2020年4月23日 星期四

臺灣開發故事 (南部地區) Stories of the Opening of Taiwan (Southern Area) 1

The Chinese text below was taken from "Stories of the Opening of Taiwan (Southern Area) 臺灣開發故事 - 南部地區.  The Chinese text was written by 趙莒玲.  The English was written/translated by me.  There will probably be four of these entries, all related to Pingtung County.  The Southern Area book also covers Jiayi, Tainan and Kaohsiung.

全臺灣最富南洋風味的屏東, 同時擁有閩南, 客家, 排灣和魯凱族四個族群.  或許因為位於台灣最南端, 加上近年興起的觀光休閒盛名遮掩, 使人忽略了屏東還有許多講不完的傳奇軼事. Pingtung is Taiwan's southernmost county, and it's host to four groups: Taiwanese [speakers], Hakka, Paiwan and Rukai.  Perhaps because it lies at Taiwan's southern extremity, and also because it's been developed for tourism and leisure activities, many legendary episodes in Pingtung's history have been overlooked.(1)

The Hengchun Legend, Heralded in Song

"唱一段思想起, 唱一段唐山謠, 老歌手餘音猶在, 獨不見恆春的傳奇, 落山風向海洋, 感傷會消失, 接續你的休止符, 再唱一首唐山謠, 再唱一段思想起." "Sing a sentimental song, sing a Tangshan ballad.  The words of the song remain even as the legend of Hengchun passes out of memory.  The wind sweeps down from the mountains to the sea, the feeling vanishes, continue to rest, and sing another Tangshan ballad, sing another sentimental song."

哼起這首歌, 一般人都會聯想到, 抱著月琴, 孤獨吟唱陳年往事的老歌手陳達.  但那一段 "恆春傳奇" 卻是鮮少人追問. Humming along with this song, most people think of old Chen Da holding a lute and singing, but few listeners inquire into the "Hengchun legend" which inspired the tune.(2)

古名瑯嶠的恆春, 原本為清廷化外之地, 早期的原住民大多為排灣族, 僅有在牧丹, 旭海, 滿州等地, 才有少數的阿美族. Hengchun, in ancient times referred to as Lang Chiao, was originally an outpost of the Ching empire.  In those times most of the aboriginal residents were members of the Paiwan tribe, though there were a few members of the Amis tribe scattered between Mudan, Shu Hai and Man Jhou.

昔日排灣族有 "出草" 惡習, 所居之處森林密布, 有 "鳥道羊腸" 之稱.  在人為和天然地形阻隔下, 嚴重妨礙恆春的對外交通. In those times the Paiwan tribe shunned open, grassy areas, and the places where they lived were densely covered by forest.  The saying was "the bird hides in the sheep's intestines," meaning that they used the natural, geographic features around them as a means of defense.  [For this reason] Hengchun was isolated from the rest of the world.(3)

清雍正年間, 這塊區域被畫為漢番界, 到了同治年間, 管轄範圍也僅限於沿海地區, 當時還公布了 "土牛之禁", 即用泥土塑成牛形當成番界, 可惜此物現已不存在了. During the Emperor Youngzheng's reign this area was brought into the Chinese cultural sphere.  After Ching rule was established, control of this territory was limited to coastal areas.  At the time it was proclaimed that "the land is limited to the ox." This meant that the [area under control] was limited to land within an ox-shaped mud boundary that enclosed it.  Sadly, this boundary wall no longer exists. 

清同治七年 (西元一八六八年) 美國商船Rover號, 在七星岩與蘭嶼觸礁上岸後被殺, 引發國際事件, 恆春的命運開始轉變. Seven years after the Ching Dynasty established control over this area (1868 on the Western calendar), the American merchant ship Rover struck a reef between Chi Shing Yan and Lanyu.(4)  The American sailors' subsequent death [at the hands of local tribesmen] triggered an international incident, and as a result Hengchun's fortunes changed drastically.

據史料記載, 美國海軍向清廷抗議, 但清廷以 "土著為化外之民" 為由推拖, 美國氣憤之餘, 一方面邀英, 荷等曾有類似遭遇的國家相互聲援, 一方面自行出兵攻打恆春半島的社頂. According to historical records, the American navy protested to the Ching court, but the Ching court stated that "those living there are foreigners."  America was not satisfied with this explanation, and rallied support for its cause among Britain, the Netherlands and other disgruntled nations.  The Americans also initiated a military assault on Sheding, in the vicinity of Hengchun.(5)

美軍從佳樂水上岸, 但因不諳陸地戰, 再者原住民以珊瑚礁為保護網, 打游擊戰, 使得美軍完全無法作戰, 於是美國揚言趁秋, 冬之際, 以火燒山的方式, 逼迫原住民 "現形". The American navy landed at Jialeshui, but they fought clumsily on land and the aboriginal tribesmen fought in guerrilla fashion, using the reefs as a kind of protective net.  This tactic rendered the American navy unable to attack, and during the following fall and winter the Americans set fire to the nearby mountains in hopes of forcing the tribesmen out into the open.

就在雙方相持不下時, 出現一位關鍵性的歷史人物 -- 美駐廈門兼臺灣領事李仙得. Just when both sides were at an impasse, an important historical figure appeared.  This person was Charles Le Gendre, American consul for Xiamen and Taiwan.(6)

觀察力敏銳的李仙得, 採雙管齊下的方式進行.  他一方面向清廷施壓, 再透過一位懂得漢語和番語的英商畢麒麟, 直接與瑯嶠社排灣族頭目卓杞篤私下交涉, 並訂定十多條協議. Le Gendre, an observant man, took a two-pronged approach.  On the one hand he put pressure on the Ching court, while on the other he employed the services of William A. Pickering, a British merchant who understood both Chinese and other local languages.  Pickering communicated directly with the chief of Hengchun's Paiwan tribe, Jhuo Chi-du.  [This led to] the establishment of a ten-clause formal agreement [between the two sides].

協議中最重要的是, 以後凡事掛有美國 "紅旗"的船艦, 原住民都不予傷害, 並協助其補給水和材薪: 美國則以酒, 槍枝, 砲彈, 火藥, 衣服等物品交換.  自此以後, 李仙得在排灣族建立威望. The most important aspect of the the agreement was that American ships would fly red flags, and that aboriginal tribesmen would refrain from attacking ships flying these flags.  American ships would also assist in delivering water and other goods to the tribesmen, and the Americans would trade spirits, guns, shells, gunpowder, clothes and other things with the local people.  In this way Le Gendre gained prestige within the Paiwan tribe.(7) 

How the Mudan Incident Unfolded

屏東平靜沒幾年, 又因外國勢力入侵而引發 "牡丹社事件".  該事件的緣由, 起於清同治十年 (西元一八七一年), 琉球群島中的宮古島一群人赴那霸朝貢途中, 遇到海難, 上岸時被牡丹鄉高士佛社 (現高士村) 的原住民殺害, 生還者向日本政府求援. Pingtung was only peaceful for a few years before the encroachment of foreign powers caused the "Mudan Incident" to occur.  The cause of this incident can be traced back to the 10th year of the Ching administration (1871 on the Western calendar), during which a group of sailors from Miyako Island in the Ryukyu island chain shipwrecked [off the coast of Taiwan].  Once on the beach, many of them were killed by people from Mudan Township's Gao Shr Fo Community (now referred to as Gao Shr Village).  Those who survived later turned to the Japanese government for help.

早就覬覦臺灣豐富資源的日本, 趁機於清同治十年 (西元一八七三年) 發動戰爭, 一來以琉球的宗主國自居, 再者打著順便占領臺灣的如意算盤, 這便是史稱的 "牡丹社事件". The Japanese had coveted Taiwan's natural resources for a long time.  [For this reason] they used the Mudan Incident, which took place during the 10th year of the Ching administration (1873 on the Western calendar) to wage war.  [They took this action] on behalf of the sovereign state of Ryukyu, and then attacked Taiwan for geopolitical reasons.(8)

這場戰爭表面上看不出有太大意義, 其實日本卻包藏禍心.  當時經過明治維新後的日本, 剛結束幕府時代, 為避免國內互鬥, 因而鼓勵將軍事力量外延伸, 並擬出 "征臺論" 和 "征韓論" 兩計畫.  後因征韓行動恐引起美, 中, 俄三方干涉, 於是全力朝拿下臺灣為目標. At first glance this war doesn't seem all that justified.  In truth, Japan had an inferiority complex.  Japan had just undergone the Meiji Restoration, and the rule of the shoguns had come to an end.  In order to quell internal dissensions and extend their military reach, they hatched plans to annex both Taiwan and South Korea.  The U.S., China and Russia opposed their designs on South Korea, so they redoubled their efforts to claim Taiwan.

關於征臺的計畫, 日本人分三路進行.  一方面與清廷交涉, 再者派學生偽裝成鳥類和植物學等專家, 以考察的身分為掩護, 來勘察台灣民情風俗; 另外, 日本人還拜訪已辭去美國代表職務的李仙得, 賜封他特別的官爵, 以借重他在恆春的聲望, 及其對民俗風情和地形的了解, 擔任攻打恆春的顧問. Regarding their plan to annex Taiwan, the Japanese proceeded along three fronts.  Firstly, they convinced the Ching court to allow a group of people posing as naturalists into Taiwan to study birds, plants and local cultures.  Secondly, they consulted with Le Gendre, who'd already left his post as American consul.  He was granted a special title by the Japanese, and he gave his blessing to the "Hengchen cultural and geographic survey."  Thirdly, they consulted with him on how best to attack Hengchun.(9)

在摸清恆春底細後, 日本人才在清同治十三年 (西元一八七四年) 發動戰爭.  他們分別從石門隘口, 寶力村和石門的後方, 同時進攻.  但因石門是一天然隘口, 山勢落差二, 三千公尺, 原住民居高臨下, 以致日軍死傷慘重.  日軍心存不甘, 只要攻下的村莊都採 "以牙還牙" 的行徑報復, 逢村就燒, 見人便砍, 使原住民犧牲不少. After learning about Hengchun in detail, the Japanese began their assault during the 13th year of the Ching administration (1874 on the Western calendar).  Their forces attacked simultaneously from the Shr Men Pass, Bao Li Village and a point behind Shr Men.  Although Shr Men is a natural avenue through the mountains, the mountainsides descend from 3000 to 2000 meters in that region, with the aboriginal tribes living very high up on the ridges.  [For this reason] the Japanese army suffered heavy casualties.  The Japanese forces were hesitant, but attempted to exact "an eye for an eye" in the villages they captured.  They retaliated by burning villages and cutting off heads.  [As a result] many aboriginal people lost their lives.(10)

戰爭期間, 日本人依靠外交力量與清廷交涉, 因為日本擔心傷亡太嚴重, 再加上天氣炎熱, 日兵水土不服, 生病人數急速增加, 更促使日本急於結束戰爭.  據日本史料記載, 那時不少日兵罹患瘧疾, 在撤退到龜山後面的後灣村時, 已無棺木可用, 只得拆木板的行軍床當棺材, 由此可知其傷亡的嚴重. During the war, the Japanese continually put diplomatic pressure on the Ching court.  At the same time, the Japanese were worried about the severity of their casualties, with rising temperatures and other adverse conditions causing an increasing number of deaths due to illness.  This forced the Japanese to end the war early.  Japanese historical records show that many soldiers suffered from malaria, and by the time they'd retreated to Ho Wan Village behind Guei (Turtle) Mountain they'd run out of wood for coffins.  They even had to dismantle their camp beds for extra coffins, a fact which indicates the severity of their losses.

為儘速結束這場戰爭, 日本拚命向清廷施壓, 迫使顢頇的清廷訂下賠償和承認日本為琉球宗主國的不平等條約. In order to end the war quickly, the Japanese continued to exert pressure on the Ching court, forcing the Ching court to compensate the Japanese [for their losses] by signing an unequal treaty which recognized Japan's claim to the Ryukyu Islands.

牡丹社事件在歷史上具有深遠的影響, 一則是使清廷開發後山 (今花東地區), 制定開山撫番政策; 再者清廷開始重視南臺灣防禦工事, 恆春古城也是因此而興建. The Mudan Incident was a historical event of great significance.  It not only forced the Ching court to open up the area "behind the mountains" (modern-day Hualien and Taitung) and to implement a policy of engagement with the mountain areas, but it also prompted the Ching court to build up their fortifications in south Taiwan.  The construction of Hengchun's "Old City" was part of this effort.

根據 "恆春縣志" 記載, 牡丹社事件後, 沈葆禎奏請朝廷於恆春築城, 以鞏固臺灣南端防務, 自清光緒元年 (西元一八七五年) 開始興築, 五年後完工.  據說, 當年督辦城牆興築的官員對堪輿頗有研究, 還定城址時, 曾特別研究過風水. According to the "Hengchun County Chronicle," after the Mudan Incident Chen Bao-jhen asked the royal court to construct a fortified city in Hengchun for the defense of Taiwan's southernmost area.  Construction began during the first year of Emperor Guangxu's reign (1875 on the Western calendar), and was completed five years later.  It is said that the officials supervising the project did a lot of research on construction, and after deciding upon a building site they also took Fengshui principles into account.

那時恆春城以龍巒山, 虎頭山, 三臺山及西平山為四方庇佑, 龜山為屏障, 而猴洞山則為城內的龍脈. At that time Hengchun was surrounded on four sides by ["received the protection of"] Loong Luan (Dragon Hill) Mountain, Hu Tou (Tiger Head) Mountain, San Tai (Three Platform) Mountain and Sse Ping (Four Platform) Mountain.  Guei (Turtle) Mountain served it as a shield, and Hou Dong (Monkey Cave) Mountain rose beneath it.(11)

全城周圍總長達八百八十丈, 牆基厚二丈, 面牆高一丈六, 分東, 西, 南, 北四座門, 南門又稱 "明都門", 各城門間並有窩鋪八間和砲臺四座, 城牆外有壕溝圍繞, 寬三丈二尺, 深六尺五寸, 每一城皆可對外連繫, 城池整體防禦相當完備堅固. The total length of the wall around the city is 2.6 kilometers, its width is 6 meters, and its height is over 3 meters.  It's divided by the East, West, South and North Gates.  The South Gate is called the "Ming Du Gate."  Each gate has eight rooms and four gun emplacements.  Outside the city walls are trenches over 9 meters wide and over six meters deep.  Every part of the city has access to the surrounding areas, and the city's defenses are very comprehensive.(12)

歷經無數風災, 地震及戰火摧殘, 城牆多已傾圮或損毀, 現存的四座城門中, 南門和東門於近年整修完成, 是臺灣地區保存最完整的一座城池. After weathering storms, earthquakes, wars and various other disasters the city walls have been damaged or destroyed in places.  Of the four remaining city gates, the South Gate and the East Gate have undergone restoration in recent years.  [Hengchun] remains Taiwan's best preserved fortified city.

除了建城之外, 牡丹社事件還意外地讓恆春增加一個新地名 -- 鵝鑾鼻.  以前臺灣地圖上沒有鵝鑾鼻, 是因李仙得幫日本人出主意, 要求清朝政府在鵝鑾鼻建立一座燈塔, 才有了這個地名. Aside from [inciting local authorities] to build the fortified city, another byproduct of the Mudan Incident was the addition of a new place name to the [list of places] in Hengchun - Eluanbi.  Old maps of Taiwan did not contain this place name, but at Le Gendre's suggestion the Japanese requested that the Ching administration build a lighthouse at its present spot.  This is how the name came to be.

Related Entries 相關的文章

"Jinfeng" to Jinluen "金峰" 到金崙
Roaming Around Pingtung 屏東一日遊
Sun Moon Lake and Qingjing Farm 日月潭跟清境農場
鐵道迷的第一本書 A Book for Train Aficionados 5

1. In a way this isn't true.  If you count some of Taiwan's outlying islands - the obscure ones that people don't think about much - Pingtung is only the southernmost part of Taiwan's main island, not the country as a whole.

2. Not sure if the author is quoting a version of the song itself or some other work related to the song.  Some of the lyrics are present in the YouTube video linked in the second paragraph, but not all.  Having watched two different performances of it, I also noticed some variation between the two sets of lyrics.

3. Hard to translate 鳥道羊腸.  Let's just say the "sheep intestines" are a long, winding road (as opposed to a short, straight road), and the bird is the Paiwan tribe, hiding at the other end of that road.  In other words, they strove to make their communities less accessible as a way of protecting themselves.

4. This reef is several km south of Taiwan's main island.  Parts of Chi Shing Yan are often submerged below the water.  Lanyu, or Orchid Island, is in Taitung County.

5. There's now a Sheding Park where this attack took place.  It has a good view of the area where the American ship was attacked.

6. Le Gendre was appointed consul over the five treaty ports in China where trade with Western nations could be conducted.  The five treaty ports were Xiamen, Keelung, "Taiwan" (Tainan), Damshui and Takao (Kaohsiung).  Only one of these ports (Xiamen) was in Mainland China.  The Ching officials probably had a good chuckle over this "concession."

7. This account of the Rover Incident and its repercussions gets the general details right but leaves a lot out.  For one thing, the Paiwan tribe attacked the shipwrecked sailors in revenge for an earlier killing of Paiwan people by "foreigners."  And while the tribesmen did use the reefs for protection, sunstroke among the American troops was a big factor in their failure to defeat (or punish) the Paiwan tribe.  The Wikipedia article also states that all of this happened in 1867, not 1868.  If you're interested, I highly recommend reading the linked Wikipedia entry above, and after that reading the entries for Le Gendre and Pickering.  They were interesting guys.  Their written accounts of the incident are linked to their Wikipedia entries.

8. So which is the 10th year of the Ching administration?  1871 or 1873?  One of those dates has to be wrong.  The Ryukyu Kingdom was a vassal state of Japan at the time.  It became the Ryukyu Domain - formally part of Japan - about 20 years before Taiwan did.  These days it's part of Okinawa Prefecture.

9. By that point Le Gendre was probably working for the Japanese government.  He was later imprisoned by the Americans for desertion on his way back to Taiwan.

10. All of this occurred in the area where the Mudan Reservoir now sits.  Of course the local geography has changed quite a bit since then.  On Google Maps the "Bao" in "Bao Li Village" uses 保 not 寶 as in the Chinese text, but it's possible that either a different character was used back then or there never was a universally accepted Chinese name for it.

11. All of this sounds very impressive, but most of these "mountains" are more like large hills.

12. I was rounding off some of those measurements.  丈 isn't the most precise unit of measurement anyway.  I'm really not sure how much (if any) of the defensive trenches/moats are still there.  Hengchun has since grown far beyond the original city walls.