2015年5月28日 星期四

"Chinese" Tourists 大陸客*

If this image doesn't piss off somebody I'll be very surprised!

I live behind the Hou Shan Chuan Chi ("The Legend of Behind the Mountain")** restaurant on Jong Shing Road.  This restaurant is located next to the Dong Ba Wang ("Eastern King")*** seafood restaurant.  Both Hou Shan Chuan Chi and Dong Ba Wang are stops on the tourist circuit, and they serve hundreds of Mainland Chinese tourists every day.  我家位於在中興路上的後山傳奇後面.  後山傳奇在東霸王海鮮餐廳旁邊.  每天有很多遊覽車停在這兩家餐廳門口, 每天有幾百個大陸客在它們兩家餐廳吃飯.

Sometimes, on a rainy day, I go to the Family Mart and have a drink.  This Family Mart is across the street from Dong Ba Wang, so it's a good place to watch the tour buses shuttle people in and out of the restaurants.  Yesterday, in the fifteen minutes I was sitting there, I saw six buses.  With 20-30 people on each bus, that makes about 120 to 180 people.  Had these buses been full, it would have been around 350 people.  有時候在下雨天我會過去全家喝飲料.  這家全家在東霸王對面, 是個適合觀察遊覽車接送觀光客的地方.  昨天我在15分鐘內看到6輛遊覽車.  每輛公車載有20-30個人, 所以大概是120-180個人.  如果遊覽車都客滿, 那應該差不多有350個人.

I like to study the papers posted in the front windows of the tour buses, indicating where the tour groups are from.  Many of them are from Sizchuan.  Others are from Shan Dong.  Still others are from other places.  It's interesting to think about where all these tourists are from, and how their hometowns might be different from Taiwan.  我很喜歡看遊覽車前面的旅行團名稱資料, 這樣我就知道這些旅行團從哪裡來了.  有的從四川.  有的從山東.  有的從別的地方來.  想像他們的家鄉跟台灣的差別是件很有趣的事.

Sometimes the Chinese tourists even walk into the Family Mart where I'm sitting.  They are often confused about the labels on foods, since China uses different characters for many common words.  They'll spend a long time studying the drinks and cigarettes, and they'll often ask the lady behind the counter the strangest questions.  有時候大陸客會走進去我坐的那家全家.  他們常常看不懂食品上的資料, 因為字體與大陸的簡字不一樣.  他們會花很多時間看飲料跟香菸.  他們也常問櫃台小姐很多奇怪的問題.

I often wonder what they think of Taiwan.  Do they have a good time here?  Are they surprised by things they see?  Are they disappointed by other things?  Like all tour groups, these tourists are shuttled very quickly from one place to the next, and they have few opportunities to interact with local people.  Maybe in some cases this is a good thing.  Maybe in other cases it's bad.  我很好奇他們對台灣的看法.  他們在這裡玩得愉快嗎?  他們震驚於在臺灣所看到的事物嗎?  還是失望?  就像所有的旅行團一樣, 他們被快速地從一個地方帶到另一個地方, 跟臺灣人交流的時間很短.  也許一方面來說這是優點, 另一方面也可能是缺點.

I know one thing: while they're here they're not getting the best food.  Having eaten at both Dong Ba Wang and Hou Shan Chuan Chi, I can assert that neither restaurant is very good.  Most people in Taitung consider those two restaurants "for tourists only," and as such not worth going to.  Then again, I'm sure the same could be said of restaurants in China that Taiwanese tourists visit.  When you join a tour group - any tour group - you are usually eating the worst food that any country has to offer.  我能確定一件事: 他們在台灣的時候沒吃到最好吃的食物.  對吃過東霸王後山傳奇的我來說, 這兩家餐廳沒什麼好吃的.  大部分的台東人覺得這兩家只是給觀光客吃的, 不是本地人去的餐廳.  我相信台客在大陸吃的餐廳應該也很差.  不管去哪一個國家, 旅行團吃的餐廳通常是最難吃的.

Just the same, I hope the tourists from Mainland China have something good to say about Taiwan when they go back.  I think that positive experiences can build bridges between cultures, and this is good for everyone.  Don't you agree?  我希望這些大陸客回去的時候覺得在台灣的經驗很豐富.  這樣對兩岸文化來說是好的事情.  你覺得呢?

Related Entries 相關的文章:

The Apple Daily 蘋果日報
Photo Gallery 我最喜歡的照片 9
Da Peng Bay 大鵬灣
10 Great Places on the East Coast 東海岸很棒的地方

*I put "Chinese" in quotes because I am referring to people from Mainland China.  "Chinese" would refer to both their ethnicity and nationality.  Most Taiwanese people are ethnically Chinese, but Taiwanese by nationality.  Confusing?  Yes!

**Hard to translate this name into English!  "Hou Shan" literally means "behind the mountain," but it's also a reference to eastern Taiwan.  Their name could also be translated as "The Legend of the East Coast" or "The Legend of Eastern Taiwan."

***Also hard to translate this name.  "Ba Wang" literally means "tyrant" or "bad king," but translating this as "Eastern Tyrant" or "Tyrant of the East" sounds strange as a restaurant name.  I chose the more neutral "king" because it sounds friendlier.

2015年5月21日 星期四

The Apple Daily 蘋果日報

Only 82%?  Really?

If you've been in Taiwan for a while, you've probably seen the Apple Daily.  This is the newspaper in every breakfast restaurant, convenience store, and tea shop on the island.  I don't know if it's the most popular newspaper in Taiwan, but it certainly is popular.  如果已經住在台灣一段時間的話, 你應該看過蘋果日報.  在早餐店, 便利商店和茶館都常看到這份報紙.  我不知道它是不是台灣最受歡迎的日報, 可是它真的很受歡迎.


One of the things that makes the Apple Daily so popular is its emphasis on sex and violence.  On any given day, the front page features a car crash, a sex scandal, a political scandal, or a sex scandal involving politicians and a car crash.  We might profess an interest in the economy, the workings of government, and other serious topics, but it's sex and violence that gets us reading newspapers.  The Apple Daily recognizes this fact, and I applaud their realism.  蘋果日報這麼受人喜歡的特色是色情跟暴力的內容.  每天的頭版不是車禍, 緋聞, 政治醜聞其中一項, 就是三項都在頭版新聞.  很多人說自己很關心經濟, 政治, 和其他重要嚴肅的新聞, 可是我們閱讀新聞的動力是色情跟暴力.  蘋果日報知道這個事實.  我覺得他們的看法很實際.


Today's Apple Daily features a front page story on a photographer for Next Magazine getting "bullied" by someone he was trying to photograph.  It just so happens that the Apple Daily and Next Magazine are owned by the same publisher, so the appearance of this story in the Apple Daily isn't a surprise.  Even so, is this news?  今天的蘋果日報頭版報導討論的是壹週刊的攝影師被 "霸凌" 的新聞.  蘋果日報跟壹週刊是同一家公司出版的, 所以這則新聞在蘋果日報出現一點都不奇怪.  只是這種報導算是新聞?


Other stories in the Apple Daily - those not on the front page - tend to be less sensational.  But in none of these stories does one encounter in-depth reporting.  The Apple Daily is all about instant gratification, and in this I think it understands its target audience.  I don't really want deep thoughts when I'm in the breakfast restaurant eating my eggroll.  I want explosions.  I want sex.  I want the highlights, and I can read about the details elsewhere.  蘋果日報除了頭版之外, 其他版面的報導就不那麼聳動.  可是這些報導都缺乏客觀的態度.  蘋果日報的目的就是給你你最想看的新聞, 它知道它的讀者最想看什麼.  我在早餐店吃蛋餅的時候不想看需要用腦的新聞.  我要看暴力的.  我要看色情的.  我要知道最重要的事, 我會在其他的地方看細節部分.


So yes, if you want to actually understand the issues, I wouldn't patronize the Apple Daily.  If you want in-depth reporting, you are better served by any number of other newspapers, or any number of other websites.  If, however, you like your news LOUD, then the Apple Daily has what you need.  當然 ! 要瞭解重要議題的人不應該看蘋果日報.  有其他的報紙跟網站可以讓你客觀地了解事件.  可是喜歡重口味新聞的人一定會喜歡蘋果日報.


Or maybe you just like to look at the pictures.  You have been READING this entry, right?  Or were you just looking at the pictures?  也許你只喜歡看它的圖片.  你真的在讀這篇文章嗎?  還是只是看圖片?


Related Entries 相關的文章:

Apple Daily 蘋果日報 (website)
Disconnected 切斷的
What's Going On in Taiwan? 台灣最近的新聞 (December 十二月 2014)
Running on Fumes 臭氣路跑
Election Time 選舉時間

2015年5月15日 星期五

雲豹 - 從動物王國上消失的傳奇 "The Clouded Leopard - From the Animal Kingdom to the Realm of Legend"

The following article appears in the book "Wildlife of Taitung."  It discusses the Formosan clouded leopard, which is a subspecies of clouded leopard that may be extinct.  以下的文章出自台東縣野生動物這本書.  介紹的是台灣雲豹.  台灣雲豹是亞洲雲豹的一種.


張簡琳玲 Jang Jian Lin Ling
弘光科技大學 通訊學院
Hungkuang University, School of Communications

台東位處台灣東南隅, 除了北邊和西南邊分別與花蓮縣和高雄縣, 屏東縣接壞外, 整個西半部都與中央山脈連接在一起, 境內群山環繞, 不但是野生動物的天堂, 也是雲豹迷們寄託希望之所在, 因為在那中央山脈的南端, 就是大家傳說中的"雲豹的故鄉".  Taitung is located in southeast Taiwan.  With the exception of the northern and southeastern parts of the island, areas such as Hualien County, Kaohsiung County, and Pingtung County are all connected by the central mountain range.  The areas enclosed by mountains are not only a refuge for wildlife, but are also places in which many hope to find the clouded leopard.  For this reason the southern end of the central mountain range is referred to as "the clouded leopard's hometown."

討論台東是否有雲豹 (Neofelis nebulosa) 其實就是討論長久以來許多人所質疑的"台灣 (福爾摩莎島) 是否有雲豹"的問題 (列如http://nc.kl.edu.tw/bbs/archive/index.php/t-22478. html; http://nature.hc.edu.tw/vbb/showthread.php?t=8596).  從地理與生態來看, 儘管台灣是雲豹族群分布的最北界, 早年台東茂盛的森林和豐富的野哺乳類動物提供了供養雲豹族群的可能性, 而島上的另一大型哺乳動物 - 雜食性的黑熊也讓肉食性的雲豹在台灣島嶼的生態環境得以佔一席之地.  然而在文獻上還是缺乏明確的證據和充分的記錄佐證"雲豹存在福爾摩莎島"的說法.  原住民倒是在他們的文化中保留了"有可能"的證明.  在訪談的過程中有些原住民的語言存在對應"雲豹"的詞彙 - IKULOU或LIKULOU, 例如在南部的布農族皆然.  此外, 排灣族, 魯凱族有很多的傳說與雲豹有關.  魯凱族的祖先與雲豹有特別密切的關係, 因此他們在打獵時會避開雲豹, 在排灣族則稱能夠獵到雲豹者為勇士, 他們獻給頭目的雲豹, 毛皮與獸頭會被保留下來裝成背心與帽子, 頭目在豐年祭或重要慶典中穿戴.  因此, 雲豹背心與頭飾在排灣族成為階級的標示, 在訪談及五年祭中僅見頭目與一位祭師示現.  曾經在大武鄉的村落, 有人展示購自中國的雲豹背心, 相較於頭目們已經保存二世代之毛皮的柔軟光滑, 進口毛皮觸感乾硬而粗糙.  頭目遺憾地表示處理毛皮的方法已不知不覺中隨物種的消失不復存在: 這末嘗不是一種文化的遺失?  另外, 有人展示裝飾山豬與雲豹牙齒所裝成的頭飾, 如果實陷, 那一定曾經有一為數不小的雲豹族群活動於南部的山林間!  In any discussion of whether the clouded leopard (neofelis nebulosa) still exists, one must first discuss the problem of whether or not Taiwan (Formosa) ever really had such an animal.  (For example: http://nc.kl.edu.tw/bbs/archive/index.php/t-22478. html; http://nature.hc.edu.tw/vbb/showthread.php?t=8596).  

From the geographical and ecological points of view, Taiwan would have been the most northerly habitat for a clouded leopard population.  In an earlier time the lush forests and abundant mammals found in Taitung would have sustained the clouded leopard and omnivores such as bears.  There is, however, a lack of clear evidence or documentation for the presence of clouded leopards.  

Interviews with native peoples provide some linguistic evidence for the presence of the clouded leopard, such as the words "ikulou" and "likulou" in the southern Bunun dialect.  In addition, the Paiwan and Rukai tribes have many legends concerning the clouded leopard, and the Rukai claim a particularly close relationship to the animal due to the fact that the clouded leopard is considered to be a friend of their ancestors.  For this reason the Rukai avoided hunting the clouded leopard.  

In the Paiwan tribe it was claimed that warriors hunted in the name of this animal, and that their chief was consecrated to the clouded leopard.  They fashioned vests and hats from the hides of these animals, and the chiefs would wear these vests and hats during important festivals and celebrations.  For this reason the vests and hats became identified with Paiwan culture, and these vests and hats are only shown by holy men, during important festivals, that occur only every five years.  

Villagers in Dawu Township displayed a vest made from a Chinese clouded leopard hide.  This soft, glossy hide had been preserved for two generations, and was much softer than similar hides imported from China.  The village elders regretted the fact that the process for tanning such hides has been lost, possibly because of the leopards' disappearance.  Does this represent a cultural loss as well?  Furthermore, people have produced headdresses adorned with both wild boar tusks and clouded leopard fur.  If these animals were truly trapped in the southern mountain forests, the population of these leopards must have been very small.

解開身世之迷 Uncovering the Mystery

儘管 "最後一隻野生雲豹在1983年踏入陷阱後即在台灣絕跡 "是大部分文獻的說法 (見張簡2002) 許多人仍不放棄尋找雲豹在台灣山林的蹤跡, 除了媒體的報導外還有人提供爪痕及雲豹的照片, 都是為了證明 "雲豹媒然存在台灣的山林", 但因為無法進一步確認而存疑, 農委會特有生物研究ˋ保育中心與林務局合作, 曾經花了三年的時間在雲豹可能出沒的區域包括台東, 深入山林進行調查並佈下上百部紅外線相機試圖埔捉雲豹的身影, 可惜並無斬獲, 間接地支持 "台灣雲豹已經絕跡".  Although some literature indicates that the last clouded leopard to be trapped before their extinction was acquired in 1983, many people (see 2002 photos) continue to look for clouded leopard tracks in the mountain forests of Taiwan.  Foreign media sources have also publicized photos of the clouded leopard, all to prove that this animal still exists in the area.  Yet because there is no way to authenticate such photos, the COA Endemic Species Conservation Center and the Forest Service spent three years searching in Taitung and other areas for the clouded leopard.  They placed hundreds of infrared cameras in the mountain regions, all without success, and concluded that "the clouded leopard is already extinct."

以形質與基因為基礎的最新研究結果顯示, 原本一屬一種四亞種的雲豹在一百四十萬年前分布於南亞島嶼大路的兩個族群已分化成二個不同的種 (http://frontiersinzoology.com/content/4/1/15).  為解開 "台灣雲豹" 之謎 - 是否有, 從那裏來, 在缺乏其亞種的雲豹DNA以及 "台灣雲豹" 的DNA狀況下, 與美國國家衛生研究院 (National Institute of Health, NIH) 的 Dr. O'Brien研究室合作,將包括在國立博物館以及原住民處取得的共6件雲豹組織樣本寄送比對.  在6件樣本中有4件樣本是無效樣本: 另2件樣本中有一件與中國的雲豹樣本在基因上很接近,有1件樣本在基因序列上跟其他樣本有較多的差異 (http://clouded leopard.org/Documents/Val_CB_2006.pdf), 但要確認是否就是 "台灣雲豹" 則需要更多的樣本.  The latest research incorporates genetics, and has concentrated upon a genus of four leopard subspecies, each 1.4 million years old and inhabiting islands in southern Austronesia.  This genus differentiated into two distinct species (http://frontiersinzoology.com/content/4/1/15).  

To unlock the riddle of the Formosan clouded leopard - if there is such a thing - one must first determine how its DNA differs from that of other Asian clouded leopards.  The National Museum acquired six samples from aboriginal sources, and sent six of these to a Dr. O'Brien at the National Institute of Health (NIH) for testing.  Of these six samples, four were declared invalid and the other two samples were very similar to the clouded leopard genotype seen in Mainland China.  One of the samples displayed many marked differences with the Mainland Chinese type, however (http://clouded leopard.org/Documents/Val_CB_2006.pdf), and further samples are needed before determining whether or not this is the real "Formosan clouded leopard." 

傳奇之外 Legends Aside

雲豹以牠美麗的雲斑, 敏捷的身手與神秘的生活型態吸引了許多人的關注, 牠們在地球上的族群量不多, 而且還在急遽減少中.  生物的演化自有其節奏, 經過時間與大自然洗禮而能存活下來的族群都是物種中的強者.  如果雲豹真的曾經自在地蹤橫於台東的山林間, 牠們的消失不但令人遺憾也是傳遞了某種警訊.  The clouded leopard, with its beautiful markings and natural grace, has attracted a lot of attention with regard to conserving this endangered animal.  The number of clouded leopards is small, and is also decreasing.  Some of this decrease is due to the natural wax and wane of evolutionary forces, in which survival of the fittest is paramount.  If the clouded leopard really did cross over into the mountain forests of Taiwan*, their disappearance is not only unfortunate but can also serve as a warning.

野生動物也是一種資產, 牠們可以帶動觀光產業, 例如烏干達的大猩猩 (Mountain gorilla) 保護區布溫迪國家公園 (Bwindi National Park), 肯亞以各種野生動物為主的國家公園 (其中Lake Nakuru National Park在1986即因 [拯救犀牛行動] 而聞名): 野生動物也可以凝聚社區的意識, 發展獨特的社區文化, 例如以 "親善鮭魚城市" 著稱的西雅圖, 護魚有成的達娜伊谷鄒族山美社區: 野生動物當然也可以媲美文化古蹟加入世界遺產的型列, 例如以生態博物館著稱的 "加拉巴哥群島 (Galapagos Islands)" 早在1978年即被聯合國列為世界遺產.  Wild animals are also a natural resource, in that they are a valuable part of the tourism industry.  Examples of this include Uganda's mountain gorillas, and their protected area within Bwindi National Park.  Kenya has also created a number of national parks to preserve its wildlife, within which Lake Nakuru National Park, created in 1986 to preserve the rhino population, is the most famous example.  Wild animals can heighten community awareness and enrich unique local cultures.  An example of this is the "goodwill salmon city"** program created in Seattle, or fishery conservation efforts by the tanayiku tribe in Taiwan.  Wildlife is also of course part of our world heritage, and institutions such as the ecological museum established in the Galapagos Islands in 1978 by the United Nations World Heritage organization exemplifies this understanding. 

十九世紀索瓜米西族的西雅圖酋長曾經提醒人們, "假如人們唾棄了大地, 其實他們就是在唾棄自己".  今天台灣土地與土地上的生命經歷著尋常的浩劫, 印證了西雅圖酋長所說的 "任何發生在大地上的必將同樣地降臨在祂的子民身上".  每一個動物在 "大地拼圖" 都佔有一個位置, 人類可以選擇讓圖面上的缺塊增加, 也可以努力維持它的完整.  因此, 除了反省我們應該要有更積極的行動, 為土地, 生靈, 還有依賴大自然的人類.  雖然再見雲豹現跡台東的山林是一個遙遠的期待, 維護台東自然環境的多樣性與永續性倒是實際而且可行的行動.  During the 1900s Chief Sealth, of Seattle's Western Suquamish tribe, offered this counsel: "If people demean the land, they demean themselves."  In today's Taiwan, ecological disasters demonstrate something else he said: "Everything upon the land is connected, and constitutes a single body."  Every animal is part of a great puzzle, and humans can choose to sacrifice a piece of this puzzle only by sacrificing the integrity of the whole.  For this reason we must take more aggressive action with regard to the land, its creatures, and the people which depend upon both.  Although the discovery of new clouded leopard tracks within Taitung's forests is unlikely, protecting the diversity and resiliency of Taitung's natural environment is a practical action we can all take.

Related Entries 相關的文章:

Famous Birds 有名的鳥
Pheasants of Taiwan 台灣的野雞
Robert Swinhoe
布農族的百步蛇朋友 The Bunun Tribe's Friend: the Hundred Pacer 

References 參考文獻: 

臺東縣野生動物 Wildlife of Taitung 行政院農業委員會特有生物研究保育中心 2009
台灣雲豹山中傳奇待解的謎 (自由新聞網)
辨認雲豹身分 專家出馬 (中山大學 West - BBS  西子灣站)
台灣雲豹山中傳奇待解的謎
台灣雲豹山中傳奇待解的迷 (大紀元)
"After 13-Year Quest, Clouded Leopards Confirmed Extinct in Taiwan" Scientific American, May 2013
Formosan Clouded Leopard (Wikipedia)
山美

*Taiwan was connected to Mainland China by a land bridge when sea levels were lower.  Many animals migrated onto the island during this time.

**For the life of me I couldn't figure out what this "goodwill salmon city" is.  I checked a lot of Chinese and English websites in Seattle, and came up with... nothing.  Whatever it's called in English, it's certainly not "goodwill salmon city."
台灣雲豹山中傳奇待解的謎

2015年5月7日 星期四

Famous Birds 有名的鳥

Just one more thing, and then I'll get off the subject of birds.  還有一件事.  以後我不會寫關於鳥的文章.

There are hundreds of bird species in Taiwan, and many of them can only be found here.  If you enjoy bird watching, you don't get much better than Taiwan. 台灣的鳥類有幾百種, 也有許多是台灣特有種.  喜歡賞鳥的人在台灣有福了.

While looking over one of my wall maps of Taiwan the other day, I noticed that most of the cities and counties of Taiwan have an official bird.  These birds are listed below.  我上次看我的台灣地圖時就注意到,  很多縣市有自己的縣鳥.  以下這些鳥就是.


Jilong/Keelung City 基隆市: black kite 黑鳶

喜以動物屍體為食.  This bird eats carrion.


Taipei City, Taoyuan County, and Yunlin County 台北市, 桃園縣, 雲林縣: 台灣藍鵲 Formosan magpie / Taiwan blue magpie

常出現於山區道路, 公園之樹林或電線上.  This bird can be seen along mountain roads, in forested parks, and on power lines.


Hsinchu County 新竹縣: 五色鳥 "five color bird" / Taiwan barbet

The Taiwan barbet is endemic to Taiwan.  牠是台灣特有種鳥.


Hsinchu City and Miaoli County 新竹市跟苗栗縣: 喜鵲 common magpie / Eurasian magpie

在台灣別名是 "客鳥".  In Taiwan this bird is also known as the "guest bird."


Taichung City 台中市: 白耳畫眉 white-eared sibia 

除了水果, 漿果, 昆蟲外, 山櫻盛開季節常見其成群吸食花蜜.  Aside from fruit, berries, and bugs, the white-eared sibia also drinks nectar from groves of cherry trees in the mountains during the cherry blossom season.


Changhua County 彰化縣: 灰面鵟鷹 grey-faced buzzard

每年10月國慶日前後, 大量過境恆春半島.  Around Taiwan's Independence Day, a great flock of these birds pass through Heng Chun in south Taiwan.


Jiayi County 嘉義縣: 蘭腰鷴 Swinhoe's pheasant

The Swinhoe's pheasant is named after Robert Swinhoe, former British consul in Taiwan.   這隻鳥的英文名字是從在台灣的英國副領事來的.


Tainan City 台南市: 水雉 pheasant-tailed jacana

公鳥照顧孵化的幼鳥.  The male of the species incubates the eggs.


Pingtung County 屏東縣: 紅尾伯勞 brown shrike

This bird is found throughout Asia.  這種鳥亞洲到處都有.


Yilan County: 彩鷸 greater painted-snipe

This bird is found throughout Asia.  這種鳥到處可見.


Hualien County 花蓮縣: 朱鸝 maroon oriole

This bird is found throughout Asia.  在亞洲這種鳥到處可見.



Penghu County 澎湖縣: 小雲雀 oriental skylark

台灣有二亞種.  Taiwan has two types of this bird.


Lian Jiang (Ma Dzu) County 連江縣:  黑嘴端鳳頭燕鷗 Chinese crested tern

This bird was thought extinct until 2000, when a few were spotted in Lian Jiang County.  直到西元2000年之前在連江縣發現了黑嘴端鳳頭燕鷗, 人們以為這種鳥已經絕種了.

Related Entries 相關的文章:

Pheasants of Taiwan 台灣的野雞
Robert Swinhoe
布農族的百步蛇朋友 The Bunun Tribe's Friend: the Hundred Pacer
Coral

References 參考文獻:

台灣野鳥圖鑑 (陸鳥篇) 廖本興 2012 晨星出版
台灣鳥類列表 (維基百科) "List of Taiwan Birds" (Wikipedia)
還有康軒的台灣地圖

Pheasants of Taiwan 台灣的野雞

Last entry's discussion of Swinhoe's pheasant got me thinking about pheasants and their relation to birds in general.  Here is some of what I learned recently. 上個禮拜討論藍腹鷳讓我想更了解這種鳥與其他鳥類的關係.  以下是我最近學到的知識.

There are three kinds of pheasant in Taiwan.  The pheasant is a type of bird closely related to partridges, chickens, and quail.  Male pheasants are larger than the females, and have longer tails.  Pheasants eat seeds and insects, and if you are looking for one it is better to look in the early morning or on foggy days.  They tend to avoid the hottest part of the day.  在台灣有三種野雞.  這種鳥很接近鷓鴣, 雞, 跟鵪鶉.  公野雞比母野雞大.  而且牠們的尾巴比較長.  野雞吃的是昆蟲跟種子.  如果你想看到牠們的話, 最好的時間是在很早的早晨和有霧的日子.  牠們會避免出現在很熱的時候.


This is the male Swinhoe's pheasant.  這是公的藍腹鷳.


And this is the female.  這是母的藍腹鷳.


This is the male mikado pheasant.  這是公的黑長尾雉.


And this is the female.  A pair of these birds adorn Taiwan's 1000 NT bill.  這是母的黑長尾雉.  牠們出現在中華民國的1000元的鈔票上.


This is the ring-necked pheasant, also referred to as the common pheasant.  As its name suggests, it can be found in many places outside Taiwan, and it is a well known game bird.  There are some regional variations, but all common pheasants are very similar.  最後有環頸雉.  這種鳥在很多國家都可見到, 也是很多地方打獵的獵物.  這種鳥因為地域性的關係而各有小小的特色, 但是基本上環頸雉都很像.

Related Entries 相關的文章:

Robert Swinhoe
布農族的百步蛇朋友 The Bunun Tribe's Friend: the Hundred Pacer
Coral
Fishing Ports of Taiwan

References 參考文獻:

台灣野鳥圖鑑 (陸鳥篇) "A Field Guide to Wild Birds (Land Birds)" 廖本興 2012 晨星出版 31-34頁
臺東縣野生動物 Wildlife of Taitung 行政院農業委員會特有生物研究保育中心 2009
Swinhoe's pheasant (Wikipedia)

2015年5月3日 星期日

Robert Swinhoe

Robert Swinhoe

I wouldn't be surprised if you've never heard of Robert Swinhoe.  He's not exactly world famous, and even in Taiwan's local history he's a minor figure.  He recently popped up in a book I've been reading, "The Misunderstood History of Taiwan: 1861-1949":  你可能沒聽過Robert Swinhoe這個人.  他不是一個世界知名的人.  他在台灣史裡也不算很重要.  我最近在被混淆的臺灣史:1861-1949這本書中看過他的名字:

"...倒是英國駐臺副領事郇和(Robert Swinhoe)先來, 他在淡水開港的隔年七月抵達台南安平, 發現當地秩序紊亂, 官員無法維持治安, 且衛生不佳, 急於拓展貿易的英商認為安平港海口淤賽, 不便外籍輪船停泊, 相對的, 北部淡水因附近產樟腦, 又日漸成為運煤, 米的商船出入港口, 遲早會成為重要的貿易中心."  "...after the British vice-consul, Robert Swinhoe, first arrived in Taiwan, he moved the main port from An Ping in Tainan to Danshui during July of the following year.  He had discovered that the old port was in a state of disorder, that the officials were not able to maintain discipline there, and that it was not a very hygienic place.  Because of silt buildup the An Ping port was also an inconvenient place for British merchants to berth their ships, while on the other hand the northern port in Danshui was a more convenient place for shipping camphor.  The importation of coal also increased daily through that port, it offered an easy access point for rice merchants, and and it very quickly became an important trading center."

According to Wikipedia, Swinhoe was "an English naturalist who worked as a consul in Formosa"  He assumed his consulship in 1860, and during his tenure the British consulate was moved from Tainan to Danshui.  At the same time he wrote several articles on the wildlife he encountered in Taiwan, which was then an obscure territory under Ching imperial administration.  維基百科說Swinhoe是喜歡大自然的英國副領事.  他西元1860年成為英國政府在台的副領事, 然後他把英國的領事館搬到淡水去了.  他在同時寫了幾篇文章介紹他在台灣看到的動物.  那時候台灣是一個在清廷管理下很落後的地方.

The articles he wrote about Taiwan's wildlife is where Swinhoe's fame truly originated, since after their publication many animals in Taiwan came to be named after him.  The best-known of these is probably Swinhoe's pheasant, a dark-colored bird with red wattles.  There are also Swinhoe's (storm) petrel, Swinhoe's egret (more often referred to as the Chinese egret), Swinhoe's japalura, Swinhoe's grass snake, and Swinhoe's brown frog.  他那些關於台灣動物的文章就是他成為史上有名人物的原因, 因為很多台灣動物在這些文章之後都以他的名字命名.  其中之一最有名的是Swinhoe's pheasant 藍腹鷳,它是身體為深藍色且臉紅紅的鳥.  還有Swinhoe's (storm) petrel 黑叉尾海燕, Swinhoe's egret (Chinese egret) 唐白鷺, Swinhoe's japalura 龍蜥, Swinhoe's grass snake 斯文豪氏遊蛇, 也有Swinhoe's brown frog 斯文豪氏赤蛙.

After leaving Taiwan, Swinhoe would go on to serve the British government in China until 1873.  His deteriorating health forced him to return to England, where he died of a stroke in 1877.  He probably never thought that at some later date - far in the future - many animals in Taiwan would still bear his name.  他離開台灣以後, 在大陸為英國政府工作到1873年.  之後因為身體不好回去英國.  在1877年因中風過世.  他應該沒想到很久以後許多台灣動物會以他的性名命名.

His English name, I should say.  In Chinese the Swinhoe's pheasant is referred to as the 藍腹鷳 - and several other names - all of which are probably older than "Swinhoe's pheasant."*  Robert Swinhoe might be famous, but the bird that bears his name is still a Taiwanese bird, and as such it bears his name indifferently. 藍腹鷳的中文名取自它的特徵, 它的英文名字卻是以人名來命名, 它自己應該覺得奇怪吧!

Swinhoe's pheasant

Related Entries 相關的文章:

Train Stations, Old Streets, and Academies 舊火車站, 老街, 跟書院
Beigang 北港
行憲紀念日 Constitution Day*
Hengchun's "Old City" 恆春古城 (中)  

References 參考文獻:

被混淆的臺灣史:1861-1949 "The Misunderstood History of Taiwan: 1861-1949"駱芬美 2014 時報文化 96-97頁
Robert Swinhoe (Wikipedia article)
List of Endemic Species of Taiwan (Wikipedia article)
Swinhoe, Robert (Reed Digital Collections)  
藍腹鷳 (Swinhoe's pheasant) (Wikipedia article)

*The oldest mention of this bird is in a Ching document from 1753, over a hundred years before Swinhoe's time.  In this document the Swinhoe's pheasant is referred to as the 華雞 or "Chinese chicken."