2021年4月12日 星期一

台灣的老街 Old Streets of Taiwan 1

The Chinese text below was taken from "Old Streets of Taiwan" 台灣老街.  The Chinese was written by 黃诏元 Huang Jhao-yuan, and the English was written/translated by me.  This book was published by Walkers Cultural Ltd. 遠足文化事業股份有限公司 in 2002.  This is the first of two entries from this book.

Donggang's Old Street

屏東東港東臨南州 , 西南隔台灣海峽距琉球嶼15公里 , 北接新園 , 崁頂 , 南連林邊 , 總面積約30平方公里 , 人口近五萬 .  由於本鎮屬屏東平原西北部之臨海地帶 , 土壞質地為微鹼性砂質壞土 , 地下水源豐富 , 適於農作及養殖捕撈漁業 , 水稻 , 紅豆 , 香瓜 , 蓮霧是當地主要作物 , "東港三寶" -- 鮪魚 , 油魚子 , 櫻花蝦則是遠近馳名的漁產 .  但因地勢低j漥及區域排水不良 , 常受洪水及潮害 .  Donggang, in Pingtung County, is to the south of Nanzhou.  To the southeast of Donggang is the Taiwan Strait and Xiaoliuqiu, which is 15 kilometers away.  To the north of Donggang is Xinyuan and Kanding, and to the south is Linbian.  Donggang has an area of 30 square kilometers, and the population is almost 50,000.  It lies at the southern end of the western agricultural plain, and borders the ocean.  The soil there is slightly alkaline and sandy, and there's a lot of underground water available for both agriculture and aquaculture.  The main local crops are rice, red beans, cantaloupe, wax apples and also "Donggang's three treasures" - tuna, oil roe [cakes] and sakura shrimp.  These three products of local aquaculture are known far and wide.  Due to its low elevation and poor drainage, Donggang is prone to flooding and typhoon-related damage.

屏東縣境西南一帶 , 原是平埔族鳳山八社之 "茄藤社" 墾居地 , 明清以降 , 漢人開始移居於此 .  清康熙58年 (1719) , 東港歸轄鳳山縣港西里 (今新園鄉鹽埔村以東) 屢遭山洪和海浪侵襲 , 居民被迫東遷至東港溪東岸 .  同治初年 , 發展出完整的街道 , 稱之 "東港街", 隸屬港東里 , 東港溪口寬闊 , 可泊巨艦 , 而東港街位居出海口 , 是鄰近地域前往大陸經貿往來的主要門戶 , 又是兩岸轉載的重要貿易港 , 因此航運鼎盛 , 清庭在此設衙署 , 驛站 , 海陸防汛 , 興學社 , 直到民國10年以前 , 是高雄以南最大的通商口岸 , 後來被新完工的高雄港取代 .  The southwest part of present-day Donggang was originally the "Ketung Collective," belonging to the Eighth Collective of Fengshan's Plains-Dwelling Indigenous Peoples.  Han Chinese people began migrating into the area during the Ming and Ching dynasties.  During the 58th year of Emperor Kangxi's reign (1719) Donggang came under the jurisdiction of Gangxi District, Fengshan County (located to the east of Yanpu Village in what is now Xinyuan Township).  With flooding from both mountains and sea a constant problem, residents there were forced to move to a spot east of the Donggang River.  After the KMT took control of Taiwan, the first modern street was built in Donggang.  This street was referred to as "Donggang Street," and belonged to Gangdong District.  The mouth of the Donggang River was also widened to accommodate big ships, [convenient to] Donggang Street, which was located in the river estuary.  It became the area's main port for trade between the island of Taiwan and the Mainland, and was well known on both sides of the Taiwan Strait.  Because of its flourishing shipping industry, the Ching Court established government offices, post offices, flood control infrastructure and academies in Donggang.  Prior to the 10th year of KMT rule it was the largest trade port south of Kaohsiung, and was only rendered obsolete [as a trading port] after the Kaohsiung Port was renovated. (1)

昔日繁華的東港 , 有著台灣傳統街市的景觀 , "閩式街屋" , "仿巴洛克式" , "日式街屋" , "閩洋混合式" 等不同風格的建築 , 各自座落在延平路老街上 .  然而美軍在二次大戰中的轟炸 , 使東港幾成廢墟 , 倖免的屈指可數 .  舊東港郡役所, 和春診所 , 一乙茶莊 , 光復眼科 , 便民當鋪 , 生源醫院 , 百順電科等是較有代表性的遺址 .  Viewed long after the period of its greatest prosperity, Donggang's traditional architecture is most apparent.  There are the "Taiwanese (Minnan) style houses," the "imitation baroque," the "Japanese street houses," the "Taiwanese-Western fusion" buildings and buildings in other architectural styles.  You can see examples of each style on Yanping Old Street.  Bombing runs conducted by the U.S. military during the Second World War, however, left much of this area in ruins, with only a few examples of the old structures surviving the assault.  A few of these surviving structures include the Old Donggang County Office, the Hechun Clinic, the Yiyi Tea House, the Guangfu Ophthalmology Clinic, the Bianmin Pawn Shop, the Shengyuan Hospital and the Baishun Electric Utility.

東港是個漁村 , 除了豐富的漁產之外 , 老街上的 "公廟" 文化也不容易忽略 .  自清乾隆以來 , 東港逐漸闢成街市 , 為保佑居民免於瘴癘疾病 , 供奉溫王爺的東隆宮於是興建 .  每三年一次的迎王平安祭典 "王船祭" 規模盛大 , 是遊客造訪東港的高峰期 .  祭祀媽祖的朝隆宮 , 廟前的朝陽街和延平路 , 過去是東港經濟活動最發達的路段 , 吸引高雄的郊商設立分行 , 因此也稱 "港郊媽".  道光年間 , 居民日眾 , 在後寮溪和東港溪交界處的豐漁橋附近 , 設立了一座 "福安宮" 土地公廟 .  這三座宮廟之間的地帶 , 就是東港老街的主要部分 , 也庇護著東港地區的開發歷史 .  Donggang is a fishing village.  Aside from its abundant fisheries, the temples on the Old Street should not be overlooked.  From Emperor Qianlong during the Ching Dynasty onward, Donggang's street markets slowly grew.  To protect residents from diseases [that thrive in such markets], Dongloong Temple was built in honor of Lord Wen.  Every three years this temple hosts the riotous "Welcoming in the Peaceful Lord's Boat" festival, which attracts scores of tourists to the area.  The Chaoloong Temple, dedicated to the goddess Matsu, located on Chaoyang Street and Yanping Road, was in former times the most economically active part of Donggang, and attracted businessmen from Kaohsiung, who set up local branches there.  For this reason this section of road was also called "Gangjiaoma."  During the reign of Emperor Daoguang many people lived there, and a Fuan Temple was erected near the Fengyu Bridge, where the Houliao and Donggang rivers meet  The area between these three temples is the most important part of Donggang's Old Street, and [best] represents the development of Donggang over time. (2)

Related Entries 相關的文章:

1. "Plains-Dwelling Indigenous Peoples" is the name given to them by Wikipedia.  In many ways their culture has been lost, and many of the tribal distinctions between groups of these people have also been lost.  Historical accounts of their villages are mostly from Chinese sources, and should be treated with skepticism.

Flooding is still a problem in Donggang today.  Many of the military personnel stationed in that area specialize in flood control and disaster relief.

There is still a Gangdong Village in this area, located where the original Donggang settlement once was.  The boundaries of present Gangdong Village may not correspond to long gone Gangdong District.

2. "Gangjiaoma" or 港郊媽 is a portmanteau or abbreviation.  港 or "gang" (port) for Donggang (east port), 郊 or "jiao" for "local business," and 媽 or "ma" (Matsu) for the nearby Matsu temple.

NOTE: I went walking around this area recently.  I started from Chaoloong Temple, walked down Yanping Street to Fuan Temple, and from Fuan Temple walked to Dongloong Temple.  You can see bits of old Donggang along this route - I can remember passing by Shengyuan Hospital - but for the most part a lot of the old buildings have been torn down and replaced by modern houses.