2020年5月20日 星期三

Taitung City, Viewed Through the Side by Side Textbook, Book 1, Unit 7


Q: Where's the restaurant?

A: It's next to the bank.

I can think of several restaurants next to banks.  The first one that sprang to mind was the hot pot restaurant on Jung Hua Road.  Haven't been there in ages.  My favorite hot pot restaurants are the one inside the Showtime Cineplex and Ning Ji, which is tucked behind the Poya on Shin Sheng Road.

Banks in Taitung City: Almost all the banks in Taitung City are on Junghua Road.  The Bank of Taiwan is the best place to go if you're dealing with foreign currencies or anything international.  The worst place to go is the post office, where simple things become very complicated.

Q: Where's the supermarket?

A: It's across from the movie theater.

There are no supermarket across from the movie theater!  There is however a PX Mart not far from the Showtime Cineplex.  I almost never go to that one.  There's another PX Mart on Kai Feng Street, which I go to a lot more.

Supermarkets in Taitung City: There are PX Marts everywhere.  Carrefour, on Jeng Chi Road, and RT Mart near the Prehistory Museum have large selections of international foods.

Q: Where's the school?

A: It's between the library and the park.

Can't think of any school between a library and a park.  The City Library is on Nan Jing Road behind the Teacher's Hostel, not far from the McDonald's on Shin Sheng Road.  My school is between Mackay Hospital and a bunch of houses.  I can see Liyu Mountain from where I'm sitting right now, and on the other side of my school is the Tai Ping River.

Schools in Taitung City: The big university is Taitung University, about 20 minutes south in Jerben.  The Taitung Boys' and Girls' senior high schools are where kids go to study things more academic.  There are many other vocational schools in and around the city.


Q: Where's the post office?

A: It's around the corner from the hospital.

I can't think of any post office around the corner from any hospital.  There's no post office near Mackay.  The closest hospital/post office combo I can think of is that tiny hospital on Jung Hua Road, which is down the street from a post office.

Post offices in Taitung City: They're everywhere of course.  One of the bigger ones is at the intersection of Geng Sheng Road and Chuan Guang Road.

Q: Where's the bakery?

A: It's next to the video store.

There are no more video stores.  Blockbuster is history, as is the Eastern King.  I used to spend many hours in both places.  The internet has robbed us of those experiences - hanging out in video stores, pouring through CD shops - but I guess we'll always have the memories.

Bakeries in Taitung City: There are countless small bakeries around town.  None of these bakeries will serve bread that foreign visitors will like that much.  In my opinion you might as well just buy your bread at Carrefour.

Q: Where's the barber shop?

A: It's across from the bakery.

This one might actually be true, but I can't think of where it is.  It seems likely there's at least one barber shop across from one bakery somewhere in the city.  There are a lot of barber shops and bakeries that escape people's notice.

Barber shops in Taitung City: They are numberless.


Q: Where's the book store?

A: It's between the bus station and the cafeteria.

This might have been true when the Eslite was still open, and also if you translate "cafeteria" as 自助餐.  Eslite was about halfway between the bus station and a buffet on Bo Ai Road.  The Tong Yi Bookstore was also, for that matter, halfway between the old, secret bus station and another "cafeteria" on Jung Hua Road.

Bookstores in Taitung City: With Eslite now closed, the biggest bookstore is the Tong Yi Bookstore on Junghua Road.  They don't sell English books however.  If you're looking for English books your best bet is probably the Taitung City Library. 

Q: Where's the bus station?

A: It's around the corner from the clinic.

This is true.  There's a Chinese medicine clinic on Shin Sheng Road.  If you turn past there and go all the way down you'll see the bus station.

Bus stations in Taitung City: The big bus station is behind the Showtime Cineplex.  I haven't taken a local bus in ages so I am not a good person to ask about that.

Q: Where's the cafeteria?

A: It's next to the department store.

If you define the Showtime Cineplex as a "department store" there might be a cafeteria of sorts next to it.  In the alley behind Uniqlo there's a vegetarian grocery store, and I believe they used to serve cooked food.  Do they still do so?  I'm not sure.

Cafeterias in Taitung City: There's a good vegetarian one in Beinan Township, on Jong Shing Road, just before you reach the Beinan Ruins Park.  That place is surprisingly popular.


Q: Where's the clinic?

A: It's across from the drug store.

This has got to be true.  There are so many clinics, located near so many drug stores.  I'm thinking near the Pizza Hut there's got to be a clinic across from a drug store.

Clinics in Taitung City: As with the barber shops, they are numberless.

Q: Where's the department store?

A: It's between the hair salon and the health club.

I can't think of any hair salons or health clubs anywhere near the Showtime Cineplex.  The only health club I can think of downtown is that Hideout place.  It's an odd little combination of gym, bar, and restaurant.  A friend of mine said the bar is frightfully expensive.

Department stores in Taitung City: As said above, the Showtime Cineplex is as close as Taitung City comes to having its own department store.  Back in the day we had a San Shang 三商, but that's long gone.

Q: Where's the drug store?

A: It's around the corner from the hotel.

There is a drug store around the corner from the Naruwan Hotel.  Sort of.  I can't think of any drug stores near the Sheraton or the Gaya.  I've been glad to see fewer hotels going up in recent years.  For a while the construction was out of control.

Drug stores in Taitung City: There's probably one around the corner from wherever you are.


Q: Where's the hair salon?

A: It's next to the laundromat.

This has to be true somewhere.  With all the hotels springing up a lot of laundromats were opened up too.  The closest laundromat to my house is on Jong Shing Road, about halfway to the 85 Coffee Shop on Geng Sheng Road.  The closest hair salon is right around the corner from my apartment building.

Hair salons in Taitung City: Too many to count.

Q: Where's the health club?

A: It's across from the school.

Can't think of any health clubs across from any schools.  I believe Taitung City's biggest health club is on Geng Sheng Road, on the way to the train station.  Am I cynical, or is the ultimate goal of any health club to get laid?  I differentiate here between gyms and health clubs.  I could see people going to (smaller) gyms without sexual intentions, but I'm not sure why anyone would bother with one of those health clubs if they weren't looking for a boyfriend or girlfriend.

Health clubs in Taitung City: For a weirder alternative you could go to the second floor gym near the intersection of Sse Wei Road and Chuan Guang Road.

Q: Where's the hotel?

A: It's between the train station and the video store.

Zooming WAY out on the map, the Bali Hotel at the intersection of Geng Sheng and Chuan Guang Roads was once between the train station and the Eastern King video store.  But of course the Eastern King is history now.

Hotels in Taitung City: The most famous is probably still the Naruwan Hotel, which has several buildings around the city.  After that are probably the Sheraton and the Gaya, both downtown.  There are hundreds of places to stay in Taitung City.  It's a big business.


Q: Where's the laundromat?

A: It's around the corner from the bakery.

Again, this has to be true somewhere.  And if we were to put it to a vote, what would the best bakery in Taitung City be?  Donutes?  Obama?  Apollo?  I have a couple foreign friends who enjoy Donutes, Obama is the most expensive, and Apollo's moon cakes are very popular.

Laundromats in Taitung City: There are laundromats everywhere.  I usually go to the laundromat behind the police station near Carrefour.  It can be an interesting place to watch people.

Q: Where's the train station?

A: It's next to the barber shop.

Not true.  There's not much out by the Taitung Train Station, though the area has "improved" in recent years.  There are a lot more houses/homestays in that area, a 7-11 and a Family Mart, and even a couple restaurants.  At the time of writing the roads around the train station are being resurfaced, and driving into that place is not fun.

Train stations in Taitung City: The Taitung Train Station is northwest of downtown.  The Kangle Train Station is also inside the city, and a convenient place if you're headed to the Prehistory Museum.  I believe the Jerben Train Station is technically in the city limits, but that would only be convenient if you're headed to the hot springs.

Q: Where's the video store?

A: It's across from the book store.

No, it never was.  The Blockbuster's old location is now the home of the Taitung Farmer's Association, a stationary store, and Lai Lai Steakhouse.  Across from that location is McDonald's, Net, the Farmer's Association supermarket and Poya.  Where the Eastern King used to be there's a Korean restaurant.  Across from that there's a ginger duck restaurant.

Video stores in Taitung City: Nope.


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2020年5月14日 星期四

臺灣開發故事 (南部地區) Stories of the Opening of Taiwan (Southern Area) 2


The Chinese text below was taken from "Stories of the Opening of Taiwan (Southern Area) 臺灣開發故事 - 南部地區.  The Chinese text was written by 趙莒玲.  The English was written/translated by me.  There will probably be four of these entries, all related to Pingtung County.  The Southern Area book also covers Jiayi, Tainan and Kaohsiung.


排灣族的奇風異俗
The Paiwan Tribe's Many Unusual Customs

牡丹社事件的主角之一, 就是排灣族.  因為該事件中, 排灣族強焊的民風, 使一般人對該族有 "蠻橫不講理" 的刻板印象: 但若經過深入了解, 將會發現, 排灣族其實是一支很懂禮數的族群, 它是九族中最講究階級的一族, 而且在日常生活的進退, 亦相當有禮數. The Paiwan Tribe were the primary actors in the Mudan Incident.  Because of this incident, and also because of the close-knit nature of Paiwan society, people get the impression that they are "arrogant" or "unreasonable."  After learning more about them, however, one discovers that the Paiwan Tribe is a very ceremonious group of people, and also one of the most status-conscious of Taiwan's nine tribes.  They are, moreover, quite well-mannered in their daily lives.(1)

時至今日, 該族依舊維持著貴族沿襲制度, 大頭目和大頭目家族結為親家後, 其後代子孫便為大頭目的繼承人: 大頭目和平民結婚時, 其所生的孩子則降格為中頭目. To this day the tribe maintains a rigid hierarchy, with the high chief, his wife, and their close relatives handing down authority from one generation to the next.  If a member of the chief's family marries outside the tribe, their children's status is reduced to that of "middle chief."

以婚姻大事來說, 該族非常講究 "門當戶對", 因而 "親上加親" 的情形比比階是.  如排灣族聚居地之一的泰武鄉平和村, 便有好幾樁兄弟娶姊妹的婚姻, 因而都是好幾代的親戚. As far as marriage is concerned, this tribe is very focused on "keeping things in the family," so having intra-familiar romantic relationships is more common.  One example of this is Ping He Village, in Tai Wu Township.  [In this place] several pairs of brothers and sisters have married one another, to the point where intra-familiar relationships are very complex.

[NOTE 1: I asked a Paiwan friend about this.  She said: 沒有了耶.  隨著時代越來越先進, 知道近親結婚會生出不正常的後代, 所以現在已經很少了, 幾乎沒有. ("No.  With the passage of time we know that marriages between closely related people result in abnormalities within the following generation.  For this reason this practice is now infrequent.  Almost no one does it.")  She's from a village in Jinfeng 金峰 in Taitung County, but I can only assume it's the same in the village mentioned above.  Also keep in mind the fact that Paiwan communities are now - for the most part - Christian communities, and Christianity has a thing or two to say about inbreeding.]

在男女交往方面, 排灣族亦十分注重分寸.  從年輕人談戀愛開始, 父母親都會 "坐陪" (陪伴之意), 情侶不能完全單獨相處, 直到結婚入洞房, 抱孫心切的父母親及近親, 還會在洞房外的客廳 "陪睡" 呢! With respect to male-female relations, the Paiwan Tribe pays close attention to degrees of physical maturity.  When young people begin their courtships, the parents will "sit alongside" (accompany) [the couple], and they are not allowed to spend time together alone until they've entered the bridal chamber.  Even then the parents and extended family members will "sleep alongside" the couple outside the chamber during their wedding night.

由於在結婚前, 排灣族的青年都准許同時結交好幾位異性朋友, 但是在結婚前夕, 有一項不成文的習俗, 即新郎倌必須買襯衫或手帕, 贈送給每位交往過的女孩子, 以表示 "分別" 和給一個 "交代" 的意思, 免得日後見面尷尬. Before marriage, Paiwan youths are allowed to make many friends of both sexes.  But on the eve of marriage it is customary for the groom to give a shirt or handkerchief to girls he's had sexual relationships with.  This expresses his separation from them and serves as a confession of their previous relations.  This is done to prevent embarrassment later on.

最有趣的畫面是, 在婚禮進行跳團體舞時, 新郎還可與曾經交往過的女友相擁而泣, 一副依依不捨的樣子.  不明就裡的人, 看到這種悲悽的情景, 可能會誤以為這是樁 "心不甘, 情不願" 的婚姻. The most interesting thing is the tribal dances during the wedding.  During this time the groom can still hug and cry with his old girlfriends, thus expressing his reluctance to part from them.  For those unfamiliar with this custom, the forlorn aspect of it can lead one to the conclusion that these ceremonies are conducted against the bride and groom's wishes.

[NOTE 2: Paiwan friend: 關於交往方面的解釋現在大部分都沒有了. "As far as the explanation of relationships is concerned, most of these customs have disappeared.]

排灣族婚禮不講究挑日子, 只要是假日或族人較多的時候, 便是 "好日子".  此觀念在同族通婚時沒有問題, 但若與漢人結婚時便有點麻煩.  該族耆老舉例, 曾有一件排灣族女孩嫁漢人的婚姻, 女方挑的日子剛好是農曆七月, 為避開 "鬼月", 雙方討論好久才定案. The date on which a Paiwan wedding occurs is not important.  It only needs to be a holiday or a time when more members of the tribe are present.  This time is considered "a good day."  This attitude is not a problem when two members of the Paiwan Tribe marry, but it can create difficulties when a Paiwan person is marrying a Chinese person.  Within the tribe there is a well-known anecdote in which a Paiwan woman marries a Chinese man.  The woman's side of the family selects a day falling on the seventh month of the lunar calendar - ghost month - for the wedding.  The bride and groom's family discuss this matter for a long time before reaching an agreement on the date.

當然, 排灣族也有些風俗與漢文化相類似, 像男子當兵前夕, 常會以戒指或衣裳送給女友作為訂情之物. Of course the Paiwan Tribe has many of the same customs as Chinese people.  For example, when a man is about to begin his military service he'll give his girlfriend a ring or an item of clothing for a keepsake.

[NOTE 3: Paiwan friend: 當兵前送東西的習慣台東這邊也沒有. "The custom of giving a gift before entering military service does not apply to Taitung."]

結婚儀式部分, 排灣族也漢化不少, 但保留該族的重要文化 -- 語言, 如信仰基督教的平和村民, 現在雖大多在教堂舉行婚禮, 新人也穿著白紗和西裝.  唯一不同處是, 婚禮進行中, 不論是唱聖詩, 祈禱, 講聖訓, 甚至新人的誓約, 都以排灣語進行, 以示不忘本. And as regards the marriage ceremony, the Paiwan are also not that different.  The only difference being that that the tribe preserves its most important cultural trait - its language.  The peaceful villagers are now Christians, and most weddings are held inside churches.  The groom wears a white cotton shirt with a Western suit, even though the wedding ceremony involves the participants singing hymns, praying, conducting sermons and exchanging vows in the Paiwan language.  This is to show that they haven't forgotten their tribal origins.

近年來, 為保留排灣族的文化, 該族有心人士不但傳承母語, 並在山地鄉的國中開課教授排灣族的雕刻和刺繡.  以這種方式扎根, 希望排灣族子弟能真正認識自己的文化. In recent years the members of the tribe haven't only tried to preserve their language, but they also learn wood sculpture and embroidery from experts in the mountain township middle schools.  Through this type of activity it is hoped they can preserve and understand their own culture better.

[NOTE 4: Paiwan friend: 排灣族有分東排灣, 南排灣及北排灣.  這三個群族在些文化食物甚至語言上會有些差別. 就比如貴族制度, 其實貴族跟平民在衣服上有很多的限制, 但現在排灣族在穿著上已經沒有所謂的貴族和平民差別了, 大家都只覺得好看就好. "The Paiwan Tribe is split into the East Paiwan, South Paiwan and North Paiwan.  These three groups exhibit cultural differences with regard to food and language.  Although the chief's family is more restricted than others in terms of what they can wear, these days there is no difference between how Paiwan people and other types of people dress.  Everybody wears what looks good to them."]


魯凱族的世外桃源 -- 霧臺鄉
The Rukai Tribe's Paradise: Wutai Township

數百年前, 因為台東卑南族和阿美族反目成仇, 從台東知本翻過大武山到達霧臺鄉的魯凱族, 是屏東唯一的魯凱族聚落. Hundreds of years ago in Taitung, the Beinan Tribe and the Amis Tribe turned against one another.  As a result the Rukai Tribe, then living in Jer Ben, migrated to the other side of Da Wu Mountain and settled in Wutai Township.  They thus became the only Rukai settlement in Pingtung.(2)

魯凱族的傳統習俗有許多與排灣族很相近, 所以一般人大多將這兩族視為同一族.  事實上, 這兩族還是有些差別, 尤其魯凱族比排灣族更保守, 且注重進退禮節. Many of the Rukai people's customs are similar to those of the Paiwan, so many people group these two tribes together.  There are, however, some differences between these two tribes, especially given that the Rukai are a more conservative sort of people who stand on ceremony.

舉例來說, 進入很愛乾淨的魯凱族原住民的住宅前, 務必記得脫鞋, 否則會遭到鄙夷的眼光.  最沒面子的是, 女主人會拿著拖把, 一直盯著你的腳步後面擦地, 直到客人難為情為止. For example, before entering a Rukai person's tidy traditional house, you should remember to take off your shoes if you don't want to be the object of scorn.  More shameful still, if you don't remove your shoes the lady of the house will take out a broom, and begin sweeping your path through the room until you realize your mistake.

此外, 魯凱族人的打扮與穿著亦須得體, 不然會遭到異樣的眼光.  像結過婚的婦人, 絕對不敢穿少女時代光鮮亮麗的傳統服飾, 參加族裡的典禮或活動. In addition, Rukai people must pay close attention to how they dress if they don't want to be looked down upon by other members of the tribe.  Married women, for example, are forbidden from wearing the brightly colored clothes they wore when they were maidens to tribal events or ceremonies.

雖然現在的魯凱族人平日都穿現代裝, 但參加族裡的重要聚會, 必定以傳統盛裝出席, 以表示對主人的尊重; 且如果要帶朋友列席, 也要為朋友更換族裡的服飾, 才准加入慶典行列, 否則將招致族人的抗議. Although Rukai people now wear modern clothes most of the time, when taking part in important gatherings they must wear traditional costume as a way of showing respect to their hosts.  If friends are brought to these gatherings, they too must change into traditional Rukai clothes before the celebration.  Otherwise they will incite protests from within the tribe.

魯凱族非常注重傳統服飾的縫製.  據估計, 如果要仔細打理一頂頭飾, 不論男女, 至少得花新台幣一萬元以上, 因為成本 "貴", 所以也很 "重", 掂掂至少好幾公斤, 這或許也是該族的舞蹈無法熱情擺動, 而為簡單前進後退的八步舞的原因. The Rukai people attach great importance to how traditional clothing is sewed.  It's estimated that if you want a traditional headdress made - regardless of whether you're a man or a woman - the cost will be over 10,000 NT.  And because the headdress is "honorable," it is also "heavy."  This weighty headdress, amounting to several kilograms, is probably the reason the Rukai dance in such a subdued manner, engaging in a simple back and forth dance that has eight steps.

魯凱族的頭飾除了 "重", 繁複耀眼的頭飾中還大有 "文章" 呢!  例如插百合花的少女象徵純潔, 不是處女的未婚女子也不敢戴, 免得被族人嘲笑; 男性插百合花代表勇士, 必須獵得六頭以上公山豬的人, 才有資格佩帶. Aside from being heavy, each headdress worn by the Rukai tells a story.  For example, when a girl inserts a lily into her headdress it emphasizes her purity, and unmarried women who are not virgins would never dare to wear such a flower.  Were they to do so they would be laughed at by the tribe.  A man who inserts a lily into his headdress declares his status as a brave, and also the fact that he has hunted at least six wild boars. 

至於插羽毛則為榮譽的標誌, 必得為族裡光耀門楣的人, 或參加族中競賽且有得名次的人, 才能以羽毛展示功績. Feathers worn in one's headdress are a sign of honor.  Only those who've gained esteem within the tribe or ranked in tribal competitions are allowed to wear a feather.

少女的上衣和裙子點綴物也是琳琅滿目, 零零碎碎加起來, 最保守的估算也要新臺幣一, 兩萬, 自此看出該族在傳統服裝投資相當可觀.  不過這些衣物許多是代代相傳的老骨蕫, 至今還有許多少女漂亮的傳統衣服, 是母親當新嫁娘時的禮服.Girls' tops and skirts are also dazzling, constructed as they are of many separate pieces.  A lower estimate for the price of these clothing items would be from ten to twenty thousand NT.  From this price one can see that the tribe's investment in traditional clothing is considerable.  Even so, most of these clothing items are family heirlooms, and thus passed down from one generation to the next.  The beautiful traditional clothes that many young women wear are the same clothes their mothers were married in.

魯凱族也很重視女孩的名節, 如果隨便和男人打情罵俏, 馬上會被扣上 "壞女人" 的形象, 因而女孩子言行都十分謹慎. The Rukai people also place a great importance on a girl's reputation.  If a girl plays fast and loose with men, she'll be immediately labelled a "bad woman."  For this reason girls are very circumspect in their words and deeds. 

舉例說: 平常族人除非遭遇危險, 發出求救訊號, 否則不准在山林裡大聲吼叫; 但如果女孩子被男孩子 "吃豆腐", 包括僅口頭上的占便宜, 女孩子為保自己的名節, 都可以喊 "救命", 且這種事, 族裡還會特別召開會議處理, 並要求男方公開道歉. Another example of this emphasis on circumspection is that members of the tribe should not cry out in the mountain forests unless they've encountered danger.  If, however, a young woman fears either rape or damage to her reputation from a young man, she is allowed to cry out "Save me!"  The tribe will then convene a special meeting to deal with this issue.  It will also ask the young man to apologize.

結交男女朋友的過程中, 魯凱族也堅守 "一對一" 和 "先來後到" 的遊戲規則.  最早大夥兒一塊兒玩, 但各自選定成為固定情侶後, 別人便不能亂插隊, 除非第一個分手, 第二順位的人才可遞補. In the matter of courtship the Rukai Tribe also adheres to "one on one" and "first come, first served" rules.  Boys and girls begin by playing together, and are later considered fixed couples.  Interlopers cannot come between them unless they first decide to separate.  After their separation, another suitor can take up the previous suitor's claim.

魯凱族的人情味非常濃厚, 任何一家有婚喪喜慶, 全村的人都會主動去幫忙. The Rukai people are very humane people.  The entire village helps with weddings, funerals and celebrations.

該族辦喪事的作法十分 "人性化".  在日據時期以前, 為與親人永遠在一起, 都是將死去親人的屍體埋在屋內, 擺放的位置也有規矩, 男的埋在客廳地下, 女的則埋在臥室地下.  後來日本人認為不衛生而嚴加禁止, 才抬到外面去埋葬.  但為了表示誠心幫忙, 族中年輕人都會搶著抬棺, 即使是使不上力也會刻意去觸摸. The funeral practices of this group are very "people-centric."  Before the Japanese Colonial Administration, the bodies of family members were interred within the confines of the house, so that family members could reside together continually.  There were rules for such burials: men were buried beneath the living room, women beneath bedrooms.  The Japanese, who arrived later, considered the practice unhygienic and forbade it, encouraging the practice of burying loved ones outside the house.  Yet to show their concern for the deceased, younger people will still rush to lift the coffin, and even if it's nor really helping they will struggle to touch it.

除主動弔唁喪家外, 村裡人還會輪流陪喪家守靈.  葬禮後, 為疏導喪家悲傷心情, 左鄰右舍還會常去 "陪宿", 並準備飯菜請喪家用餐. Aside from offering condolences to the bereaved, the villagers will take turns watching over the deceased's spirit.  After the funeral, in order to assuage the bereaved family members' feeling of loss, everyone will "keep vigil" with them and prepare their food. 

戴孝的方式也很特別, 如果是父母, 配偶或親生子女過世, 須以黑紗披頭, 為期一個月: 若是旁系親屬去世, 也要戴孝, 不過是披如深藍色等深色頭布. Funeral clothes are also unique.  If one's parent or children die, this person must wear black gauze for a month.  If more distant relatives die, black gauze must also be worn, but with a dark blue cloth around the head.

和漢人傳統習俗一樣, 魯凱族也相當重男輕女, 家業必定傳子不傳女, 而且長子一定得留在家鄉.  如果因職業關係無法留在家裡, 其子女必須送回老家讓父母親扶養; 倘若家中全為女兒無兒子, 則為長女招贅以繼承產業. Like the Han Chinese, the Rukai are a very patriarchal society.  Family trades are passed from father to son, not from father to daughter.  The eldest son is expected to remain in his village.  If, for professional reasons, this son cannot remain in the village, his children must be sent back to the village to take care of their grandparents.  If the family has only daughters, the oldest daughter inherits the family trade.

目前魯凱族最困擾的是, 不能使用原住民的名字.  漢名對原住民而言, 僅具代表意義, 根本無法讓人追溯家世, 因為魯凱族命名方式是採代代相傳, 因此只要聽到名字, 便可知曉出自哪個家族. In older times the difficulty for Rukai people was the fact that they couldn't use their aboriginal names.  As far as Chinese names for aboriginal people are concerned, these names are useless in terms of tracing their genealogy.  This is because Rukai names are passed from one generation to the next, and when you hear a Rukai name you'll be able to tell which family that person belongs to.

為新生兒取名字, 對於較為特殊的情形, 魯凱族人也和漢人一般, 取些不吉利的名字以去晦氣, 如經常流產的婦女所生的子女, 在幼年時期都被命名為nizu (可隨便丟棄的果皮) 或kalasubrla (米糠) 等乳名, 以免被惡魔嫉妒奪去性命, 直到成年後才開始叫其真正的名字. When giving names to newborns, the Rukai are like some Han Chinese in giving uncouth-sounding names as a way of avoiding bad luck.  For instance, girls born to women who often miscarry are named "nizu" (meaning a fruit peel which is easily discarded), "kalasubria" (rice husk) or other similar baby names.  This is done to protect them from evil spells which incorporate their true name.  It isn't until they've become adults that these children are called by their real names.

族裡還有一個很特殊的命名作法, 即對族人有重大貢獻的人, 他的新生兒將由頭目和長老等人 "封名", 通常都會賜予如 "虎頭蜂" 等, 象徵孔武有力的名字. There is another special naming practice in the tribe.  If someone has made a special contribution to the community, his [or her?] child will be given a special title by the tribal elders.  This child will be named "Wasp" or some other fierce-sounding name.

雖然遠離塵囂的霧臺鄉, 至今在風俗習慣, 語言等方面, 還保留得相當完整, 仍不免因與其他族群通婚, 而有所改變, 其中以建築最為顯著.  像原本可就地取材興建的傳統石板屋, 因受漢化影響, 大部分均改為鋼筋水泥房舍, 遠望霧臺鄉, 已見不到傳統魯凱村落的風貌了. Even though Wutai Township is far from the hustle and bustle of other places, and even though the [Rukai Tribe's] customs and language have been preserved in their entirety, they've still experienced change due to intermarriage with other groups.  One example of this trend is the Chinese-style, reinforced concrete houses they now inhabit.  These have replaced the traditional slate houses they once called home.  Looking at Wutai Township from a distance, one no longer sees the traditional Rukai way of living.

Related Entries 相關的文章:

"Jinfeng" to Jinluen "金峰" 到金崙

1. If you're interested in learning about Taiwan's aboriginal tribes, the Taiwan Aboriginal Culture Park 九族文化遠區 in Nantou 南投 and the National Museum of Prehistory 國立史前博物館 in Taitung 台東 are worth visiting.  There's also a place like this in Pingtung, but as I haven't been there yet I'm reluctant to recommend it.

2. I don't know anyone in the Rukai Tribe.  Otherwise I would have asked them about this article.