2015年12月31日 星期四

Happy 2016! 新年快樂!

Tomorrow, January 1, is New Year's Day!  Happy New Year!  明天是一月一元旦.  新年快樂!!

2015年12月30日 星期三

台灣鳳梨的歷史 A History of Taiwanese Pineapples

The Chinese text below was taken from "The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Conventional Industries" 一看就懂台灣博覽, published by Walkers Cultural 遠足文化事業股份有限公司 in 2013.  The Chinese text was written by 呂理政and吳連賞, and the English text was written by me.  下面的中文文章是出自一看就懂台灣博覽這本書.  這本書是遠足文化事業股份有限公司2013的作品. 中文的部分是呂理政跟吳連賞寫的.  英文的部分是我從中文翻譯的.

鳳梨是典型熱帶水果, 含有鳳梨酵素(Bromelin)*等各種營養, 可幫助人體消化動物蛋白質.  鳳梨的果實像鳳尾, 俗名"旺來"外型跟波羅蜜也很相似, 所以也叫波羅, 是台灣民俗上表示吉祥的水果.  台灣的鳳梨罐頭產量曾經是世界第一, 堪稱是最具台灣特色的水果之一.  The pineapple is a fruit typically found in the tropics.  It contains bromelain and is very nutritious.  It helps the body digest animal proteins.  Pineapple has a vinelike appendage, and this jackfruit-shaped fruit is often referred to as "Kwang Lai" or "Prosperity's Arrival."  For this reason it is also called "polo," [a Chinese word resembling the word for jackfruit].  In Taiwanese culture it is viewed as an auspicious fruit.  Once Taiwan's canned pineapple production became first worldwide, the pineapple was also referred to as one of Taiwan's most characteristic fruits.

台灣鳳梨產業起源於鳳山 The Taiwanese Pineapple Industry Begins in Feng Shan

根據"諸羅縣誌"及"淡水廳誌", 清康熙中期台灣南部已有鳳梨栽植的記錄.  但日治時代初期, 台灣的鳳梨才發展為經濟產業.  日本明治三十六年(1903), 日商岡村庄太郎在鳳山設立台灣第一家鳳梨工廠, 開啟了台灣鳳梨產業的序幕.  As recorded in both the Jhu Luo County Annal and the Danshui Record, pineapple was harvested in south Taiwan as early as the middle of Ching Kang-shi's reign.  After the Japanese occupation, Taiwan's pineapple industry was developed and made more economical.  During the 36th year of Emperor Meiji's rule (1903), the businessman Okamura Shotaro set up Taiwan's first pineapple cannery in Feng Shan, and this marked the beginning of Taiwan's pineapple industry.

Feng Shan's Pineapple Cannery at the Height of Production

鳳山, 員林曾是鳳梨罐頭中心 Feng Shan and Yuan Lin Become Pineapple Canning Centers

岡村在鳳山設立鳳梨工廠後, 日本明治四十一年(1908)日本罐頭業權威濱口富三郎也在彰化設立鳳梨工廠, 隨後將工廠遷到員林, 當時鳳山與員林成為台灣的鳳梨罐頭業中心.  當時年產量約兩萬箱.  After Okamura Shotaru set up his pineapple cannery in Feng Shan, during the 41st year of the Emperor Meiji's rule (1908), the Japanese canning concern Hamaguchi established a pineapple cannery in Chang Hua.  This cannery was later moved to Yuanlin.  At this time Feng Shan and Yuanlin became centers of pineapple canning, and their output was around 20,000 boxes a year.

日本在台灣實施鳳梨外銷補貼 The Japanese Implement Export Subsidies in Taiwan

日本大正十四年(1925), 日本人引進開英種鳳梨, 開始在屏東內埔從事大規模栽培, 隨後其他農場也陸續種植鳳梨.  日本昭和四年(1929)更在台灣實施三年鳳梨外銷補貼政策, 促使台灣鳳梨外銷蓬勃發展.  During the 14th year of Emperor Yoshihito's reign (1925), the Japanese introduced the "British"** type of pineapple to Taiwan.  Large-scale cultivation was also begun in Pingtung's Neipu area during this time, and many other agricultural areas began to grow pineapples.  In the 4th year of Emperor Hirohito's reign (1929), three more years of export subsidies were implemented for pineapples in Taiwan, and Taiwan's pineapple exports were promoted vigorously.

二次大戰前台灣年產鳳梨世界第三 Before the Second World War, Taiwan's Yearly Production of Pineapples Was Third Worldwide

日本昭和十三年時(1938), 台灣年產鳳梨167萬箱, 是日治時代的最高記錄, 在當時全球市場占有率僅次於夏威夷和馬來西亞, 居世界第三.  招和十六年(1941)太平洋戰爭爆發, 因裝罐材料及肥料供應中斷, 工廠也遭到盟軍炸毀, 鳳梨產業大幅蕭條萎縮.  In the 13th year of Emperor Hirohito's reign (1938), Taiwan's yearly production of pineapples exceeded 1,670,000 boxes.  This was the highest output during the Japanese Imperial Administration.  At this time Taiwan's share of the global market was second only to Hawaii and Malaysia, and Taiwan was third worldwide.  During the 16th year of Emperor Hirohito's reign (1941), the Second World War erupted, and canning equipment and fertilizers were in short supply.  Canneries were also the targets of Allied bombs, and the pineapple industry experienced a dramatic downturn.

Feng Shan's Pineapple Cannery Today

光復後民營鳳梨加工業蓬勃發展 After Liberation, Taiwan's Pineapple Industry Experiences a Boom

台灣光復後, 政府成立台灣鳳梨有限公司, 將日治時代留下的鳳梨產業合併, 民國四十年起, 鳳梨產業復興五年計畫帶動了工廠陸續復工.  民國四十四年政府實施耕者有其田, 將鳳梨有限公司出售民營, 成立了"台灣鳳梨股份有限公司", 自此鳳梨加工成為蓬勃的事業.  After Taiwan was liberated [from the Japanese], the government established the Taiwan Pineapple Company, Ltd.  This company consolidated the holdings left behind by the Japanese.  In the 40th year of the new government [1951], production was resumed at the canneries ***, with the implementation of a five-year plan.  In the 44th year of the new government [1955], plans were made to continue tilling the fields, but to privatize the company.  The Taiwan Pineapple Company was then established, and [from that point] the Taiwanese pineapple industry experienced a boom.

台灣鳳梨罐頭產量曾經位居世界第一 Taiwan's Pineapple Canning Industry Becomes First Worldwide

民國四十七年, 台灣西部22家鳳梨工廠取得協調, 將鳳梨原料委由台灣省罐頭工業同業公會統一收購分配, 穩定了鳳梨產裝銷的秩序.  到民國五十二年台灣鳳梨罐頭輸出量達23萬箱.  民國六十年代, 台灣鳳梨罐頭產量曾經居世界第一位, 年產量達到410萬箱, 其後因為不敵其他熱帶開發中國家的低成本加工, 台灣鳳梨外銷逐年衰退, 逐漸轉型為國內鮮果供市場.  In the 47th year of the R.O.C. calendar [1958], 22 pineapple canneries on the west coast of the island formed an association, in which the Canned Pineapple Association of Taiwan Province agreed upon a purchase agreement for the acquisition of raw pineapple.  [This agreement] stabilized the production of canned pineapple.  In the 52nd year of the R.O.C. calendar [1963], the output of canned pineapple amounted to 230,000 boxes.  In the 60th year of the R.O.C. calendar [1971], Taiwan's canned pineapple production became first worldwide, with a yearly output of 4,100,000 boxes.  From this point, Taiwan's pineapple industry experienced a yearly decline, due to competition from other developing tropical countries where the cost of processing was lower.  The industry then gradually turned to domestic markets.

Map of Pineapple Production During the Japanese Occupation

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*"Bromelin" is a misspelling of bromelain.

**"British" in what way?  I have no idea.  I only know that 1) pineapples wouldn't grow well in Britain, and 2) there's a picture of it here.

***Not sure if they mean "cannery" or "canneries" here.  Was production restarted at both the Feng Shan AND the Yuanlin cannery?  Or only the Feng Shan cannery?

2015年12月26日 星期六

Road 199 to Hengchun 縣道199到恆春

If you go halfway up the Southern Cross-Island Highway, to where Taitung County and Pingtung County come together, that's the beginning of Road 199.  Road 199 is a little, one-lane road that passes through some very remote areas.  如果你走南橫公路, 南橫公路的中間點也就是屏東縣跟台東縣的交界處, 那裡就是縣道199的起點.  這條路很小, 單線道的路 貫通一些很鄉下的地方.

The picture above was taken a few kilometers from the start of Road 199.  There are a few interesting places near here, which I already discussed in the Other Side of Pingtung and Pingdong/Ping Tung County 屏東縣 2 entries.  上面的照片是從縣道199的起點附近拍的.  這附近有些有趣的地點.  這些地點我已經在The Other Side of PingtungPingdong/Ping Tung County 屏東縣 2那兩篇文章討論過了.

This is Dong Yuan Village.  It's halfway between the Mudan Reservoir and the start of Road 199.  This picture was taken in Mudan Park, from which you can hike a trail that goes up Chr Mountain.  這是東原村.  它位於牡丹水庫跟縣道199的起點中間.  這張照片是在牡丹公園拍的.  從牡丹公園可走步道上池山.

The mountains in this area aren't as impressive as what you'll find further north, but the weather is usually warmer.  There are many other trails through this area, though some are difficult to find.  這附近的景色不如較北邊的景色, 可是這裡天氣比較暖和.  這裡還有很多步道,只是有些步道不好找.

The above picture was taken on the Kao Shr Fo Mountain trail, further south. 上面的照片是在比較南邊的高士佛山拍的.

This was taken on the same trail.  這張也是在同一條步道拍的.

And this is the Mudan Reservoir.  It's about half an hour east of Che Cheng in Pingtung.  The town around the reservoir seems to be dying, and we couldn't even find a restaurant there.  A very quiet place.  這是牡丹水庫.  從屏東縣車城鄉開車到這裡差不多要半個小時.  水庫旁邊的小村很安靜.  我們在那裡也找不到餐廳.  真的沒什麼人!

View of the reservoir from the top of the dam.  水庫上方的風景.

View in the opposite direction.  同一個地方的另外一邊.

When we were here I didn't see a single worker.  Maybe they get the weekends off? 我們在這裡的時候連一個工作人員都沒看到.  他們周末不用上班嗎?

Further down Road 199 is the Ss Chong River Hot Spring Area.  The town around which the hot springs lie is rather ugly, but some of the hot springs are nice.  縣道199會到四重溪溫泉區.  靠近溫泉的小村很醜, 可是有的溫泉不錯.

The above picture was taken in the Da Shan (Big Mountain) Leisure Farm.  I do NOT recommend this hot spring.  It might be cheap, but it's really old and most of the pools aren't hot enough.  Probably the most uncomfortable hot spring I've ever visited.  上面的照片是在大山農場拍的.  這個溫泉區一定有比較好的溫泉.  大山很便宜, 可是他們舊舊的溫泉不夠熱.  應該是我去過的溫泉中最不舒服的.

A short drive down from the hot spring area is the Mudan Incident Park, and the Mudan Incident Memorial.  There is a Wikipedia article about the Mudan Incident here.  Neither place is especially scenic, but if you're into history you might give them a look. 離溫泉區不遠就到牡丹事件公園跟牡丹事件紀念碑.  介紹牡丹事件的維基百科報告在這裡.  這個地區不是風景最美的, 可是對歷史有興趣的人應該覺得有趣.

Past Mudan, Road 199 leads into Che Cheng Township, and the town of Che Cheng.  From there you can take Highway 26 south to Kenting, or north to Pingtung City.  We drove south to Hengchun, where we stayed in a hotel for the night.  The place where Road 199 and Highway 26 meet is also very close to the National Museum of Biology and Aquarium inside Kenting National Park.經過牡丹鄉之後, 縣道199進入車城市區.  從那裡可以走台26到南邊的墾丁或是到北邊的屏東市.  我們往南邊的恆春在飯店過夜.  縣道199跟台26的路口也很靠近墾丁國家公園裡的海洋生物博物館.

The above picture was taken in Hengchun, one of Taiwan's most historic cities.  For more pictures/discussion of Hengchun, refer to Hengchun's "Old City" 恆春古城這個文章.  上面的照片是在古老的恆春市拍的, 恆春的照片跟討論在Hengchun's "Old City" 恆春古城這個文章.

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2015年12月24日 星期四

Merry Christmas!! 聖誕節快樂!!

Tomorrow, December 25 is Christmas!  Merry Christmas!  明天是十二月二十五聖誕節.  聖誕節快樂!!

2015年12月20日 星期日

A Dream 一個夢

University of Washington 華盛頓大學

What do you dream about?  你作什麼夢?

Love?  Sex?  Things that happened before?  Tests you took?  愛情?  色情?  以前發生過的事?  考過的試?

Or maybe you don't remember what you dream.  Maybe you don't dream at all.  Or maybe your dreams don't make any sense, or maybe they are impossible to describe.  還是你不記得你做過的夢.  也可能你根本不作夢.  或者是你所作的夢沒有意義, 或是無法描述夢境.

I suppose I dream a lot, though I don't always remember what I was dreaming.  Most of my recent dreams are fairly uninteresting, though I do have some strange ones now and then.  我常常作夢, 可是有時候忘記自己作了什麼夢.  我最近作的夢大部分是無趣的.  可是偶爾是作奇怪的夢.

Last night, for example, I dreamed I was back in college.  I think it was the University of Washington, where I was a student years ago.  I was in my twenties again, and on my way to class.  Somewhere between my apartment and my class I lost both the front wheel of my bike and my cell phone, and I was looking all over the campus for them.  比方說昨天晚上, 我夢到我還在大學念書.  那所大學應該是我幾年前讀過的華盛頓大學.  夢中的我二十幾歲, 正在去上課的路上.  我住的套房跟教室之間掉了我單車的前輪跟手機, 所以我在校園裡到處在找那兩樣東西.

Eventually I ran into two girls who helped me in my search.  We never found the wheel and the cell phone - probably because my alarm went off, and woke me up before the dream was over.  When I woke up I still felt very worried and pressed for time.  過了一會兒遇到兩個女人幫我一起找.  我們三個都找不到手機跟車輪.  大概是因為我的鬧鐘在作完夢前響了, 把我叫醒了.  我起床的時候還是感到很緊張和時間的壓力.

The strange part of the dream was that I wasn't just "me" in it.  I was also one of the girls who were helping "me."  And I was also a second "me," watching the first "me" and the two girls look for my bike wheel and my cell phone.  I can remember the second "me" being amused at the proceedings, and thinking That guy better hurry up, or he's going to be late! 最奇怪的部分是我在夢中時不只是自己一個人.  我同時也是幫我找東西的其中一位女人.  我另外也有一個分身看第一個"我"和那二位女人找車輪跟手機.  我還記得第二個"我"覺得他們這樣找東西很好笑, 也覺得第一個"我"要趕快去上課, 不然要遲到了.

Ah well.  My brain is sometimes a weird and scary place.  And maybe the dream had some other, Freudian kind of meaning... if you go in for that sort of thing.  I've never been big on psychological symbolism, so I have nothing to say about that.  哎呀!  有時候我自己的頭腦是一個很恐怖的地方.  可能我這個夢在心理學上還有其他的意思.  因為我不是很相信心理學, 所以我不知道.

And you?  What did you dream about last night?  What were you doing?  I'd be interested to know, if it's something you can share.  Maybe your dreams are even weirder than mine?  那你呢?  你昨天晚上作什麼夢?  你在夢中做什麼事?  如果願意跟我分享的話, 我很想知道你夢中發生什麼事情.  有可能你作的夢比我的還奇怪!

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Can't think of any! 我想不到!

2015年12月12日 星期六

In Taipei 在台北

Spent last Saturday and Sunday in Taipei.  Walked a lot.  Ate a lot.  Saw some new things.  我上個星期六 日去台北,  走了很多的路, 吃了很多的食物, 和去了一些沒去過的景點.

The picture above is Song Shan Station.  If you are taking the train to Taipei, I recommend Song Shan.  Less people, less confusion, and it's an MRT station, too.  上面的照片是松山站.  如果去台北玩的話, 我建議在松山下火車比較好.  那邊人比較少, 也沒有那麼混亂.  松山也有捷運站.

This is the Taipei Science Museum.  My younger daughter loved it.  My older daughter thought it was OK.  I thought it was boring.  It's not far from the Shr Lin MRT station.  這是台北的科學博物館.  我小女兒超愛這個地方.  她姐姐覺得還好.  我自己覺得很無聊.  這裡靠近士林捷運站.

And this is what the museum looks like from the outside.  It's between a nice park and the Children's New Amusement Park.  Is the old one still around?這是科學博物館的外觀.  它位於一座公園跟兒童新樂園中間.  舊的樂園還存在嗎?

This is the Children's New Amusement Park.  If you get there after 4pm on a Saturday it's free, and the amusement park stays open until 8.  We had a good time in this place.  這是兒童新樂園.  禮拜六下午四點之後不用買門票.  樂園是晚上八點關門.  我們在這裡玩的很開心.

This is the view from the rear of the amusement park.  It looks like it would be a pleasant area to ride bikes around.  樂園後面的風景.  我覺得在這附近騎單車應該很舒服.

Three of my Taiwanese in-laws.  This restaurant was just down the road from the Shin Pu MRT station.  The sashimi and the chicken soup were very good.  他們是我在台灣的家人.  這家餐廳靠近新埔捷運站.  餐廳裡的生魚片跟雞肉湯都很好吃.

The Postal Museum!  Taipei, by the way, is full of museums.  The entrance fee is very cheap, and it's within walking distance of the Chiang Kai Shek Memorial.  It was surprisingly interesting, and I liked it much more than the Science Museum.  郵政博物館.  台北的博物館超多.  這裡的門票很便宜, 也很靠近中正紀念堂捷運站.  我覺得這裡很有趣.  比科學博物館有趣多了.

Postal attire from around the world.  This guy looks kind of evil, doesn't he?  其他國家郵政的制服.  中間的先生看起來很恐怖, 對不對?

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2015年12月1日 星期二

Cheng Gong Fishing Port 成功漁港

Cheng Gong Fishing Port is in downtown Cheng Gong, about an hour north of Taitung City.  It is the largest fishing port in Taitung County.  成功漁港在成功鎮市區.  從台東市開車去要一個小時左右.  這裡是台東縣最大的漁港.

It is very quiet on a Sunday afternoon.  這裡星期天下午很安靜.

A few local goods.  一些土產.

View from the other side of the port.  從漁港往市區看的景象.

A repair yard.  修船廠.

The other end of the port.  漁港的另一邊.

View from the seawall, looking east.  防波堤東邊的風景.

Another view from the seawall, looking south.  防波堤南邊的風景.

Inside the seawall.  Watch your step here!  這是防波堤的內部. 在這裡走路要小心!

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2015年11月28日 星期六

Near the Li Jia Forest Trail 在利嘉林道附近

It's difficult to explain where the Li Jia Forest Trail is.  All I can tell you is that you take the road that goes through Tai Ping Village, and at the end of that road there are a few twists and turns that lead you to the Li Jia Forest Trail.  要跟你解釋利嘉林道怎麼去是一件困難的事.  我只能說要走太平村的那條路, 之後經過幾個彎道就能到達利嘉林道.

If you see the gate above you're on the right track.  This is a military cemetery.  如果你路上看到台東縣軍人公墓, 你就知道自己正往對的方向前進.

There is a jet, a tank, and other military things in the park around the cemetery.  It's actually quite big - much bigger than it looks from outside.  公墓的公園裡有飛機, 坦克, 還有其他的武器.  這裡面其實很大.  從外面看不出來.

Behind the cemetery the road ascends up a steep hill.  You will see a lot of signs for 大巴六九 (Da Ba Liou Jiou), a restaurant just below the beginning of the trail.  公墓後面上坡的路很陡.  沿途會看到很多大巴六九餐廳的路牌.  這家餐廳位於林道起點的附近.

The view from the top is impressive.  In the day you can see all the way to the ocean.  At night there are the lights of Taitung City, far below.  山上的風景很美.  在白天可以遠看到海邊.  晚上可以看到台東市的燈火.

A lot of people grow betel nut trees up here.  Some of the landowners keep dogs, so be warned if you're walking up.  There are also plenty of snakes around here.  這附近很多人種檳榔樹.  農夫們養的狗也不少, 所以走路時要小心.  因為這裡也有蛇!

This stretch of road is not far from the beginning of the trail.  這一段路靠近林道的起點.

Almost there...  快到了...

And this is just a few feet from the trailhead.  We didn't walk past the trailhead that day, because we were pressed for time.  The trail is an interesting place to walk, however, and I highly recommend it.  這裡很靠近起點.  我們那一天因為趕時間沒有走到林道, 我強烈建議去走那條林道, 因為那裏很有趣.

Related Entries 相關的文章:

Jin Luen 金崙
Bei Nan River Mouth 卑南溪口 / Li Ji 利吉惡地
The Price of Nature  大自然的價值
How Not to Get to Our House by Going the Wrong Way 迷路了

2015年11月26日 星期四

List of Things I Could Worry About on a Thursday Afternoon

1. Global warming.

2. Terrorism.

3. The overfishing of Taiwan's coastal waters.

4. The future of English language education in Taiwan.

5. Whether certain people like me or not.

6. Whether or not certain people are talking about me behind my back.

7. Upcoming English competitions.

8. The possibility that it might rain later.

9. Cancer and other potential health problems.

10. Whether the people I work for are happy with my job performance or not.

11. Random, sexually perverse thoughts that occasionally pop into my head.

12. The possibility that this laptop has viruses.

13. If and how much my parents love me, and whether or not this love is equal to the love my siblings receive from the same set of parents.

14. How the Seahawks are doing this season, and if they will make the playoffs.

15. The potential for getting into trouble at work.

16. The likelihood of realizing future plans.

17. The thought that at times I appear ridiculous to others.

18. Getting older, and the possible effects that aging might have on my health.

19. My children's performance in school.

20. The likelihood of my children realizing their own future plans.

21. Complications that might arise from my not having filed U.S. tax returns for more years than I can remember.

22. The possibility of being struck by a car or motorcycle.

23. The possibility of falling over on my bike, increased by the fact that I use clip pedals and shoes.

24. Upcoming athletic events.

25. Alienation from my home country, culture, and place of birth.

26. My marital relationship.

27. My tendency to build things up in my mind too much, and to grow disappointed when reality doesn't meet my expectations.

28. The fact that I worry too much.

29. The possibility that this list might not be comprehensive.

30. Friendships with local foreign people, and intimations that I am "too Taiwanese" for them.

31. Friendships with other men, and the idea that I am not manly enough, don't follow the same sports, and don't obsess over the same things as they do.

32. The idea that I could be doing more than I am presently doing.

33. That quote from Ecclesiastes, in which the Preacher say(eth): "Of making books there is no end, and in much study lies a weariness of flesh."

34. Traffic between myself and any future destination.

35. The fact that I drive often, yet don't have a driver's license.

36. The possibility that I am too argumentative.

37. The thought that I am just another white man to those I work with, and any other white man would do just as well.

38. The fact that I am often full of myself, and that I could be more humble.

39. The fact that I sometimes gossip, and that this is something I need to be careful of in the future.

40. Death.

41. The death of those I care about.

42. The fact that I am often disappointed by major motion pictures (Spectre being a prime example) because I have - yet again - built them up in my mind too much.

43. The uncertainty of life, and the fragility of the human condition.

44. The possibility that I don't make the best use of my time, of which this list may be an example.

45. The fact that dumbing oneself down is often an excellent way of winning friends and influencing people.

46. The depletion of coral in the oceans.

47. Ocean acidification.

48. Gaps in my understanding of Chinese, especially idioms.

49. Women who are a little too eager to know me, and/or make themselves available to me.

50. Greed.

51. The possibility that in writing this list I may be giving too much away.

52. Money.

53. Whether or not my cats are destroying something in my apartment right now.

54. The welfare of others.

55. The fact that one of my coworkers has developed an intense dislike for me, and the associated fact that I can do little about it.

56. The extinction of animal and plant species.

57. The chopping down of the rainforest.

58. The idea of free market environmentalism vs. government regulation.

59. The certainty that I am also contributing to global warming, air pollution, depletion of the water table, the creation of waste, unfriendliness, loneliness, and other social and environmental ills.

60. The existence of God and the role of the deity in my personal affairs.

61. The question of religion.

62. Orthodoxy vs. orthopraxy.

63. The things I might or might not do this weekend.

64. Ongoing Facebook arguments with complete strangers.

65. The fact that some people are just a**holes.

66. The fact that sometimes I am also an a**hole.

67. My overconsumption of coffee.

68. The content of this morning's breakfast, which consisted of a spicy chicken hamburger and a milk tea at a local breakfast restaurant - not organic by any stretch of the imagination.

69. The fact that there are several things I cannot put on this list because they will incriminate me in the eyes of God and Man alike.

70. The idea that #69 above might just apply to everyone apart from Gandhi, Mother Theresa, the mentally retarded, and the insane.

71. The fact that I am not a practicing Catholic, yet at times experience Catholic guilt.

72. The relationship between Taiwan and Mainland China.

73. The possibility that Taiwan will one day be swallowed up by Mainland China.

74. Politics.

75. Pop stars personal relationships (just kidding).

76. The idea that trying to be "cool" is silly, but the corresponding fact that I want to be cool.

77. False friends.

78. People mistaken for adversaries.

79. My parents being taken care of in their old age.

80. The possibility of my sister or brother being unable to do this.

81. Taking care of my mother-in-law in her old age.

82. The susceptibility of my mother-in-law to con men and false bargains, and also her general lack of common sense.

83. A false sense of superiority.

84. The idea that I abuse Facebook, and should instead bring a book to school.

85. The possibility that I am forgetting something important.

86. The question as to what "a life well lived" might actually be.

87. My hairline.

88. The fact that part of the reason I exercise is that I am vain.

89. American and Mainland Chinese geopolitical struggles, not restricted to the subject of Taiwan, the building of naval bases in the South China Sea, and terrorism.

90. The fact that I am not always the best father and husband, and that I could in general be a better person.

91. The silence that pervades this office, and the fact that many of my coworkers have stopped speaking to each other.

92. What I might do during Chinese New Year.

93. What I might eat for dinner tomorrow.

94. What kind of alcoholic beverage I might drink tomorrow.

95. What kind of books I might buy in Taipei next week.

96. Whether or not I'll be bored at the wedding dinner in Taipei next week.

97. The future of space travel.

98. The making of lists.

99. The futility that often accompanies human existence.

100. The fallibility of both authority figures and institutions.

101. The fact that tomorrow I will probably think of dozens of other things to add to this list, and that the incomplete nature of this list will bother me.

Related Entries:

什麼時候要開始學英語?  When Should We Study English?
The Price of Nature  大自然的價值
Stepping Out 走到戶外
Far Away Home 遠離家園

2015年11月24日 星期二

什麼時候要開始學英語? When Should We Study English?

One of my coworkers goes to a lot of meetings.  He goes to meetings in Taipei, meetings in Kaohsiung, even meetings in Jinmen.  When he comes back from these meetings, he usually leaves the handbook from the meeting on his desk.  When I have a spare moment I'll look through them.  我的一位同事常出席許多的會議.  他會去台北, 高雄, 甚至也會去金門開會.  他回來之後常把會議手冊放在他的桌上.  當我有空的時候會看一下這些手冊.

The Chinese text below was taken from the 英語語言管理操作手冊 (English Language User's Manual), put out by the Global Education Association in Taiwan.  The Chinese was written by Chen Chao-ming 陳超明, and the English translation was written by me.  下列的文章原來在台灣全球化教育推廣協會的"英語語言管理操作手冊"裡面.  以下的中文是陳超明寫的, 英文翻譯的部份是我寫的.

When: 什麼時候開始學英語?  如何學?
When Should We Study English?  How Should We Study?

學生, 家長, 老師, 校長的難題 Problems for Students, Parents, Teachers, and Principals

小成目前就讀小學一年級, 哥哥小威就讀小學三年級, 剛開始進入學習階段.  如同許多家長, 小成, 小威的爸媽認為英文很重要, 在孩子很小, 甚至幼推園的時候, 就送去雙語幼推園及補習班學英語, 希望贏在起跑點.  他們的煩惱是進入學校後, 孩子的英語學習該如何接續?  那麼小開始學英語, 真的有效嗎? 真的贏別人嗎?  Shiao Chung is in the first grade, his brother Shiao Wei is in the third grade, and their student life has just begun.  Like many parents, Shiao Chung and Shiao Wei's mother and father think that English is very important.  Their children have attended a bilingual kindergarten and also an English cram school from very early on, in the hope that an early start will ensure their later academic success.  After these parents carry their concerns into a [public] school, how can their children's English study be accommodated?  Is it effective to study English so young?  Will they [the children] really surpass other students?

小學六年級的小華, 即將進入國中, 因為英文程度不太好, 時常跟不上老師上課的進度, 學習成效也不及同班同學, 結果在課堂上常常當"客人".  老師為他安排補救教學, 但小華本身對英文沒有興趣: 校長希望老師讓學生在小學畢業後, 能有基本的英語能力, 好跟國中的英語課程接軌, 可是英語補救教學的學習成效似乎不甚理想, 小華好像也上得不起勁, 老師, 校長都不知道該如何處理!  Shiao Hua is in the sixth grade, about to enter junior high school.  Her English level is not very high, and during English class she has trouble keeping up.  Her grades are also below those of her classmates, and she is more like a "guest" in her class.  Her teacher has assigned her to a remedial class, but she has no interest in English.  The principal hopes that the teacher can instill some English ability in the students before they graduate from elementary school, so that they can participate in their junior high school English classes.  The English remedial classes don't seem so effective however, and Shiao Hua doesn't seem so enthusiastic with regard to studying [English].  Both the teacher and the principal don't know what to do!

雅婷目前就讀國中, 正在準備會考.  雅婷很緊張, 成續不甚理想, 模擬考分數數下子在B級, 一下子在C級.  雅婷媽媽正考慮送他去補習班, 但要上單字課還是文法課?  該去雙語補習班專攻英文?  還是去全課的升學補習班?  抑或加強英文其實不重要, 選擇其他課就好?  Ya Ting studied in a junior high school, and now she is preparing for the comprehensive examination [at the end of junior high].  Ya Ting is very worried.  Her grades aren't as good as she hoped they'd be, and her scores are sometimes B-level, sometimes C-level.  Ya Ting's mother is thinking about putting her in a cram school, but should it be vocabulary class or grammar class?  Should she [Ya Ting] go to a dual language cram school to learn English?  Or should she go to a more general cram school?  Or is strengthening her English not that important?  Maybe she should choose another kind of class?

國強從小英語能力很強, 小學時, 爸爸曾到新加坡工作一年, 也帶著他去.  在新加坡的英文學校學習一年, 國強培養出閱讀英文故事書的習慣, 也敢開口講英語, 然而四年級回到學校後, 發現同學都還在跟字母, 發音及單字拼命, 國強覺得上英語課好無聊!  Chiang Guo has been good at English from a young age.  When he was in elementary school, his father went to work in Singapore for a year, and brought Chiang Guo to live with him.  In his Singaporean English school he studied for a year, and there Chiang Guo learned to read English story books.  He is very eager to speak English.  Yet when he came back to his elementary school in the fourth grade, he discovered that his classmates were still learning the alphabet, phonics, and basic words.  Chiang Guo feels that attending English class is very boring!

以上這些例子, 都是台灣現今國小及國中學生, 家長, 老師, 校長所面臨的英語學習難題.  我們可以看得出來, 大多數家長對於孩子的英語學習狀況都非常關心, 學校老師與校長也都很重視英語學習.  The above are all examples of problems that students, parents, and principals face in modern Taiwanese elementary and junior high schools with regard to English study.  As we can see, most parents are concerned about their child's English learning situation, and both teachers and principals are concerned about English language education.

家長的願景 The Parents' Perspective

父母心中最大的疑問, 不外乎孩子應該什麼時候開始學英文?  如何引起孩子學習英文的興趣?  再者, 應該送孩子去哪裡學英文?  應跟著學校走?  還是去補習班或安排家教?  In the hearts of many parents the greatest uncertainty is not only when their children should begin learning English, it is also how they can increase their child's interest in learning it.  Moreover, where should they send their child to learn English?  Should they follow their school's lead?  Or should they put their child in a cram school, or even a private [home] class?

多數家長都希望孩子具備英文能力, 能溝通, 考好學校, 將基礎打好, 將來能去國外留學, 進外商工作.  然而, 很多家長對於孩子的學習成效是沒有概念的, "英文好"的定義是什麼?  會講幾句英文?  還是會讀英文小說?  國中畢業後, 孩子的英語能力應該在什麼程度?  是以學校成續來評量?  還是要以國中會考成續來判定?  抑或有其他的標準?  矛盾的是, 國中會考現在又強調非升學指標, 種種疑問都讓家長們對於孩子英語學習的未來不是那麼清楚.  Most parents hope their children will have some English ability, that they will be able to communicate and test well, and that they will have a solid foundation [in English], so that later they can study or work overseas.  Many parents, however, have no conception of how effective their child's English education really is, or what it means to have "good English."  How many sentences should they be able to say?  Should they be able to read an English novel?  And after they graduate from junior high school, how much English should they know?  Are their grades in school an [accurate] measure of this?  Or is this decided by their score on the comprehensive examination at the end of junior high school?  Should some other standard be applied?  More confusing still, the comprehensive examination at the end of junior high school also puts an emphasis on quotas, so that for these parents the future, as it relates to their child's English study, is not so clear.

校長老師對英語課程的想像 What Principals and Teachers Expect from the English Curriculum

對國小校長來說, 建構學校語言學習的願景, 最重要的當然是讓孩子具備基本英文能力, 並擁有學習英文的動機和興趣: 至於國中校長, 當然期望該校學生會考成續都能夠達到A, B級, 不會有C級成續.  As for elementary school principals and their visions of building up [improving] English study [in their schools], of course the most important thing is to teach basic English skills, to motivate children to learn English, and to increase their interest in learning English.  As for the junior high school principal, of course it is their hope that their students can test at the A and B levels on their big test, and not at the C level.

然而, 國小校長所面臨的最大困難, 在教師來源不穩定, 許多學校沒有專識英語教師, 英語教師的識缺, 有時甚至得由不同料的教師來代理.  此外, 國中小的能力分班亦面臨著極大桃戰.  有的學生補習, 有的沒有, 程度不一定狀況下, 能力分班卻是困難重重: 即使教育當局充許分組學習, 但教師不足, 資源有限, 如何分組?  倘若分班, 同班同學的能力仍有落差: 不進行分班, 又該如何進行差異化學習?  However, the biggest difficulty that the elementary school principal faces is the varying quality of teachers [in their schools], and [the fact that] many schools do not have a qualified English teacher.  [Due to] this lack of expertise, they sometimes employ teachers of questionable quality.  Aside from this, there is also the struggle regarding ability grouping within junior high and elementary schools.  Some students go to cram school, and some don't.  [Student's] levels of achievement are not always obvious, and grouping them by ability is very difficult.  Even educational authorities are divided into several factions over this issue.  If there aren't enough teachers, and if resources are limited, how should such groups be created?  If such placement is not attempted, and if students in the same class are allowed to fall behind, how can we then address the learning differences between them? 

每位老師都希望學生有良好的英語能力, 但也面臨著許多困境: 第一, 課程繁重, 班級眾多, 尤其是代課老師, 往往對課程的準備無法負擔且不夠完整: 再者, 班上學生的英語文程度差異性大, 該如何解決分組學習的困境?  更何況, 家長常要求老師多教授考試內容, 也使得老師教學受到約束.  趕進度的壓力, 對學校及家長需有所交代的壓力, 都是現今英語教學的難題.  Every teacher wants their students to have a high level of English ability, but they also face several difficulties.  Chief among these difficulties is the fact that their course loads are heavy, they have many classes, and they are often working as substitute teachers.  Often they don't have enough time to prepare, and they cannot complete their courses of study.  What is more, the levels of English ability within a single class vary widely.  How then can we solve this problem of grouping them by English ability?  And alongside this issue, parents often pressure teachers and professors over the content of tests, and place other such restraints upon the teacher.  There is increasing pressure for improvement, and students and parents want accountability.  This is the difficulty that modern schools face with regard to teaching English.

Related Entries 相關的文章:

Nine Years
Commun Englash Mastakes 常見的英文錯誤
Intro 自我介紹 7
Far Glory Amusement Park 遠雄海洋公園 

Related Links 相關的網站:

104國中會考英語科閱讀試題解答 (Sample of junior high school comprehensive test - English section)

2015年11月21日 星期六

Jin Luen 金崙

Went down to Jin Luen a week ago, and these are some of the pictures I took while I was there.  Jin Luen is a small town that is known for its hot springs.  It's about forty minutes south of Taitung City by car.  上個禮拜我們去金崙.  這些照片都是我們在那裏拍的.  金崙是一個有名的溫泉區.  從台東市開車去到那裡要40分鐘左右.

A view from the hill above Jin Luen.  That construction along Highway 9 will make the trip from north to south much faster - whenever they happen to finish!  從山坡上看到的金崙.  台9線上的施工將會縮短由北到南的路程時間.  問題是它離完工還有一段時日.

The Eastern Sun hot spring and hotel.  This is my favorite hot spring in Jin Luen, though I've been to a couple of other good ones.  The view from here is the best.  東太陽溫泉酒店.  這是我在金崙最喜歡的溫泉, 雖然金崙還有很多不錯的溫泉.  可是這邊的風景是最好的.

Inside the hot spring.  Let's pretend I didn't see the "No Photography" sign until much later?  在溫泉裡面.  我假裝沒看到"請勿拍照"的牌子!

Looking west up the river.  This is one of the areas in which the 8-8 Typhoon did the most damage.  在河岸往西邊看.   這個地方在88水災的時候受到很嚴重的破壞.

The Jin Luen Train Station.  I'd like to get back to this place and take more pictures of the places around it.  We were a little pressed for time.金崙火車站.  我很想再回去那裏多拍些照片.  因為我們那時候時間很趕.

View from Highway 9, north of Jin Luen.  A lot of construction on this stretch, but the delays provide photo opportunities?  台9線上, 金崙北邊的海景.  這附近很多路段在施工, 可是這樣反而讓人有很多拍照的機會.

Related Entries 相關的文章: 

Bei Nan River Mouth 卑南溪口 / Li Ji 利吉惡地
The Price of Nature  大自然的價值
How Not to Get to Our House by Going the Wrong Way 迷路了
Stepping Out 走到戶外