2015年12月31日 星期四

Happy 2016! 新年快樂!

Tomorrow, January 1, is New Year's Day!  Happy New Year!  明天是一月一元旦.  新年快樂!!

2015年12月30日 星期三

台灣鳳梨的歷史 A History of Taiwanese Pineapples

The Chinese text below was taken from "The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Conventional Industries" 一看就懂台灣博覽, published by Walkers Cultural 遠足文化事業股份有限公司 in 2013.  The Chinese text was written by 呂理政and吳連賞, and the English text was written by me.  下面的中文文章是出自一看就懂台灣博覽這本書.  這本書是遠足文化事業股份有限公司2013的作品. 中文的部分是呂理政跟吳連賞寫的.  英文的部分是我從中文翻譯的.

鳳梨是典型熱帶水果, 含有鳳梨酵素(Bromelin)*等各種營養, 可幫助人體消化動物蛋白質.  鳳梨的果實像鳳尾, 俗名"旺來"外型跟波羅蜜也很相似, 所以也叫波羅, 是台灣民俗上表示吉祥的水果.  台灣的鳳梨罐頭產量曾經是世界第一, 堪稱是最具台灣特色的水果之一.  The pineapple is a fruit typically found in the tropics.  It contains bromelain and is very nutritious.  It helps the body digest animal proteins.  Pineapple has a vinelike appendage, and this jackfruit-shaped fruit is often referred to as "Kwang Lai" or "Prosperity's Arrival."  For this reason it is also called "polo," [a Chinese word resembling the word for jackfruit].  In Taiwanese culture it is viewed as an auspicious fruit.  Once Taiwan's canned pineapple production became first worldwide, the pineapple was also referred to as one of Taiwan's most characteristic fruits.

台灣鳳梨產業起源於鳳山 The Taiwanese Pineapple Industry Begins in Feng Shan

根據"諸羅縣誌"及"淡水廳誌", 清康熙中期台灣南部已有鳳梨栽植的記錄.  但日治時代初期, 台灣的鳳梨才發展為經濟產業.  日本明治三十六年(1903), 日商岡村庄太郎在鳳山設立台灣第一家鳳梨工廠, 開啟了台灣鳳梨產業的序幕.  As recorded in both the Jhu Luo County Annal and the Danshui Record, pineapple was harvested in south Taiwan as early as the middle of Ching Kang-shi's reign.  After the Japanese occupation, Taiwan's pineapple industry was developed and made more economical.  During the 36th year of Emperor Meiji's rule (1903), the businessman Okamura Shotaro set up Taiwan's first pineapple cannery in Feng Shan, and this marked the beginning of Taiwan's pineapple industry.

Feng Shan's Pineapple Cannery at the Height of Production

鳳山, 員林曾是鳳梨罐頭中心 Feng Shan and Yuan Lin Become Pineapple Canning Centers

岡村在鳳山設立鳳梨工廠後, 日本明治四十一年(1908)日本罐頭業權威濱口富三郎也在彰化設立鳳梨工廠, 隨後將工廠遷到員林, 當時鳳山與員林成為台灣的鳳梨罐頭業中心.  當時年產量約兩萬箱.  After Okamura Shotaru set up his pineapple cannery in Feng Shan, during the 41st year of the Emperor Meiji's rule (1908), the Japanese canning concern Hamaguchi established a pineapple cannery in Chang Hua.  This cannery was later moved to Yuanlin.  At this time Feng Shan and Yuanlin became centers of pineapple canning, and their output was around 20,000 boxes a year.

日本在台灣實施鳳梨外銷補貼 The Japanese Implement Export Subsidies in Taiwan

日本大正十四年(1925), 日本人引進開英種鳳梨, 開始在屏東內埔從事大規模栽培, 隨後其他農場也陸續種植鳳梨.  日本昭和四年(1929)更在台灣實施三年鳳梨外銷補貼政策, 促使台灣鳳梨外銷蓬勃發展.  During the 14th year of Emperor Yoshihito's reign (1925), the Japanese introduced the "British"** type of pineapple to Taiwan.  Large-scale cultivation was also begun in Pingtung's Neipu area during this time, and many other agricultural areas began to grow pineapples.  In the 4th year of Emperor Hirohito's reign (1929), three more years of export subsidies were implemented for pineapples in Taiwan, and Taiwan's pineapple exports were promoted vigorously.

二次大戰前台灣年產鳳梨世界第三 Before the Second World War, Taiwan's Yearly Production of Pineapples Was Third Worldwide

日本昭和十三年時(1938), 台灣年產鳳梨167萬箱, 是日治時代的最高記錄, 在當時全球市場占有率僅次於夏威夷和馬來西亞, 居世界第三.  招和十六年(1941)太平洋戰爭爆發, 因裝罐材料及肥料供應中斷, 工廠也遭到盟軍炸毀, 鳳梨產業大幅蕭條萎縮.  In the 13th year of Emperor Hirohito's reign (1938), Taiwan's yearly production of pineapples exceeded 1,670,000 boxes.  This was the highest output during the Japanese Imperial Administration.  At this time Taiwan's share of the global market was second only to Hawaii and Malaysia, and Taiwan was third worldwide.  During the 16th year of Emperor Hirohito's reign (1941), the Second World War erupted, and canning equipment and fertilizers were in short supply.  Canneries were also the targets of Allied bombs, and the pineapple industry experienced a dramatic downturn.

Feng Shan's Pineapple Cannery Today

光復後民營鳳梨加工業蓬勃發展 After Liberation, Taiwan's Pineapple Industry Experiences a Boom

台灣光復後, 政府成立台灣鳳梨有限公司, 將日治時代留下的鳳梨產業合併, 民國四十年起, 鳳梨產業復興五年計畫帶動了工廠陸續復工.  民國四十四年政府實施耕者有其田, 將鳳梨有限公司出售民營, 成立了"台灣鳳梨股份有限公司", 自此鳳梨加工成為蓬勃的事業.  After Taiwan was liberated [from the Japanese], the government established the Taiwan Pineapple Company, Ltd.  This company consolidated the holdings left behind by the Japanese.  In the 40th year of the new government [1951], production was resumed at the canneries ***, with the implementation of a five-year plan.  In the 44th year of the new government [1955], plans were made to continue tilling the fields, but to privatize the company.  The Taiwan Pineapple Company was then established, and [from that point] the Taiwanese pineapple industry experienced a boom.

台灣鳳梨罐頭產量曾經位居世界第一 Taiwan's Pineapple Canning Industry Becomes First Worldwide

民國四十七年, 台灣西部22家鳳梨工廠取得協調, 將鳳梨原料委由台灣省罐頭工業同業公會統一收購分配, 穩定了鳳梨產裝銷的秩序.  到民國五十二年台灣鳳梨罐頭輸出量達23萬箱.  民國六十年代, 台灣鳳梨罐頭產量曾經居世界第一位, 年產量達到410萬箱, 其後因為不敵其他熱帶開發中國家的低成本加工, 台灣鳳梨外銷逐年衰退, 逐漸轉型為國內鮮果供市場.  In the 47th year of the R.O.C. calendar [1958], 22 pineapple canneries on the west coast of the island formed an association, in which the Canned Pineapple Association of Taiwan Province agreed upon a purchase agreement for the acquisition of raw pineapple.  [This agreement] stabilized the production of canned pineapple.  In the 52nd year of the R.O.C. calendar [1963], the output of canned pineapple amounted to 230,000 boxes.  In the 60th year of the R.O.C. calendar [1971], Taiwan's canned pineapple production became first worldwide, with a yearly output of 4,100,000 boxes.  From this point, Taiwan's pineapple industry experienced a yearly decline, due to competition from other developing tropical countries where the cost of processing was lower.  The industry then gradually turned to domestic markets.

Map of Pineapple Production During the Japanese Occupation

Related Entries 相關的文章:

Train Stations, Old Streets, and Academies 舊火車站, 老街, 跟書院
Beigang 北港
行憲紀念日 Constitution Day
Historic Tainan 充滿歷史感的台南 3

*"Bromelin" is a misspelling of bromelain.

**"British" in what way?  I have no idea.  I only know that 1) pineapples wouldn't grow well in Britain, and 2) there's a picture of it here.

***Not sure if they mean "cannery" or "canneries" here.  Was production restarted at both the Feng Shan AND the Yuanlin cannery?  Or only the Feng Shan cannery?

2015年12月26日 星期六

Road 199 to Hengchun 縣道199到恆春

If you go halfway up the Southern Cross-Island Highway, to where Taitung County and Pingtung County come together, that's the beginning of Road 199.  Road 199 is a little, one-lane road that passes through some very remote areas.  如果你走南橫公路, 南橫公路的中間點也就是屏東縣跟台東縣的交界處, 那裡就是縣道199的起點.  這條路很小, 單線道的路 貫通一些很鄉下的地方.

The picture above was taken a few kilometers from the start of Road 199.  There are a few interesting places near here, which I already discussed in the Other Side of Pingtung and Pingdong/Ping Tung County 屏東縣 2 entries.  上面的照片是從縣道199的起點附近拍的.  這附近有些有趣的地點.  這些地點我已經在The Other Side of PingtungPingdong/Ping Tung County 屏東縣 2那兩篇文章討論過了.

This is Dong Yuan Village.  It's halfway between the Mudan Reservoir and the start of Road 199.  This picture was taken in Mudan Park, from which you can hike a trail that goes up Chr Mountain.  這是東原村.  它位於牡丹水庫跟縣道199的起點中間.  這張照片是在牡丹公園拍的.  從牡丹公園可走步道上池山.

The mountains in this area aren't as impressive as what you'll find further north, but the weather is usually warmer.  There are many other trails through this area, though some are difficult to find.  這附近的景色不如較北邊的景色, 可是這裡天氣比較暖和.  這裡還有很多步道,只是有些步道不好找.

The above picture was taken on the Kao Shr Fo Mountain trail, further south. 上面的照片是在比較南邊的高士佛山拍的.

This was taken on the same trail.  這張也是在同一條步道拍的.

And this is the Mudan Reservoir.  It's about half an hour east of Che Cheng in Pingtung.  The town around the reservoir seems to be dying, and we couldn't even find a restaurant there.  A very quiet place.  這是牡丹水庫.  從屏東縣車城鄉開車到這裡差不多要半個小時.  水庫旁邊的小村很安靜.  我們在那裡也找不到餐廳.  真的沒什麼人!

View of the reservoir from the top of the dam.  水庫上方的風景.

View in the opposite direction.  同一個地方的另外一邊.

When we were here I didn't see a single worker.  Maybe they get the weekends off? 我們在這裡的時候連一個工作人員都沒看到.  他們周末不用上班嗎?

Further down Road 199 is the Ss Chong River Hot Spring Area.  The town around which the hot springs lie is rather ugly, but some of the hot springs are nice.  縣道199會到四重溪溫泉區.  靠近溫泉的小村很醜, 可是有的溫泉不錯.

The above picture was taken in the Da Shan (Big Mountain) Leisure Farm.  I do NOT recommend this hot spring.  It might be cheap, but it's really old and most of the pools aren't hot enough.  Probably the most uncomfortable hot spring I've ever visited.  上面的照片是在大山農場拍的.  這個溫泉區一定有比較好的溫泉.  大山很便宜, 可是他們舊舊的溫泉不夠熱.  應該是我去過的溫泉中最不舒服的.

A short drive down from the hot spring area is the Mudan Incident Park, and the Mudan Incident Memorial.  There is a Wikipedia article about the Mudan Incident here.  Neither place is especially scenic, but if you're into history you might give them a look. 離溫泉區不遠就到牡丹事件公園跟牡丹事件紀念碑.  介紹牡丹事件的維基百科報告在這裡.  這個地區不是風景最美的, 可是對歷史有興趣的人應該覺得有趣.

Past Mudan, Road 199 leads into Che Cheng Township, and the town of Che Cheng.  From there you can take Highway 26 south to Kenting, or north to Pingtung City.  We drove south to Hengchun, where we stayed in a hotel for the night.  The place where Road 199 and Highway 26 meet is also very close to the National Museum of Biology and Aquarium inside Kenting National Park.經過牡丹鄉之後, 縣道199進入車城市區.  從那裡可以走台26到南邊的墾丁或是到北邊的屏東市.  我們往南邊的恆春在飯店過夜.  縣道199跟台26的路口也很靠近墾丁國家公園裡的海洋生物博物館.

The above picture was taken in Hengchun, one of Taiwan's most historic cities.  For more pictures/discussion of Hengchun, refer to Hengchun's "Old City" 恆春古城這個文章.  上面的照片是在古老的恆春市拍的, 恆春的照片跟討論在Hengchun's "Old City" 恆春古城這個文章.

Related Entries 相關的文章:

In Taipei 在台北
Cheng Gong Fishing Port 成功漁港
Near the Li Jia Forest Trail 在利嘉林道附近
Jin Luen 金崙

2015年12月24日 星期四

Merry Christmas!! 聖誕節快樂!!

Tomorrow, December 25 is Christmas!  Merry Christmas!  明天是十二月二十五聖誕節.  聖誕節快樂!!

2015年12月20日 星期日

A Dream 一個夢

University of Washington 華盛頓大學

What do you dream about?  你作什麼夢?

Love?  Sex?  Things that happened before?  Tests you took?  愛情?  色情?  以前發生過的事?  考過的試?

Or maybe you don't remember what you dream.  Maybe you don't dream at all.  Or maybe your dreams don't make any sense, or maybe they are impossible to describe.  還是你不記得你做過的夢.  也可能你根本不作夢.  或者是你所作的夢沒有意義, 或是無法描述夢境.

I suppose I dream a lot, though I don't always remember what I was dreaming.  Most of my recent dreams are fairly uninteresting, though I do have some strange ones now and then.  我常常作夢, 可是有時候忘記自己作了什麼夢.  我最近作的夢大部分是無趣的.  可是偶爾是作奇怪的夢.

Last night, for example, I dreamed I was back in college.  I think it was the University of Washington, where I was a student years ago.  I was in my twenties again, and on my way to class.  Somewhere between my apartment and my class I lost both the front wheel of my bike and my cell phone, and I was looking all over the campus for them.  比方說昨天晚上, 我夢到我還在大學念書.  那所大學應該是我幾年前讀過的華盛頓大學.  夢中的我二十幾歲, 正在去上課的路上.  我住的套房跟教室之間掉了我單車的前輪跟手機, 所以我在校園裡到處在找那兩樣東西.

Eventually I ran into two girls who helped me in my search.  We never found the wheel and the cell phone - probably because my alarm went off, and woke me up before the dream was over.  When I woke up I still felt very worried and pressed for time.  過了一會兒遇到兩個女人幫我一起找.  我們三個都找不到手機跟車輪.  大概是因為我的鬧鐘在作完夢前響了, 把我叫醒了.  我起床的時候還是感到很緊張和時間的壓力.

The strange part of the dream was that I wasn't just "me" in it.  I was also one of the girls who were helping "me."  And I was also a second "me," watching the first "me" and the two girls look for my bike wheel and my cell phone.  I can remember the second "me" being amused at the proceedings, and thinking That guy better hurry up, or he's going to be late! 最奇怪的部分是我在夢中時不只是自己一個人.  我同時也是幫我找東西的其中一位女人.  我另外也有一個分身看第一個"我"和那二位女人找車輪跟手機.  我還記得第二個"我"覺得他們這樣找東西很好笑, 也覺得第一個"我"要趕快去上課, 不然要遲到了.

Ah well.  My brain is sometimes a weird and scary place.  And maybe the dream had some other, Freudian kind of meaning... if you go in for that sort of thing.  I've never been big on psychological symbolism, so I have nothing to say about that.  哎呀!  有時候我自己的頭腦是一個很恐怖的地方.  可能我這個夢在心理學上還有其他的意思.  因為我不是很相信心理學, 所以我不知道.

And you?  What did you dream about last night?  What were you doing?  I'd be interested to know, if it's something you can share.  Maybe your dreams are even weirder than mine?  那你呢?  你昨天晚上作什麼夢?  你在夢中做什麼事?  如果願意跟我分享的話, 我很想知道你夢中發生什麼事情.  有可能你作的夢比我的還奇怪!

Related Entries 相關的文章: 

Can't think of any! 我想不到!

2015年12月12日 星期六

In Taipei 在台北

Spent last Saturday and Sunday in Taipei.  Walked a lot.  Ate a lot.  Saw some new things.  我上個星期六 日去台北,  走了很多的路, 吃了很多的食物, 和去了一些沒去過的景點.

The picture above is Song Shan Station.  If you are taking the train to Taipei, I recommend Song Shan.  Less people, less confusion, and it's an MRT station, too.  上面的照片是松山站.  如果去台北玩的話, 我建議在松山下火車比較好.  那邊人比較少, 也沒有那麼混亂.  松山也有捷運站.

This is the Taipei Science Museum.  My younger daughter loved it.  My older daughter thought it was OK.  I thought it was boring.  It's not far from the Shr Lin MRT station.  這是台北的科學博物館.  我小女兒超愛這個地方.  她姐姐覺得還好.  我自己覺得很無聊.  這裡靠近士林捷運站.

And this is what the museum looks like from the outside.  It's between a nice park and the Children's New Amusement Park.  Is the old one still around?這是科學博物館的外觀.  它位於一座公園跟兒童新樂園中間.  舊的樂園還存在嗎?

This is the Children's New Amusement Park.  If you get there after 4pm on a Saturday it's free, and the amusement park stays open until 8.  We had a good time in this place.  這是兒童新樂園.  禮拜六下午四點之後不用買門票.  樂園是晚上八點關門.  我們在這裡玩的很開心.

This is the view from the rear of the amusement park.  It looks like it would be a pleasant area to ride bikes around.  樂園後面的風景.  我覺得在這附近騎單車應該很舒服.

Three of my Taiwanese in-laws.  This restaurant was just down the road from the Shin Pu MRT station.  The sashimi and the chicken soup were very good.  他們是我在台灣的家人.  這家餐廳靠近新埔捷運站.  餐廳裡的生魚片跟雞肉湯都很好吃.

The Postal Museum!  Taipei, by the way, is full of museums.  The entrance fee is very cheap, and it's within walking distance of the Chiang Kai Shek Memorial.  It was surprisingly interesting, and I liked it much more than the Science Museum.  郵政博物館.  台北的博物館超多.  這裡的門票很便宜, 也很靠近中正紀念堂捷運站.  我覺得這裡很有趣.  比科學博物館有趣多了.

Postal attire from around the world.  This guy looks kind of evil, doesn't he?  其他國家郵政的制服.  中間的先生看起來很恐怖, 對不對?

Related Entries 相關的文章:

Cheng Gong Fishing Port 成功漁港
Near the Li Jia Forest Trail 在利嘉林道附近
Jin Luen 金崙
The Justice League of America v. Taiwan (Part One of Three)

2015年12月1日 星期二

Cheng Gong Fishing Port 成功漁港

Cheng Gong Fishing Port is in downtown Cheng Gong, about an hour north of Taitung City.  It is the largest fishing port in Taitung County.  成功漁港在成功鎮市區.  從台東市開車去要一個小時左右.  這裡是台東縣最大的漁港.

It is very quiet on a Sunday afternoon.  這裡星期天下午很安靜.

A few local goods.  一些土產.

View from the other side of the port.  從漁港往市區看的景象.

A repair yard.  修船廠.

The other end of the port.  漁港的另一邊.

View from the seawall, looking east.  防波堤東邊的風景.

Another view from the seawall, looking south.  防波堤南邊的風景.

Inside the seawall.  Watch your step here!  這是防波堤的內部. 在這裡走路要小心!

Related Entries 相關的文章:

Near the Li Jia Forest Trail 在利嘉林道附近
Jin Luen 金崙
Bei Nan River Mouth 卑南溪口 / Li Ji 利吉惡地
The Price of Nature  大自然的價值