The Chinese text below was taken from "Pingtung County Hometown DNA" 屏東縣鄉土 DNA. The Chinese was written under the direction of the Pingtung County Government, and the English was written/translated by me. This book was published by Jade Mountain 玉山社 in 2008.
This book was written by and for the use of local teachers. It presents units of study with regard to local history and local products, with a curriculum for grades 1-2, 3-4, 5-6 and 7-8. I'll be excerpting from the 7-8 grade curriculum for each of these entries.
There are nine units in this book. This entry is the second.
Jiadong's Old Xiao Family Residence
一 , 地理環境 One: Geography
1. 氣候 Weather
佳冬屬於熱帶季風氣候 , 年均溫度攝氏二十四 , 四度 , 每年5 - 9月間降雨量最多 , 冬季吹東北季風 , 夏季則吹西南季風 . 本鄉面積為三十 , 九八四二平方公里 , 農業耕地面積為一萬四千四百四十五公頃 , 佔全鄉面積的百分之四十六 , 熱帶植物茂盛 , 林木長年碧綠 , 花卉四季開放 , 稻米二穫 , 適宜農作物生長 . Jiadong has a tropical monsoon climate, with an average temperature of 24 Celsius. The most rainfall occurs between May and September of every year. The monsoon rains come from the northeast in the winter and from the south in the summer. The township covers an area 30,984 square kilometres, with 14,445 square kilometres under cultivation - or about 40% of the area. There are lush tropical plants [native to] the township, trees are green year round, flowers open during all seasons, and rice is harvested twice a year. (1)
2. 林邊溪地下伏流水工程 Projects Harnessing Underground Water from the Linbian River
在日治時代 , 台灣總督府極力想開發來義附近的林邊溪流域 , 但是洪水季節常常淹水 , 而且在急需用水的季節又缺水 , 1912年防止林邊溪下游潮州 , 萬巒一帶的耕地和村落遭受洪水侵襲 , 在平原的最上部建造大石堤工程 , 是二峰圳地下堰工程的前身 . 因國際糖價利潤好 , 1923年及1925年分別在林邊溪及力里溪上游各設置集水廊道一座 , 二峰圳就是其中之一 , 作用是收集林邊溪的地下水 , 再經由圳道的導引 , 輪送到農田及各戶人家 , 以供應灌溉及民生用水 , 稱為 "二峰圳" 地下堰堤 . The Japanese Colonial Administration did its utmost to utilize water [resources] in the area where the Linbian River flows through Laiyi, but the area was often flooded during monsoon season, and water was scarce [at other times], when they really needed it. In 1912, to prevent parts of Chaozhou and Wanluan from being flooded by the lower reaches of the Linbian River, a stone embankment project was begun on the upper reaches of [Pingtung's] western agricultural plain. This project was the predecessor of the Erfeng Underground Weir Project [in the same area].
Because the price of sugar was rising worldwide, in 1923 and 1925 embankments for the collection of water were built on both the Linbian and Lili rivers. The Erfeng Weir was part of this project. The purpose of these embankments was the collection of underground water from the Linbian River, its channelization into nearby canals, and its delivery to local farmers and households. The entire system was referred to as the "Erfeng Underground Weir." (2)
二 , 歷史背景 Two: Historical Background
1. 佳冬的大家族 The Great Families of Jiadong
佳冬大家族的祠堂 , 主要有蕭家古厝 , 羅家豫章堂 , 楊氏關西堂 , 曾家三省堂和張家清河堂 . The important ancestral halls of Jiadong include the Old Xiao Family Residence, the Luo Family Hall, the Yang Household Hall, the Dzeng Family Provincial Hall and the Zhang Family Qinghe Hall. (3)
2. 佳冬左堆在六堆歷史中的重要性 The Significance of Jiadong as the "Left Dui" in the History of the Luidui Settlements
佳冬 , 新埤的客家先民 , 由今萬丹四維村沿河而下開庄 , 到現在南州附近的南埔 , 和閩南人一同居住 , 後來因為文化和語言的差異 , 於是沿著當時的北岸河到了現在的新埤鄉南豐村落地生根 , 由南岸庄陸續拓展了打鐵庄 , 建功庄 , 昌隆庄 , 石光徑 , 半徑庄 , 茄苳腳庄 , 下埔頭庄 , 葫蘆葦尾庄 , 新埤頭庄 , 餉潭庄 , 糞箕湖庄和千三庄等 , 這是 "南岸十三庄" 的由來 ; 開墾的良田沃土高達數千公頃 , 居民數萬 , 後來受到新埤溪的阻隔 , 就形成了現在佳冬鄉和新埤鄉的各村概況 . The Hakka people who settled Jiadong and Xinpi came from what is now Ssewei Village in Wandan. They settled areas south of the river, their villages extending to what is now Nanpu in Nanzhou. They lived among Hokkien-speaking people in the beginning, but later relocated due to linguistic and cultural differences. They followed what was then the north shore of the river to what is now Nanfeng Village in Xinpi Township. From villages on the south bank of the river they went on to found Datie Village, Jiangong Village, Changloong Village, Shrguangjing, Banjing Village, Jiadongjiao Village, Xiaputou Village, Huluweiwei Village, Xinpitou Village, Xiangtan Village, Fenjihu Village and Chiansan Village. This is where the phrase "13 villages south of the river" comes from. This area encompassed over a thousand hectares of fertile land, and was home to tens of thousands of people. [This area] was later blocked off by the Xinpi River, which necessitated the present distribution of villages in Jiadong and Xinpi. (4)
3. 客家族群遷移史 A History of Hakka Migration
明末清初 , 閩粵居民開始大規模遷移台灣 , 客家人也隨之進入 , 早期大都在打狗港 , 下淡水溪或東港登陸 , 然後沿著下淡水溪入據屏東竹田 , 萬巒 , 高樹 , 高雄美濃一帶 , 稍晚之後墾拓的路線如下 : During the late Ming and early Ching dynasties, people began to migrate from Guangdong and Fujian on a large scale. The Hakka settlers were among them. In those early days most settlers arrived in Taiwan at Dagou Port [in Kaohsiung], at [the mouth of the] Lower Danshui [Kaoping] River or Donggang. After that point they followed the Lower Danshui River to Jhutian, Wanluan, Kaoshu or Meinong in Kaohsiung. Later routes of settlement were as follows:
(1) 從鹿港 , 草港登陸 , 墾拓彰化 , 雲林及南投 . Arriving at Lugang or Tsaogang, and settling in Changhua, Yunlin or Nantou.
(2) 從崩山港 , 大安港登陸 , 入墾大甲 , 豐原 , 東勢 . Arriving at Bengshan Port or Daan Port, and settling in Dajia, Fengyuan or Dongshr.
(3) 從房裡溪 , 吞霄溪上岸 , 墾拓房裡 , 通霄 , 白沙 . Arriving at [the mouth of the] Fangli River or Tunxiao River, and settling in Fangli, Tongxiao or Baisha.
(4) 從中港 , 後龍港登岸 , 散居在苗栗一帶 . Arriving at Junggang [in Taichung] or Houloong Port, and settling around Miaoli.
(5) 從竹塹港 , 紅毛港登陸 , 開發新竹地區 . Arriving at Jhuchian Port or Hongmao Port and developing the Hsinchu area.
(6) 從南港 , 觀音登陸 , 成為桃園的客家人 . Arriving at Nangang or Kuanyin, and becoming the Hakka people of Taoyuan.
4. 刻苦耐勞的客家族群 The Hardworking Hakka
客家先民千百年來墾拓遷移 , 無論所遷移環境如何驗惡 , 語言與文化依舊傳承 . 為了尋求生活環境的安定 , 客家族群不斷地從中原向南遷徒 , 長期下來 , 鍛鍊出堅忍毅力與硬頸精神 . The ancestors of the Hakka people have settled new lands for thousands of years. Regardless of the hardships they suffered in their adopted lands, they continued to pass on their language and culture. In order to find a stable living environment they continued to migrate south from the center of Taiwan's western agricultural plain. They have demonstrated perseverance and strength of character over a very long time period.
三 , 社會發展 Three: Societal Development
1. 佳冬鄉養殖漁業 Fish Farming / Aquaculture in Jiadong Township
佳冬鄉箱網養殖 , 成功地打開海鱺魚 , 石斑魚等的外銷市場 . 屏東生技園區太源基地 , 不僅有豐水源 , 電力供應更不虞匱乏 , 加上地勢平坦 , 面積廣闊 , 所提供試驗的技術 , 經驗和資源 , 為地方帶來無限希望 . Those engaged in box net aquaculture have successfully created an export market for "sea carp," grouper and other kinds of fish. The Pingtung Biotechnology Park based in Taiyuan has not only abundant water resources, but also an ample reserve of electricity. It's located on flat terrain, is large in area, and the technology developed there - in addition to the experience and resources [found in that place] - promises a bright future. (5)
2. 佳冬鄉產業 Products of Jiadong Township
台灣在加入WTO之後 , 鄉民透過合作社 , 產銷班功能 , 加強用藥觀念的宣導 , 運用科技增進栽培技術 , 提高農產品的產值 , 已順利取得外銷管道 , 可見危機就是轉機 , 剛好可以調整農業經營的體質 , 促進產業升級 . After Taiwan joined the WTO, residents of the township worked together to improve their ability to market local agricultural goods, to use fertilizers and pesticides effectively, and to use technology to both improve cultivation techniques and increase the value of local products. Means of exporting local goods have been realized, and through these developments it has become clear that a turning point has been reached, in which agricultural operations have been refined and industrial output has increased. (6)
3. 族群的和解與融合 Reconciliation and Integration of Ethnic Groups
佳冬鄉閩客人口各佔一半 , 目前已看不到純然的閩客習俗與生活方式 , 在族群方面更展現不同風貌 , 從客家鄉親每人都能說一口流利的河洛語 , 足見閩客交流互動的頻繁 . Jiadong Township is evenly divided between Hokkien and Hakka speakers. There is no single, monolithic Hokkien or Hakka culture, and customs vary between different groups. Everyone in each Hakka village speaks a mixture of the two languages, and this pidgin tongue is evidence of the frequent interaction between the two groups.
1. 外來文化對蕭家古厝建築的影響 The Influence of Imported Cultures on the Old Xiao Family Residence
蕭家古厝正面於日治時期因颱風受損而整修 , 所以上頭有具有日本風味的石獅與花草圖樣 , 建築也融入歐洲巴洛克風格 . 空間安排屬回字形圍龍式格局 , 有五進堂屋和四個內程 , 左右對稱 , 宅內第一至第四堂有百年以上歷史 , 第五堂則為日治時期整建 . 屋頂由前而後逐漸加高 , 以第四堂最高 , 充分反映傳統倫理尊卑次序的觀念 . 庭院有第一落起逐漸減縮 , 到第四落時 , 已是一個幾乎全部封閉的空間 , 使庭院具有隱私廊 , 而書卷窗 , 甕窗 , 八卦門等古拙雕飾造型 , 也是一大特色 . The front of the Old Xiao Family Residence was renovated during the Japanese Imperial Administration after it was damaged in a typhoon. For this reason there are Japanese stone lions and flower carvings near the top of the structure, and elements of the building are borrowed from the "European Baroque" style [popular at the time]. The secondary wings enclose a central courtyard, and there are five symmetrical outer halls surrounding four symmetrical inner courtyards. The first four of the outer halls are more than 100 years old, and the fifth was renovated during the Japanese occupation. From the front of the building the roof gradually rises to the rear, with the roof of the fourth hall being the highest. The building reflects the Confucian social hierarchy. The courtyards grow smaller [as you enter the building], and by the time you enter the fourth hall you're in an almost completely enclosed space, making the nearby [inner] courtyard more of a privacy corridor. The scroll windows, "urn windows," "bagua doors" and carvings are other important features of the structure.
2. 台灣傳統民宅空間結構 The Layout of Traditional Taiwanese Houses
台灣傳統民宅結構 : The layout of traditional houses:
(1) 蕭宅的平面左右對稱 , 並且有一個明顯的軸線與核心 ; 第四堂屋頂中央木板上的 "和合" 兩字 , 正揭示了中對稱的調和作用 . 屋面則隨著地形升高起伏而變化 , 屋頂的高度從第一堂逐次向後拉高 , 到第四堂最高 , 因此整個空間顯得層次分期 , 使人們的視線隨屋面變化而漸入高潮 , 也是潮汕民宅屋面組合上的 "步步高升法" . 空間組合上採內親外疏的手法 , 從第一堂對外門廳 , 提供家族事務會客空間 , 到第二堂對內供奉蕭家祖先 , 一直升到第三堂最尊貴的主堂 , 祭祀天地君親師 , 將重心凝聚在整組宅群的核心 , 最後漸漸收緩到第四堂花堂 , 以及最後第五堂的居家的空間 . 堂屋前後門的貫穿 , 使中軸線上的每個空間具有 "公眾性" , 是正式的空間 , 同時也形成區分各進活動的管制口 . 五進堂屋和四個內埕 , 其空間為對應組成 , 主從親疏的倫理關係 , 在配置軸線上依次展開 , 符合機能需求 , 也具有像徵作用 . The Xiao Residence was laid out symmetrically, with an obvious central point from which the rest of the house extends. On a wooden board in the middle of the ceiling of the fourth hall are inscribed the words "peaceful cooperation," and starting from this point the symmetry of the structure becomes apparent. The building undulates with the rise and fall of the terrain, with the roof gradually rising from the first hall to the fourth. The entire structure unfolds in stages, leading the onlooker's line of sight onward to the highest part. This is the "ascending steps method" seen in Chaoshan folk houses.
The layout puts the interior of the house at a distance from its exterior. The space from the front entrance to the first hall was used for family affairs, the second hall was dedicated to the ancestors of the Xiao family, and this leads to the third and most important hall, where offerings were made to gods and other spirits. This hall acts as the center of the entire house, in turn leading to the fourth or "flower hall," and then to the fifth hall which served as a living space. The front and back of the main hall are open to make it accessible to all. It is a formal space, and allows residents to distinguish visitors easily. The five halls and four inner courtyards share many spaces, with the Confucian hierarchy between those above and those below unfolding from the main hall outward. This makes the house more functional, but also has a symbolic effect.
(2) 蕭屋空間使用上最大的特色 , 為室內外交互滲透 , 且不失空間住宅的私密性 . 五堂雖各自獨立 , 但籍由上上下下許多門的聯繫 , 堂屋與左右橫屋四通八達 ; 內埕運用植栽綠化 , 或漏明窗 , 八卦門轉化空間的區隔方式 , 豐富不同空間層的組合 . 室內外空間緊密接合 , 全部朝向中央內埕 , 左右兩條前後貫通的天井 , 堤供前後堂次要路徑 , 往來於堂屋 , 內埕 , 橫屋間相當方便 . The most important feature of the Xiao residence is how the inner and outer spaces interact without a loss of privacy. Although the five halls are independent of one another, they are connected by many doors throughout. The halls extend in all directions, and the inner courtyards incorporate greenery, open windows and "bagua doors" to layer or enrich the interior of the structure. The indoor and outdoor spaces are closely connected, all face the inner courtyards, and the walkways to the right and left of the house are both connected to the open spaces before and behind the structure. Walking around the house is very convenient.
(3) 位居佳冬村的市中心 , 為聚落中的防禦要角 , 擔負客庄六堆義軍裡的重要防禦功能 , 其南側外原有一排建築物 , 由西而東提供了 佳冬村的一道防禦圍牆 , 連結四周密植莿竹的缺口 . 這些依附在蕭屋的服務性空間 , 依序分別有花園 , 學堂 , 文老師宅 , 步月樓等 . 步月樓的設計 , 則為此防衛配置提供一個東向的出入口 , 與南邊的西柵門分守兩方 , 成為佳冬重要的出入管制口 . [The Old Xiao Family Residence] is located in the middle of Jiadong Village, and has a defensive function related to the villages of the Hakka Luidui settlements. Originally there was a row of defensive buildings to the south of this structure, which protected Jiadong Village from the east to the west. The gaps between these buildings were fortified with densely planted bamboo. Between these auxiliary buildings and the Xiao residence there was a garden, a school, a house for the resident scholar and a defensive gate. This defensive gate faced east, and was separate from the gate that used to be on the south side [of the Xiao residence]. This gate was an important point from which to control access to Jiadong Village. (7)
五 , 古蹟維護保存與再利用 Five: Preservation of Historic Site and New Uses of Site
1. 蕭家古厝修繕過程與工法 Methods Used in the Repair and Construction of the Old Xiao Family Residence
蕭家古厝於1985年經內政部核定為國家古蹟 , 由於年久失修 , 導致屋脊陷落 , 屋頂破漏 , 牆壁龜裂等 , 在各界人士爭取下 , 獲得行政院文建會補助的新台幣八千多萬元整修 . 因具有客家傳統建築的特色 , 蕭家古厝整修過程 , 除損壞嚴重必須抽換更新的以外 , 都盡量以回復舊觀為原則 , 以保留傳統建築的風貌 . 其工法 : (1) 整棟建築不用釘子 , 柱子 , 樑柱之間皆以卡榫的方式接合 (2) 牆角下的小洞 , 在台灣的傳統建築上常見 , 即屋主故意在牆角下留個大約十五公分見方的小洞 , 不是為了排水 , 通風之用 , 而是讓貓能在晚上經由小洞進入房裡捕捉老鼠 . The Old Xiao Family Residence was declared a national historic site by the Ministry of the Interior in 1985. Due to many years of neglect the roof collapsed, [other parts of] the roof developed leaks, and the walls cracked. Everyone in Jiadong worked to receive a subsidy [to repair the site] from the Executive Yuan's Architectural Heritage Council, which amounted to 80 million NT. Due to the unique characteristics of Hakka architecture, only those parts of the structure that were badly damaged could be replaced. All other parts of the structure were restored to their original appearance. The renovation method was: (1) The building could not use nails, and the pillars and beams had to be locked into place. (2) Openings in the corners of rooms were common to Taiwanese buildings [of the period], and were left there intentionally. These holes were not left for drainage or ventilation, but rather for cats to enter and exit during their nighttime hunts for mice. (8)
2. 古蹟維護的溝通與協調 Communication and Coordination with Regard to Maintaining the Historic Site
在修護之前 , 蕭家古厝的損壞情形已日益嚴重 , 如不及時搶修 , 將增加維護困難度 , 但蕭家子弟散居在外 , 對於維修的大要和細節 , 族內竟見和各方看法也不太一致 , 最後基於愛鄉回饋的情懷 , 在政府 , 蕭家代表和各界熱心人士的積極協調下 , 古蹟維護方案 , 終於拍板定案 , 難能可貴 . Prior to the renovation, the damage to the Old Xiao Family Residence had grown very serious. If it was not completed in time, maintenance of the structure would have become very difficult. [Unfortunately] the members of the Xiao family were widely dispersed, and their opinions on the [proposed] renovation varied widely. In the end the concerned residents of this township, the government, representatives of the Xiao family, and enthusiastic people from all walks of life came to an agreement on a plan for historical preservation. This was a great thing.
3. 營造佳冬文化生活園區 Creation of the Jiadong Living Culture Park
蕭家古厝以 "活古蹟民營化" 的形式對外開放 , 古厝內有蕭家以前釀酒 , 染布 , 碾米起家時的建築空間 , 可以重現昔日生活原貌 , 在周邊道路整建及公共設施改善之後 , 結合附近古蹟及舊有生活空間 , 期待逐步達成佳東文化生活園區的理念 . The Old Xiao Family Residence was opened to the public as a "Living Cultural Site." Inside the old residence you can see where the Xiao family made wine, dyed cloth, and where they milled rice. [In this place] the past comes alive. Once the surrounding roads are rebuilt and facilities are improved, it is hoped that the Jiadong Living Culture Park will be gradually realized through the combination of roads, facilities, historical sites and old living spaces. (9)
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1. There are typos/errors in the Chinese text.
2. It's hard to get a mental picture of what's being described from the text. If you refer to the map above this section, you'll see that Jiadong lies at the southern end of Taiwan's western agricultural plain. To the south of Jiadong is the Taiwan Strait, and to the east the land slowly rises up toward Xinpi and Laiyi townships, where the mountains are. The Linbian River, forming the boundary between Jiadong Township and Linbian Township, flows from northeast of Jiadong, where the Japanese started their embankment project.
3. The English names for these places are very approximate. Some of their names refer back to places in China.
4. I'm a little confused about which river they're referring to in the beginning. The Linbian River is north of Jiadong, but it doesn't go anywhere near that village in Wandan, which is very close to the Kaoping River that divides Pingtung from Kaohsiung. Did that river change course so much? To make matters worse, I'm not sure which branch of the Linbian River the "Xinpi River" is supposed to be.
5. I doubt "sea carp" is the correct English name. I think it's another type of grouper. Sad to say the "bright future" promised by the Pingtung Biotechnology Park wasn't so bright. This place, located in what is now the Pingnan Industrial Area, shut down a long time ago. Taiyuan Village, located on a hill nearby, is also struggling.
6. Remember when everyone in Taiwan was waxing poetic over the WTO? That already seems like ages ago.
7. This defensive gate is still there. It's right across the street from the Old Xiao Family Residence. Its Chinese name indicates a tower, or at least a much larger structure. Since I'm not sure how large or how tall the original structure was I'm using "gate."
8. Makes me wonder what they did about mosquitoes. Did they use netting back then? Some kind of oil/incense? Or were they just not bothered by mosquitoes?
9. Have they realized this Jiadong Living Culture Park? I'm not sure. The area in central Jiadong Village near the Old Xiao Family Residence isn't bad, and gives some indication of the "Left Dui" that used to be, but just a street or two beyond that area many old Hakka homes are falling into ruin. For those interested, an early morning scooter or bike ride through the area would probably suffice. It won't blow your mind, and there are many similar old residences all over Taiwan.