The Chinese text below was taken from "Pingtung County Hometown DNA" 屏東縣鄉土 DNA. The Chinese was written under the direction of the Pingtung County Government, and the English was written/translated by me. This book was published by Jade Mountain 玉山社 in 2008.
This book was written by and for the use of local teachers. It presents units of study with regard to local history and local products, with a curriculum for grades 1-2, 3-4, 5-6 and 7-8. I'll be excerpting from the 7-8 grade curriculum for each of these entries.
There are nine units in this book. This entry is the first.
Wanluan's Liu Family Ancestral Shrine
一 , 地理環境 One: Geography
1. 五溝湧泉水圳 The Canals of Wugou Spring
六堆地區聚落分佈狀況與當地水系有密切關係 . 先民入墾時期 , 交通不方 , 貨物及人員交通以水運為最便利 , 因此六堆地區水道不僅為農耕必須的水源 , 更是交通上不可或缺的通路 , 聚落發展自然以鄰近水源地為開庄的擇址地點 . 五溝水圳為日治時期農田水利會利用豐沛的地下湧泉 , 沿著村莊挖鑿圳溝 , 作為灌溉之用的水圳 . 水圳的源頭下游約二百公尺處 , 為方便灌溉 , 建一水閘門 , 分出另一水路流向劉氏宗祠. The distribution of settlements in the Luidui area (1) was closely linked to the waterways in that part of Taiwan. When the first settlers arrived, transportation was not convenient, and moving goods and people around by boat was the easiest option. For this reason the waterways of the Luidui settlements weren't just necessary for farming but also for transportation. Villages were always located close to adjacent water sources,
The canals around Wugoushui (2), fed by an abundant underground spring, were built during the Japanese Imperial Administration. They were intended for use by local farmers irrigating their fields. The canals were dug between the villages. About 200 meters down from the underground spring, sluice gates were placed to improve water flow, and from one of these gates a canal flowed past the Liu Family Ancestral Shrine.
2. 五溝獨持的生態圈 Wugou's Unique Ecosystem
五溝地區溪流雖有畜牧及家庭廢水的汙染 , 惟中途之地下湧泉的稀釋 , 使得五溝水在水質 , 水溫 , 水流速配合下 , 產出許多特殊之物種 , 並造就出其獨持的生態體系 , 包刮探芹草 , 屏東石龍尾 , 光葉水菊等四十種以上水草 , 有記綠的留鳥有三十一種 , 候鳥九種 , 螺貝類有蜆 , 錐實螺 , 福壽螺等二十一種 , 水棲昆蟲以蜻蛉目物種最多 , 有脊紋鼓蟌 , 琥珀蜻蜓 , 瘦面細蟌 , 樂山蜻蜓等二十二種 , 佔全島蜻蛉目物種的五分之一 . Even though the waterways near Wugou are polluted by livestock [runoff] and household wastewater, the dilution of contaminants due to Wugou's proximity to the underground spring, the flow rate, and the water temperature allow for the growth of several unique species of plants and animals. A distinctive ecosystem has evolved, which includes hydrolea zeylanica, a local type of limnophila sessiliflora, a type of tea plant and 40 other types of aquatic plants (3). Over 31 species of endemic birds have been recorded in the area, along with 9 types of migratory birds. The area is home to clams, air-breathing snails, gilled freshwater snails and 21 other types of shelled organism. Dragonflies and damselflies are the most numerous of the aquatic insects, and of the 22 types found in the area several are endemic. [The types of dragonfly and damselfly found here] account for one fifth of Taiwan's total dragonfly and damselfly species. (4)
二 , 歷史背景 Two: Historical Background
1.從原鄉到六堆 From [Their] Hometowns to Liudui
早期客家人來台 , 約在1686年間 , 其時海禁初開 , 閩粵人民因 受生活環境所迫 , 大量東移來台謨生 . 惟閩南人因佔地利人和關係 , 自然較具優勢 ; 而粵東客家人來台較遲 , 且受各種政令限制 , 已無空地可用 , 只好在今台南市東門外 , 墾闢菜園 , 以維生計 . 1691年左右 , 客家人聞悉屏東下淡水溪東岸有大量未墾荒埔 , 因生活所迫 , 乃冒著瘴癘 , 番害的侵襲 , 相率遷往開墾 . 於是人口驟增 , 墾區日擴 . 六堆客家人大部分是廣東省嘉應州的梅縣和蕉嶺縣人 , 中北部客家人也差不多 , 少數是平遠 , 大埔 , 興寧 , 五華 , 龍門 , 河源 , 海豐 , 饒平 , 及閩西之上杭 , 武平 , 永定 , 贛南之雲都 , 會昌 , 尋鄔等縣及廣西的客家人 . 1688年 , 一隊由嘉應州徵募的客家兵 , 人數約有一百多人 , 在安平 , 台南 , 阿公店服役四年後解隊 , 被安置在屏東萬丹鄉附近 (濫濫庄) 從事屯田 , 是六堆最初來台的先人 . Hakka people arrived in Taiwan as early as 1686. At that time the [imperial] ban against sea voyages had just been lifted, and people in Fujian and Guangdong [provinces], leading lives of hardship at home, were driven in large numbers east to Taiwan to make a living. Minnanese [Taiwanese speaking] people had an advantage in terms of the places they settled and their relations with those who'd already settled here. The Hakka people, arriving from eastern Guangdong, came later, and were restricted by various government decrees. There was no land available to them [near the ports], and so they cultivated land outside Tainan's East Gate to survive.
Around 1691 the Hakka settlers learned that there was a lot of uncultivated land south of the Lower Danshui River (5) in Pingtung, and population pressure forced them to risk malaria and other illnesses in order to settle the area. As a result the population grew rapidly, and the size of cultivated land increased day by day.
Most of the settlers occupying Pingtung's Liudui settlements were from Meixian and Jiaoling districts in Guangdong Province, Jiaying prefecture. The Hakka [immigrants] in Central and North Taiwan were similarly distributed. A few were from Pingyuan, Dapu, Xingning, Wuhua, Longmen, Heyuan, Haifeng, Raoping, Shangkeng in Minxi [Fujian Province], Wuping, Yongding, Yundu in southern Jiangxi, Huichang, and a few other Hakka communities in Guangxi (6). In 1688 a troop of about 100 soldiers recruited from Jiaying Prefecture were disbanded after four years' service in Anping and Agongdian, Tainan. These soldiers were relocated to Wandan Township (Lanlan Village) in Pingtung, where they began clearing land for farming. They were among the earliest of Pingtung's Luidui settlers.
2.頭溝水到五溝水的命名 Place Names between Tougoushui and Wugoushui
居住於濫濫庄的數名青年 , 1698年沿河來到萬巒鄉二溝水 , 發現官倉肚一帶可以開拓 , 是為萬巒開庄之始 , 因看其水源豐沛 , 甚至派人遠回原鄉 , 邀集大批農民到此墾荒 . 人定勝天 , 不久闢出良田百頃 , 以後逐漸開拓頭 , 二 , 三 , 泗 , 五溝水暨其他地方 , 一共十三庄 . 本鄉另轄有平埔族的赤山 , 萬金二村 , 以及潮州府屬移民來的佳佐 , 新厝 , 新置等村莊 , 俱以閩南話為常用語 . 此一帶土地原由排灣族開拓 , 清政府派兵駐屯後 , 排灣族移去山上 , 乃有前述人民遷居此處 . A few young people followed the river from Lanlan Village to Ergoushui in 1698. Their discovery that this area could be farmed marked the beginning of settlement in Wanluan. They noticed that water was a plentiful resource in the area, and sent people back to their original village to invite others to help develop the land for farming. People always rise to a challenge, and before long a hundred hectares of land were under the plow. [This led to the] gradual settlement of Toushui, Ershui, Sanshui, Sseshui and Wushui for a total of 13 villages (7). Originally the area was also home to plains-dwelling indigenous peoples, who lived in Chrshan and Wanjin Village (#2), as well as the Minnanese (Hokkien)-speaking people who migrated over from Chaozhou and started settlements such as Jiadzuo, Xintsuo and Xinjr. The area was first settled by members of the Paiwan Tribe, but after the Ching Government sent troops to the area these tribespeople moved to [areas closer to the mountains]. The new groups mentioned above replaced them.
三 , 社會發展 Three: Societal Development
1. 萬巒豬腳的起源 The Origin of Wanluan Pork Knuckle
萬巒豬腳創始人林海鴻 , 在戰後初期 , 原本在萬巒市場內擺麵攤 , 後來改變生意方式賣起豬腳來 , 已傳承第三代共同經營 , 萬巒豬腳聞名全台 , 主要在於特殊的製作過程 , 獨特的配方 , 佐料 , 有別於其他地方所產製的豬腳 , 吃起來不膩 , 皮 , 肉 , 筋 , 韌性中帶點脆的感覺 , 十分爽口 , 加上香醇的沾料 , 使人印象深刻 . Lin Hai-hong was the man who created the Wanluan pork knuckle. He had a noodle stall set up in the Wanluan Market after the war, and later switched over to selling pork knuckle. This business has since spanned three generations. Wanluan's pork knuckle is famous throughout Taiwan, [and is known for] its special method of preparation, its unique recipe and the condiments served with it. It's different from the pork knuckle served in other places. It's not greasy, and the skin, meat and tendons are all a bit crispy. The taste [of this pork knuckle] is completely refreshing. The mellow dipping sauce [with which the pork knuckle is served] also makes a big impression.
2. 萬巒豬腳商圈 Wanluan's Pork Knuckle Shopping Area
台灣人吃豬腳麵線 , 象徵可以把霉運踩過去 , 同時可吉祥延壽 . 吃豬腳麵線時一定要吃到豬蹄 , 才算真的把霉運踢走 . 萬巒豬腳商店在鄉公所統一規劃下 , 已形成美食街 , 除了豬腳外 , 各式客家糕點及小吃也很出名 . Taiwanese people eat pork knuckle noodles, [whose name] symbolizes trampling bad luck underfoot. At the same time these auspicious [pork knuckle noodles] can contribute to a long life. When eating pork knuckle noodles, you really need to eat the pork knuckles to "kick' the bad luck away. A Wanluan Pork Knuckle Food Street has been organized in front of the township office, and aside from pork knuckle many Hakka pastries and snacks [served in this area] have also become famous.
四 , 藝術與人文 Four: Arts and Culture
1. 客家圍樓與劉氏宗祠 Hakka Enclosures and the Liu Family Ancestral Shrine
圍樓建築是客家建築的一大特色 , 客家人自中原遷往閩西 , 粵東 , 或在由閩西 , 粵東遷往南洋 , 台灣 , 或在其他地方的移居過程中 , 都相同面臨與異地文化作全面抗爭 , 融合 , 衝擊的過程 , 這個過程反映在空間上 , 顯而易見的就是 "客家建築" 的文化景觀 . 客家土樓是典型的傳統民居之一 , 一般是由堂屋 , 橫屋加以組合發展而成 , 在組合中有不少天井穿插其中 , 尤其是屋後加上一圍 , 二圍 , 甚至是三圍的圍籠屋和屋前半圓形的水塘 , 更是客家民居的平面佈局獨具一格 , 更當特色 . The enclosed building is a major feature of Hakka architecture. The Hakka people immigrating to western Fujian, Guangdong, or immigrating from western Fujian and Guangdong to Taiwan or to other places brought their own individual and cultural perspectives to their adopted hometowns. These individual and cultural perspectives were fused together into what is now known as "Hakka architecture." The Hakka tulou (soil house) is the most typical of traditional Hakka dwellings, and most consist of a central wing centered around a family shrine, onto which additional wings are added. Between the wings of the house are courtyards, and additional courtyards are placed behind the house between additional wings, with a circular pool in front of the house. The floor plan of these houses is unique to Hakka architecture.
2. 仙人井與萬金天主堂 Xianrenjing ("Fairy's Pool") and Wanjin Catholic Church
先人開墾初期 , 遷居於 "仙人井" , 泉水在今萬巒鄉萬和村李姓宗祠左側 , 並以此為中心 , 建設了萬巒庄 . 萬金開教則始於1861年 , 由西班牙道明會士郭德剛神父從高雄前金步行往返傳教 , 1863年建立第一座土塊聖堂 . 1984年7月20日 , 教宗若望保祿二世敕封高雄教會萬金莊聖母無染原罪大堂為宗座聖殿 , 內政部亦核定為屏東縣文化遺產第三號三級古蹟 , 每年12月8日舉行堂慶 . 萬金天主堂不僅見證天主教東傳的歷史 , 在台灣開拓的過程裡 , 也為閔 , 客 , 平埔族群由對立至融合 , 扮演了重要角色 . During the early stages of land reclamation, the settlers moved to "the fairy's pool." This spring is to the left of the Li Family's ancestral shrine in Wanhe Village, Wanluan Township. It served as a focal point for what was then Wanluan Village.
A Christian presence in Wanjin [Village] dates back to 1861, when the Spanish Dominican Father Guo De-gang came over from Kaohsiung. In 1863 the Tukuai Church was established, and on July 20, 1984 Pope John Paul II consecrated the Wanjin Village Church of the Immaculate Conception as part of the Kaohsiung diocese. The Ministry of the Interior also declared it a Level 3 cultural heritage site, and assigned it the number 3. A celebration is held there on December 3rd of every year. The Wanjin Church not only stands as testament to the history of Catholicism in the East, but has also brought together groups of settlers as diverse as the Minnanese (Hokkien), Hakka and plains-dwelling aborigines.
五 , 古蹟維護保存與再利用 Five: Preservation of Historic Site and New Uses of Site
1. 發展觀光與維護環境之平衡 Balancing Tourism and Environmental Protection
五溝地區發展生態旅遊有兩大原則 , 一是不破壞環境 , 二是對當地居民的經濟生活有所幫助 . 為因應寵大旅客量造成生態環境與文化資源的衝擊 , 擬訂生態旅遊路線之選線原則 , 解說教育及社區合作等生態旅遊規範及行動計劃 , 以建立民眾與社區居民對環境的正向態度 , 讓觀光旅遊轉變為對環境負責的生態旅遊 , 是五溝鄉努力的目標 . 生態工法的施作 , 也是減少人為干優的一個可行方法 . 為保持生態環境之完整 , 以為持多樣化生物之生存權 , 須避免棲息地及遷徒路徑等之破壞 , 在尊重當地天然條件 , 及人為設施與環境不相衝突的前提下 , 妥適導入人類生活中的環境安全 . There are two reasons for the development of ecotourism in the Wugou area. The first reason is [a desire to] protect the environment, and the second is to help the local economy. Because large numbers of tourists have an impact on both the environment and local cultural resources, eco-friendly routes were designed for tourists, and an action plan was devised to educate the community with regard to ecotourism and the importance of a positive attitude toward the natural environment.
The goal of Wugou's tourism is the transformation of tourism into an environmentally responsible activity. [The introduction of] ecological engineering methods is one way to reduce the impact of people on the natural environment. In order to maintain the integrity of this natural environment, and prevent the destruction of both organisms and their habitats, the destruction of these habitats and migration paths must be avoided. The local ecology must be respected, and man-made structures should not conflict with the environment. This will ensure the sustainability of human activities. (8)
Related Entries 相關的文章:
1. The Six "Dui" or "Duei," were six areas of Hakka settlement in Pingtung. The Luidui have been discussed in previous entries.
2. 五溝水 or Wugoushui, meaning "five canals," "five channels" or even "five ditches." The place name comes from the canals in this area.
3. Sorry about the Latin. These plants are specific to the area, and I couldn't find English names for them.
4. The book goes on to name some of the dragonfly and damselfly species, but again these are specific to the area and I couldn't find English names for them.
5. "The Lower Danshui River" 下淡水溪 is the old name for the Gaoping / Kaoping River 高屏溪. This river divides Pingtung County from Kaohsiung City.
6. The hometowns/administrative divisions listed in this section are approximate. This part of Mainland China is not divided up the same way today, and I'm not sure how they did it in the Ching Dynasty.
7. I'm assuming that Tougoushui or "Head Canal" was the first settled, followed by Ergoushui or "Second Canal," which was followed by Sangoushui or "Third Canal" and so on.
8. There are a lot of scientific words/concepts in there, and this is a pretty loose translation. The last sentence reads more like "enters into the environmental safety of people's daily lives." Sounds pretty weird in English.