The Chinese text below was taken from "Taiwanese Place Name Stories" 台灣地名故事, published by Windmill Ltd. 三暉圖書發行有限公司 in 2012. The Chinese text was written by 張青史, and the English was written/translated by me.
Xiaoliuqiu's Wuguei Cave (1)
公元1624年 , 荷蘭人攻佔南台灣後 , 同時也把黑人引進台灣 . 這些黑人是荷蘭人從非洲搶奪來的 , 他們的主要工作是服侍主人的生活起居及做一些低賤的工作 . In 1624, after the Dutch captured Taiwan (2), they brought black people to the island. These black people were taken from Africa by the Dutch, and for the most part they were used as servants or given menial tasks.
公元1661年, 延平郡王鄭成功收復臺灣和澎湖, 趕走了荷蘭人. 由於荷蘭人撤退很匆忙, 所以少數分散在臺灣各地的黑人, 來不及和荷蘭人一起搭船離去. In 1661 [the Ming loyalist] Koxinga regained control of both Taiwan's main island and Penghu, thus driving out the Dutch. Due to the haste with which the Dutch fled Taiwan, some of the black people living in other parts of the island had no time to board the Dutch ships as they escaped.
不過, 善良的臺灣人並沒有為難他們, 反而送給他們一艘船, 讓他們離開. The kindhearted people of Taiwan did not shun them however, but instead gave them a boat in which to depart the island. (3)
這艘滿載黑人的船開到屏東外海的小琉球附近時, 不幸遭遇颱風, 船撞上礁石沉沒, 許多黑人葬身海底. 幸運逃過一劫的黑人游到小琉球, 找到一個又深又崎嶇的山洞, 從此在島上住下來. 有些漁民知道他們藏身的洞穴, 就稱它為 "烏鬼洞". As the ship full of black people sailed into the waters off the coast of Pingtung, not far from Xiaoliuqiu, they encountered a typhoon. Their boat then struck a reef and sank, and many of the black people went down with their ship, to the bottom of the ocean. A few of these black people were able to swim over to Xiaoliuqiu, where they found a cave in which to weather the storm. From that time onward they lived in the cave. Local fishermen even began calling it Wuguei ("goblin") cave, after the black people dwelling there. (4)
小琉球是珊瑚礁島, 土地貧瘠, 農作物很難生長, 這些黑人只好到海邊打魚, 撿拾貝類過活. Xiaoliuqiu is a coral atoll. The soil there is very poor, and crops grow with great difficulty. The black people could only survive by fishing and collecting shellfish near the sea.
數年後, 一艘英國艦艇經過小琉球, 覺得風景不錯, 就放下一艘小艇, 載著幾名軍官, 在烏鬼洞西北方的蛤板登陸, 觀賞風光. 黑人以為英軍要來佔領這座島, 就仗著熟悉地形, 趁機燒掉小艇, 把英國軍官全部殺死. 到了下午, 英軍的艦長發現小艇沒有回來, 急忙派遣大批人馬到島上艘尋, 才發現已經艇燬人亡. 但是黑人潛伏在山洞裡, 英軍根本找不到. A few years later, a British ship was passing by Xiaoliuqiu. Impressed by the scenery, several officers boarded a small boat and set out for the island. They landed on Geban (Haban), northeast of Wuguei Cave. The black people, thinking that the British were going to occupy the island, used their familiarity with the terrain to burn the British boat, and to kill all the officers. In the afternoon the captain of the British ship, discovering that the small boat had not returned, sent a large group of people to the island to look for the missing officers. They found the burned boat and dead officers, but the black people hid inside their cave and eluded capture.
英軍向漁民打聽, 才知道有黑人躲藏在 "烏鬼洞" 裡. 英軍先後派了幾批人進入山洞, 但是洞內曲折, 崎嶇, 非常黑暗, 英軍不得不撤退. The British talked to some fishermen and learned about the black people hiding inside Wuguei Cave. Several marines from the British ship were sent to the cave, but the entrance was obstructed, it was difficult to navigate, and it was very dark inside. The British marines had no choice but to turn back.
有人建議: "不知道堆柴灌油, 再引火燃燒, 即使不能殺死他們, 至少可以把他們逼出山洞." Someone suggested: "Maybe we could pile up firewood soaked in oil, set a fire, and even if this doesn't kill them, it will drive them out of the cave."
艦長決定照這個建議進行. 烏鬼洞內立刻濃煙四起, 陷入一片火海, 可是卻沒有任何一個黑人逃出洞外. 等大火熄滅後, 英軍進洞搜查, 發現黑人已經全部死在山洞裡. The captain decided to follow this suggestion. Soon after, thick smoke was pouring into Wuguei Cave, and the interior was engulfed in a sea of flame. Even so, none of the black people ran out of the cave. After the fire was extinguished, the British searched the cave and found them all dead inside of it. (5)
Related Entries 相關的文章:
1. A more literal translation of "Wuguei" would be "goblin," but I've never heard it referred to as "Goblin Cave." If you're visiting Xiaoliuqiu, the Chinese place names will serve you much better.
2. "Captured Taiwan" is something of an overstatement. They captured the Chinese fortifications around Tainan. At that time the island of Taiwan was a remote outpost, nominally under Dutch jurisdiction. Outside the Dutch and Chinese settlements much of the island was still a wilderness under the control of the aboriginal tribes.
3. I know, right? How kind of them. This part of the story sounds like complete bullshit.
4. So... first the black people are given a boat and told to sail into a typhoon, and then they're mistaken for goblins by local fishermen. Sigh. It was a different time... I hope.
5. Alternatively, the black people living inside the cave never existed, somebody more local killed the British officers, and/or the name of this cave was explained away long after the fact. It was the 1600s, there isn't a lot of documentation relating to this incident, and who really knows?
All of the above is, by the way, only one explanation of why it's called "Wuguei Cave." There is another explanation involving the Dutch and the deaths of many of the island's aboriginal residents.