The Chinese text below was taken from "Stories of the Opening of Taiwan (Southern Area) 臺灣開發故事 - 南部地區. The Chinese text was written by 趙莒玲. The English was written/translated by me. This is the last of these entries. The Southern Area book also covers Jiayi, Tainan and Kaohsiung.
Taiwanese People were the First Chinese People to Settle in Pingtung(1)
清康熙二十三年 (西元一六八四年), 閩南泉州人自下淡水溪 (今高屏溪), 經由陸地莿桐腳溪北的枋山, 及莿桐腳, 楓港溪口的楓港, 陸續進入屏東各地移墾, 並與當地的原住民相約開墾土地. During the 23rd year of Ching Emperor Kang Shi's reign (1684 on the Western calendar), Taiwanese people from Chuan Jhou [in China] crossed the Danshui River (now known as the Gao Ping River). From there they followed the Tse Tong Jiao River [now known as the Fangshan River] into north Fangshan, and from there arrived at the mouth of the Fenggang River near [present-day] Fenggang. They continued on to settle other parts of Pingtung alongside local aboriginal tribes.(2)
因此, 沿著椰林和魚塭處處的東港線, 往四方散開, 都可以找到閩南人的足跡, 尤其是看到屏東最大的地標 -- 舊高屏大橋, 便到了閩南聚落. 傳說, 在林爽文事件時, 閩, 客反目, 就是在舊高屏大橋交戰. For this reason you can find the footprints of Taiwanese settlers all down the coast south of Donggang, evident in the coconut groves and fish ponds they left behind. The mark they left on the landscape becomes especially apparent when viewing the largest landmark in Pingtung, the old Gao Ping Bridge, which demarcates the area of Taiwanese settlement. According to legend, during the Lin Shuang-wen Incident Taiwanese and Hakka people fought each other on this same bridge.
早年開發時, 閩, 客之間因為爭地, 發生多次械鬥, 彼此間有了心結, 一直成為閩, 客文化無法完全融合的障礙. During the early years of settlement, groups of Taiwanese and Hakka people competed with one another for land, and there were many armed conflicts as a result. This struggle for land has long been a source of contention between the two groups.
過去, 不少老一輩的閩南家族, 還會不時告誡子弟, 不要娶客家姑娘, 因而拆散了許多對相愛的閩, 客情侶. 還好這個不合理的觀念, 現已漸漸式微. After a while many older Taiwanese parents warned their sons not to marry Hakka girls, and many cross-cultural romances were broken up. It's good that this intolerant attitude has slowly disappeared.
據當地耆老表示, 早期閩, 客發生衝突, 最主要是文化, 語言和宗教信仰的差異所造成, 近數十年來, 各種文化已相互交流, 年輕一輩閩南, 客間的界限已日漸模糊了. According to local elders, early on there were many conflicts between Taiwanese and Hakka people, arising from differences of culture, language or religion. In more recent decades the two cultures have come into closer contact, and members of the younger generation perceive no barrier between Taiwanese and Hakka culture.
經過數百年的融合, 屏東各族群間的界限漸漸打破, 但各族群也保留不少傳統歷史和習俗, 這些各具特色的文化組合, 便是屏東 "同中有異, 異中求同" 的新文化. After hundreds of years of integration, [intermarriage and assimilation], the divisions between groups of people in Pingtung have slowly vanished. Every group, however, has retained certain traditions, history and customs, and these unique characteristics combine to create Pingtung's new culture of "differences in commonality, common cause through differences."(3)
1. 全臺規模最大的土地公廟: 建於清康熙年間的車城鄉福安宮, 至今已有三百多年的歷史. 該宮原名敬聖亭, 是福建來臺墾荒的先民, 為泉州家鄉所供奉的福德正神所建的廟宇. Taiwan's Largest Tu Di Gong Temple: Fu An Temple in Checheng Township was built during the reign of Ching Emperor Kang-shi. It's more than 300 years old. It was originally known as the Jing Sheng Pavilion. This Tu Di Gong temple was originally built by ethnic Taiwanese settlers from Chuan Jhou [in China].(5)
2. 臺灣唯一奉祀韓愈的祠: 這座建於清嘉慶八年 (西元一八0三年) 的昌黎祠, 是臺灣唯一奉祀唐代古文運動祖師韓愈的祠廟. The Only Shrine Consecrated to Han Yu in Taiwan: Chang Li Shrine, built during the 8th year of the Ching Emperor Jia Ching's reign (1803 on the Western calendar), is the only shrine in Taiwan commemorating the Tang Dynasty poet Han Yu.
至於韓愈何以成為嶺南 "百世之神", 其中有段機綠. 據史載, 因開罪唐憲宗而被貶到潮州 (廣東潮安縣) 當刺史的韓愈, 曾大力教化嶺南人, 這便是韓愈被嶺南人尊為 "師表" 的原因. As to how Han Yu became Ling Nan's "God of a Hundred Centuries," it's recorded that Han Yu, exiled to Chao Jhou (Chao An County in Guangdong) to serve as an official, worked hard to teach the people of Ling Nan, and came to be regarded by them as a "master."
現在的這座祠廟, 是鳳山昭武都尉鍾麟江, 為緬懷韓文公而建的. 鍾麟江還曾聘名師駐祠講學, 延續至今, 每年農曆九月初九韓文公例祭日, 地方士紳都會組祭祀團, 以簡單隆重的獻禮來祭祀. 目前, 該祠已是客家人的精神象徵. This shrine was built by the Fengshan District military official Jung Lin-jiang as a way of commemorating Han Yu. Jung Lin-jiang also hired scholars to give lectures at this shrine, and up to the present day offerings and ceremonies in Han Yu's honor are held on the eve of the ninth day of the ninth month on the lunar calendar. This shrine in an important holy site for the Hakka people.(6)
3. 全臺地位最高的教堂: 清同治八年 (西元一八六九年), 由菲律賓良方濟神父創建的萬巒鄉萬金聖母聖殿, 又稱無玷聖母堂. The Highest-Ranking Church in Taiwan: During the 8th year of the Ching Imperial Administration (1869 on the Western calendar), a Father Francis, arriving here from the Philippines, commissioned the construction of the Our Lady of Wan Jin Church in Wan Luan Township. This church is also referred to as the Church of the Immaculate Conception.
該教堂西班牙神父吳榮福, 熱心協助撫番和消弭種族歧見, 沈葆楨為遏止番民騷擾教堂, 請清廷冊封該教. 清廷於清同治十三年 (西元一八七四年), 令沈葆楨刻 "奉旨" 和 "天主堂" 各一塊花崗石, 鑲在教堂正面上方. 自此官兵路經教堂前, 須下馬行禮. The church's Spanish priest, Wu Rong-fu, worked hard to eliminate racial divisions in the area. Shen Baozhen [a local Ching official] registered the local religion with the Ching government as a way of protecting it from other, less enlightened officials. During the 13th year of the Ching Imperial Administration (1874 on the Western calendar), Chen Baozhen had "Dedication" and "Catholic Church" inscribed on a block of granite in front of the church. After that point soldiers passing by the church were required to dismount and salute it.(7)
民國七十三年 (西元一九八四年), 教堂榮獲教宗若望保祿二世敕封為 "聖殿", 即天主教會內第一等級教堂, 因此成為全臺地位最高的天主教堂, 每年十二月五日至八日, 全臺天主教徒都會來此朝聖. 73 years after the founding of the Republic of China (1984 on the Western calendar), this church was consecrated as a "basilica" by Pope John Paul II. It was given the highest ranking in the Catholic Church, and for this reason became the highest-ranking Catholic Church in all of Taiwan. From December 5 to December 8 of each year, Catholics from all over Taiwan make a pilgrimages to this site.
4. 臺灣唯一的香蕉研究所: 位於九如鄉玉泉村的香蕉研究所, 占地八公頃多, 是目前全世界唯一以香蕉為研究主題的農業研究單位. Taiwan's Only Banana Research Center: This banana research center is located in Yu Chuan Village, Jiou Ru Township. It covers an area of over eight hectares, and is presently the only agricultural research facility in the world focused on bananas.
5. 臺灣洋蔥最大產地: 屏東生產的洋蔥, 占臺灣總產量的百分之八十, 恆春產量占其中的百分之五十二, 車城為百分之四十七, 因此洋蔥為恆春地區最大宗的農產品. Taiwan's Largest Onion-Producing Area: Onions grown in Pingtung account for 80% of Taiwan's entire onion crop. Onions grown in Hengchun account for 53% of the total onion crop, and onions grown in Checheng account for the remaining 47%. For this reason onions are Hengchun's most important agricultural product.
6. 臺灣首座生態和有機農業農場: 設在恆春工商旁的恆春農場, 場內種植一千四百多種植物, 並以動物糞便及生物防治的方法, 創造有機生態圈. Taiwan's First Organic, Environmentally Sustainable Farm: Hengchun Farm is located next to Hengchun's Industrial and Vocational High School. More than 1,400 different species of plants are grown inside this farm, and animal fertilizers and biological control methods are used to create a chemical-free environment within.
7. 全臺第一座國家公園: 日劇時期, 便開始有系統經營的墾丁公園, 最初目的是為研究熱帶植物, 民國七十一年 (西元一九八二年), 正式成為國家公園. Taiwan's First National Park: Kenting National Park was first administered during the Japanese colonial period, with the purpose of its foundation being the study of tropical plants. 71 years after the founding of the Republic of China (1982 on the Western calendar), it was formally designated a national park.
公園海陸總面積達三萬二百多公頃, 地形景觀包括沙灘海岸, 裙狀珊瑚礁, 岩石海岸, 石灰岩地崖, 孤立山峰, 崩崖和河口, 河流, 湖泊及山間盆地等景觀, 公園多變化的地形, 記載著百萬年來, 恆春半島下沉, 隆起, 皺褶, 崩落的地殼運動史, 是最佳的地形和地質學研究的天然教室. The total area of the park is over 30,200 hectares. The terrain includes sandy beaches, coral reefs, rocky coastlines, limestone cliffs, isolated mountain peaks, cliffs and river estuaries, rivers, lakes and mountain plateaus. The park's changing terrain records the geographic transformations the Hengchun Peninsula has undergone over millions of years. It offers the best natural setting for the study of geology and topography.(8)
8. 臺灣最具原始風味的公園: 位於墾丁森林遊樂區與船帆石間的社頂自然公園, 園內占地一百二十多公頃, 有原始的高珊瑚礁林, 四十八處鐘乳石穴以及石乳等, 甚為壯觀. 另外還有一大片以草原為主的原始森林, 深具觀光和研究價值. Taiwan's Best Conserved Park: Sheding Nature Park is located between the Kenting Forest Recreation Area and Chuan Fan Rock. This park covers an area larger than 120 hectares, including an original high coral reef forest and 48 caves covered by stalactites. It's very stunning. In addition there's a large grassland and well-preserved forest areas. This park is valued by both tourists and researchers.
Related Entries 相關的文章:
1. "Taiwanese" as used in the title refers to ethnic Taiwanese, or people emigrating from the area "south of the Min River" in Fujian Province, Mainland China. The word "Hoklo" is often used synonymously in this context. The term "Minnanese" could also be used, though this obscures the relationship between these people and the island of Taiwan.
2. River, creek or stream? Some of these water courses are tiny now, while others, also designated 溪, are very big. Add to this the fact that back then these rivers, creeks and streams were either larger or smaller than they are now, and following slightly different routes to the sea. Calling them all "rivers" seemed like the easiest option.
3. It's important to remember this with regard to the aboriginal tribes as well. Many people are members of more than one tribe, or have forsaken their membership in one tribe for another. Many aboriginal residents have also married Taiwanese, Hakka, and other types of people over the centuries. Maintaining a static view of anyone's culture can lead to many misunderstandings.
4. I added the numbers to the list above. Each item can be found on the map.
5. 土地公 or "Tu Di Gong" or "the Earth god" or "lord of the place" or even "local god." This deity's name is hard to translate into English. He has several other names in Chinese as well.
6. During the Ching Dynasty Fengshan district extended all the way to Fangliao in what is now Pingtung County.
7. Wu Rong-fu is of course the Spaniard's Chinese name. I couldn't find any record of his Spanish name.
8. The Chinese here reads something like "rising, falling, rippling" and so forth, but "geographic transformations" seemed to serve the same purpose.