the United States came forward to mediate, and [afterward] the Ching court ordered Shen Bao-jhen to organize Taiwan's coastal defenses. At the time the Ching coastal defenses were very weak, and the Ching administration suffered from both internal and external threats [in China] (Appendix 3). This is why they allowed the British and Americans to mediate, and why they both paid an indemnity of 500,000 taels and recognized Japan's right to protect its citizens. They also recognized Japan's sovereignty over the Ryukyu Islands.
After this incident, the Ching court finally realized that Japan was a major threat, and ordered Shen Bao-jhen to take charge of Taiwan's coastal defense (Appendix 4). Hengchun was viewed as an important area, so a fortified city was built there, in an effort to open up this and nearby mountain areas to settlement (Appendix 5). An administration based on 19 prefectures was established, using the four principles set forth by Shen Bao-jhen, Ding Rh-chang and Liu Ming-chuan (Appendix 6). (3)
三 , 社會發展 Societal Development
1. 恆春老街的演變 The Evolution of Hengchun's Old Street (4)
恆春老街擁有百年歷史 , 當年較大的貨輸可直接停靠南灣 , 於是建有台車自恆春南門通往南灣以便貨運 , 而帆船則停靠海口 , 以牛車載運由西門入城 . 西門至南門一段嚴然成為貨物運輸的重要管道 , 商業區於是在今之西門街 , 中山路一帶形成 . 街上建築經過明 , 清 , 日治時代 , 擁有多元的色彩 , 近年來 , 老街行人磚步道鋪設完成 , 吸引不少年輕族群及遊客消費 . The history of Hengchun's Old Street goes back a hundred years. In former times large shipments of goods passed through Nanwan, and a trolley was built from Hengchun's South Gate to Nanwan to transport freight. Sailboats stopped at Haikou, and from there goods from Ximen were transported into the city by ox cart. The Ximen to South Gate trade route became very important, and the commercial area which formed around what is now Ximen Street and Jungshan Road reflects this. [Some] buildings on this street have passed through the Ming, Ching and Japanese Colonial eras, and they come in a variety of colors. In recent years brick walkways for pedestrians have been completed, and the area attracts both young people and tourists eager to spend their money. (5)
2. 觀光事業 The Tourism Industry
恆春半島是風景優美的觀光勝地 , 石門古戰場 , 以溫泉聞名的四重溪 , 墾丁國家公園 , 鵝鑾鼻燈塔 , 帆船石等 , 以及貓鼻頭 , 三台山 , 龍鑾潭 , 虎頭山 , 赤牛嶺 , 馬鞍山 , 千秋洞 , 猴洞山等所謂 "恆春八景" , 均膾炙人口 . 此外 , 墾丁國家公園因較晚開發 , 保留下豐富的地質 , 奇岩怪石 , 珊瑚礁 , 以及冬候鳥 , 如赤腹鷹 , 灰面鳩等珍貴的生態資源 , 更是此地得天獨厚的觀光資產 . 然而在開發觀光時 , 由於業者與政府短視近利的心態 , 以及國人對生態永續發展知識的貧乏 , 同時犧牲了這些歷史演變累積下來的珍貴寶藏 , 如大型觀光飯店將山坡地整片開挖 , 泥沙流入海岸 , 改變海洋水域的水質 , 成為茶毒墾丁海域生靈的第一道殺手 . 建造後壁湖遊艇港 , 不惜開挖千萬年才形成的高位珊瑚礁岩 . 核三廠的熱水日夜湧進海洋 , 高溫水域造成了珊瑚白化 . 假日人潮造成的生活廢水 , 廢棄物橫流 ; 水上摩托車 , 沙灘車以及民眾撿拾貝殼白沙 , 嚴重干優海岸生態等等 . The Hengchun Peninsula is a tourist attraction of great scenic beauty. The Shrmen Battle Site, the famous Ssechongxi Hot Springs near the Ssechongxi River, Kenting National Park, Uluanbi Lighthouse, Fanchuan (Sailboat) Rock, Maobitou, Sanhe Mountain, Longluan Lake, Hutou Mountain, Chiniou Ridge, Maan Mountain, Chianchiou Cave, Houdong Mountain and the other well known "Eight Scenic Spots in Hengchun" [are all located here.] In addition Kenting National Park, which was opened [to the public] later, retains a varied geography which includes fascinating rocks and coral reefs. Other tourism resources include birds that migrate here in the winter, such as the Chinese sparrowhawk and the "gray-breasted dove." This area is uniquely suited to tourism. (6)
However, when the area was first developed for tourism both businesses and the government were very short-sighted. The people at that time lacked sufficient knowledge of sustainable development, and ecological treasures that had accumulated in this area over time were sacrificed. For example, entire mountainsides were excavated in the building of large hotels for tourists, and the sediment from these excavations washed into the sea, affecting water quality near the coast of Kenting and killing many of the sea creatures living there. As the Houbihu Yacht Wharf was being built the coral there, which had formed over tens of millions of years, was also excavated. Hot water from the nuclear power plant [near Nanwan] was released into the bay at all hours, and this high temperature water caused coral bleaching. On holiday weekends waste water generated by tourists, pollutants released into [local waters], jet skis, ATVS, and people collecting beach shells and sand all seriously affected the coastal ecology.
四 , 建築佈局與特色 Architectural Layout and Characteristics
1. 昔日恆春城之佈局 The Layout of Hengchun's Old City in the Past
1. 恆春古城內的街道呈雙丁字形 , 昔時北門為正門 , 至縣城的人翻山越嶺抵車城 , 或經海道至後灣上岸 , 越龜山至新街 , 再經五里亭 , 網紗溪 , 沿山腳經北門入城 , 此即古時候之官道 . 惟原住民常殺人 , 一般居民皆由五里亭直抵西門 . 而當時城內居民多集中於西門 , 南門附近 ; 北門附近為練兵營 , 居民甚少 ; 東門則為昔時台南郡至卑南必經之路 . 城內公共建築分佈如下 : (1) 縣署 : 相當於現今的縣政府 , 管轄恆春城及城外十七里 , 恆春警分局現址 ; (2) 典史署 : 相當於現今的警政署 , 專管緝捕及獄囚 , 在今台汽恆春站站址 ; (3) 文廟 ; 在猴洞山上 , 原澄心亭改建 , 今恆春石碑公園址已不存 ; (4) 同善公所 : 相當於現今之救濟院 , 收容老人及孤兒 , 後改為猴洞書院 , 又被恆春游擊借作公廨 , 今已不存 ; (5) 天后宮 : 為當時恆春營官兵所建 , 在猴洞山南麓 . 供奉的是海上保護神媽祖 , 祈求鞏固海陲 ; (6) 風神廟 , 在南門城內 , 奉祀風神及雨神 , 光緒11年建 , 今不存 ; (7) 城隍廟 : 在縣署左方 , 今恆春國小舊校址 , 及恆春鎮公所新址 , 城隍神改奉於廣寧宮 ; (8) 福德祠 : 在猴洞山西麓 , 近年已改建落成啟用 ; (9) 三山國王廟 : 在猴洞山北麓 , 今之廣寧宮 , 已改建 ; (10) 白龍庵 : 在南門內 , 恆春營官兵台建 , 今不存 ; (11) 五龍君王廟 : 在南門內客人街 , 今不存 ; (12) 觀音廟 , 在猴洞山南麓 , 今改建為清水巖 . 由以上建築分佈可見 , 官方建築位於恆春城上半部 , 居民建築則位於恆春城下半部 . The streets of Hengchun's Old City are in the shape of two Ts placed together. (7) In old times the North Gate was the main entrance. Those going to Hengchun reached it by traveling along the mountain ridges and passing through Checheng, or they arrived from the port at Houwan (8), passng by Guei Mountain [on their way to the] new street, [after which point] they passed by Wuliting, the Wangsha River, and followed the foothills to the North Gate. This was the official route during ancient times. Due to the life-threatening presence of [hostile] aborigines, however, most residents went straight to the East Gate from Wuliting. (9)
At that time most residents were concentrated near the East and South gates, with few people living near the training camp near the North Gate. In the past the East Gate was the only way to Tainan and Beinan [in Taitung from this area].
The distribution of public buildings in the Old City was as follows:
(1) The prefecture office, equivalent to the present county government, was located approximately where the ruins of the Hengchun Police Station now is, and administered an area of roughly 17 square kilometres.
(2) The "Dianshr Department," equivalent to the modern police department, specialized in the arrest and incarceration of [criminals]. It was located where the ruins of Taiwan Automotive now are.
(3) The Confucian Temple was atop Houdong Mountain. The original Chengxin Pavilion was rebuilt, and the ruins of the old temple, located in what is now the Hengchun Stele Park, are no longer in existence.
(4) The Tongshan Office, which was the equivalent of the modern almshouse or orphanage, later became the Houdong Academy, and later still was occupied and then donated as a public building. It no longer exists.
(5) The Tianhou Temple, which was built by soldiers stationed in Hengchun, was to the south at the base of Houdong Mountain. It was dedicated to the goddess Matzu, and [worshipers] prayed there for protection at sea.
(6) The Fengshen Temple, which was outside the South Gate, was built during the 11th year of Emperor Guangxu's reign, and was dedicated to the gods of rain and wind. It no longer exists.
(7) The Chenghuang Temple was to the left of the prefecture office, where the old Hengchun Elementary School campus and the Hengchun Municipality Office now stand. The Chenghuang Temple later became the Guangning Temple.
(8) The Fude (Tudigong) Shrine, was to the west, at the foot of Houdong Mountain. It was recently rebuilt and reopened.
(9) The Lords of the Three Mountains Temple was to the north, also at the foot of Houdong Mountain. It was also rebuilt and incorporated into Guangning Temple.
(10) Bailoong Temple was inside the South Gate, and was built by soldiers stationed in Hengchun. It no longer exists.
(11) The Wuloongjun King's Temple was inside the South Gate, on Keren Street. It no longer exists.
(12) The Kuanyin Temple was to the south at the foot of Houdong Mountain. It's been rebuilt as Qingshuiyan.
As you can see from the distribution of buildings above, the administrative buildings were located in the upper half of Hengchun, while the residential buildings were located in the lower half. (10)
2. 老街建築 The Buildings on the Old Street
現存的老街建築 , 主要分佈於西門城內的西門路上 , 大都屬日治時期的仿巴洛克式建築和之後的現代主義式建築 , 因此有紅磚 , 洗石子或併用等風格出現 , 有些尚可見舊閩南建築翻修加蓋立面的建築痕跡 . Most of the old buildings still extant are to be found inside the East Gate, on Ximen Road. Most of these buildings are [examples] of the "Imitation Baroque" style popular during the Japanese Imperial Administration and the "Later Modernist" which followed it. For this reason there is a lot of red brick, "washed stone," or combinations of the two building methods evident in the area. On some buildings you can see facades or other traces of Fujian-style architecture.
3. 外國防禦古城案列 Examples of Fortified Cities in Other Countries
(1) 中國山西平遙古城 : 位於山西的平遙古城 , 有二千七百多年歷史 , 是中國目前保存最為完整的四座古城之一 , 符合 "世界文化遺產" 之保存條件 , 顯示出一個時期或一個文化地區中 , 對建築 , 藝術 , 都市計畫或景觀設計發展上重要影響力者 , 為文化傳統或文明之唯一或稀少之證據 , 也是一個時代的代表性建築 , 聚落或景觀 , 1997年被列為聯合國教科文組織的世界文化遺產 . The Pingyao Old City, located in Shanxi, China, is more than 2,700 years old. It's one of the four best preserved of China's old cities, and is maintained in accordance with World Cultural Heritage guidelines. It exemplifies an area that was an important influence on architecture, art, urban planning and landscape design. It is either the sole or one of the few remaining artifacts of a cultural tradition or civilization, and it contains buildings, a settlement or landscape which represent an era. It was listed as a UNESCO World Cultural Heritage Site in 1997.
(2) TOLEDO : 在Tagus河畔土黃色岩石山丘上的托雷多 (Toledo) , 有二千多年歷史 , 曾經是古西班牙首都 , 是建於1573年的正方形防禦性堡壘 , 最大的特色是四邊高塔 , 自高塔裡眺望 , 可以看到來攻城的敵人動向 . 該城符合 "世界文化遺產" 之保存條件中的 (1) 具有創造力的傑作 (2) 顯示出一個時期或一個文化地區中 , 對建築 , 藝術 , 都市計畫或景觀設計發展上重要影響力者 (3) 為文化傳統或文明之唯一或稀少之證據 (4) 一個時代的代表性建築 , 聚落或景觀 . 1986年被列為聯合國教科文組織的世界文化遺產 . Toledo is on the rocky yellow hills next to the Tagus River. It's over 2000 years old, and was in ancient times the capital of Spain. It is a square defensive fortress built in 1573, with its most distinctive feature being a tall four-sided tower. From this high tower you can see enemy troop movements. The city was declared a World Cultural Heritage Site by meeting three conditions: (1) It is a creative masterpiece, (2) It exemplifies a place or cultural area which had a profound effect on the development of subsequent architecture, art, urban planning or landscape design, (3) it is the sole or one of the few remaining examples of a civilization or cultural tradition, and (4) It contains buildings, a settlement or a landscape which represent an era. It was listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1986.
五 , 古蹟的保存維護與再利用 Preservation, Maintenance and New Uses for Historic Sites
1. 世界文化遺產的意義與界定 Importance and Definitions of World Cultural Heritage Sites
世界文化遺產概念 , 是1992年12月在美國召開的 "聯合國教科文組織 -- 世界遺產委員會" 第十六屆會議時正式提出 , 由此 , 世界遺產即分為自然遺產 , 文化遺產 , 自然遺產與文化遺產混合體和文化景觀 . "世界遺產名錄" 目前收錄了超過七百個自然和文化遺產 , 從印度的泰姬瑪哈陵 , 到西班牙馬德里的通布圖城 , 還包括像澳大利亞大堡礁 (附錄7) . "聯合國教科文組織" 編列名單廣納各項世界文化遺產之餘 , 更努力為保護特殊遺產提供跨國家界線的技術援助 , 如柬埔賽吳哥王朝時代的古都 , 和現在摩洛哥的回教式古城哈夫斯城等 , 都曾受該組織串聯各國與民間組力量的支持 . 近年蒙受戰火波及的阿富汗 , 也在戰火終結後 , 接受該組織展開的一個大型新專案 , 拯救載戰火中危在旦夕的大型佛像石刻等豐富文化遺產 . "世界遺產委員會" 是以六個基準代表評價的標準 , 要登錄為世界文化遺產名單 , 入名的景點至少要符合其中一項 , 還要符合四種 "真實性" . (附錄8) The concept of the World Cultural Heritage Site was formally proposed during the 16th session of the "UNESCO World Heritage Committee" in December 1992. As a result of this committee "world heritage" is divided into "natural heritage," "cultural heritage" and a combination of natural heritage and cultural heritage against [a larger] cultural background.
"The World Heritage List" contains more than 700 natural and cultural heritage sites, ranging from India's Taj Mahal, to the city of Timbuktu, to Madrid, Spain, to Australia's Great Barrier Reef (Appendix 7). UNESCO compiles a list of various world cultural heritage sites, and attempts to work across national boundaries for the preservation of these sites. For example, the ancient capital city of Angkor Wat in Cambodia and the Muslim city of "Hafs" in Morocco were both protected by UNESCO's connections to governmental and civic groups. In Afghanistan, a country ravaged by years of warfare, a large project to save the historically and culturally important Buddhist statues in that region was undertaken. "The World Heritage Committee" reviews sites based on six benchmarks. To be placed on the World Heritage List, the listed sites must conform to at least one of the benchmarks and must possess four types of "authenticity." (Appendix 8) (11)
2. 外國古蹟維護的方法 Methods of Maintaining Historic Sites in Other Countries
近年來 , 世界各國隨著國家經濟的成長 , 激起學術界認真反思過去的人文遺跡 , 是否能為自己的國家民族帶來文化上的豐富價值 ? 以及該如何去做好保存與維護的工作 ? 以日本為例 , 自1993年奈良法隆寺與姬路城以來 , 目前已登錄為世界遺產的有自然遺產 , 文化遺產與無形文化遺產共十四件 , 正申請中的有四件 . 1949年 , 日本國寶一法隆寺金堂發生臨摹壁畫用的電氣坐墊起火事件 , 重要的文化遺產壁畫付之一炬 . 也因為這個教順 , 日本政府次年就制定 "文化財保護法" . 日本的文化遺產保存觀念 , 經過數十年的耕耘 , 已經深入民間 , 有些古蹟甚至是籍由小朋友撿到的碎片而發現的 . In recent years, the growth of national economies has stimulated academics throughout the world to reflect on their cultural heritage. Is it possible to strengthen the people of any nation through these [shared] cultural treasures? And how to preserve and maintain them?
Taking Japan as an example, beginning with Horyuji Temple and Himeji Castle 14 locations of both tangible and intangible cultural value have been declared World Heritage Sites, with four additional locations under review. In 1949, electric cushions used by those copying mural paintings in Horyuji Temple's Golden Hall caught fire, burning an important cultural artifact. Thanks to this harsh lesson, the Japanese government enacted a "cultural property protection law" the following year. After decades of hard work, the need to protect their cultural heritage has been ingrained into the Japanese people, and some sites were even discovered after children discovered fragments [of stone or pottery] near a site. (12)
Related Entries 相關的文章:
1. 古城 ("gu cheng") could just as easily be translated as "fort" or "fortified city." Hengchun's Old City began as a Ching military outpost, in an area generally identified with piracy and lawlessness. In this respect it wasn't so different from the forts which settlers encountered in the Old West.
2. The map used above this section is a bit misleading, but since this entry focuses on Hengchun I thought it was OK. The Hengchun Peninsula extends much farther north, all the way to Fangliao on the west coast and Dawu/Daren on the east coast.
3. This same incident was also discussed in this entry. That other entry skips over some important facts, but the discussion of Hengchun's positioning with regard to Chinese geomancy (Fengshui) is interesting.
4. The picture above this section is Kenting's night market, but I figured since this section also deals with tourism in general it was OK to include it. Hengchun's old street is far less interesting in pictures.
5. Haikou 海口 is now located in nearby Checheng 車城 township. Perhaps the "car" or 車 in 車城 refers to these ox carts, and the 城 refers to Hengchun's Old City.
6. "Gray-breasted dove." I'm no expert on birds, and this bird doesn't seem to have an English name. 鳩 could just as easily mean "pigeon," and 灰面 could just as easily mean "gray faced."
7. Or, for Chinese readers, the character 丁 repeated. I studied a map of the Old City for a long time and I'm just not seeing this.
8. Houwan is just south of where the aquarium now is.
9. Sounds kinda racial but I believe it's accurate. Some of the local Paiwan tribes had actually killed people, and relations between them and the Chinese settlers were probably not great.
10. Some of the names of temples and other places in this section could be translated even further. "White Dragon Temple," "Monkey Cave Mountain" and so forth. This Houdong Mountain mentioned so frequently is not so much a mountain as a hill. It's at the western edge of the Old City, just inside the old city wall. The Stele Park also mentioned in this section is located just behind it.
Oh, and the "Wuliting" mentioned in this section isn't the one in Kaohsiung. It's located in Hengchun, across from where the Hengchun Airport now is. From Haikou and Houwan, where most travelers would have arrived by boat, it's at the halfway point to the Old City.
11. Not sure what this "Hafs" place is supposed to be. Morocco has several UNESCO World Heritage sites, and many were controlled/occupied by the Hafsid Dynasty at some point. Oh, and those Buddha statues in Afghanistan? The Taliban blew them up in 2001, seven years before this book was written (oops). The Taliban, by the way, blamed UNESCO for their actions.
12. I'm not sure about the Japanese part. I've been to Japan a few times, and the Japanese reverence for their own and others' past seems to predate UNESCO and that fire. The solemnity with which the Japanese preserve elements of their past is truly something to behold.
NOTE: I fully realize that sections of this entry are all but unreadable. The Chinese text definitely sacrifices clarity for the sake of detail. I thought about not including the UNESCO stuff, but from a teaching standpoint it does have relevance.