2020年5月28日 星期四

Retrospective 懷舊的 9: June六月 2010年 - June六月2015年

Below are thirty things that I might have done between June 2010 and June 2015.  I'll let you decide which of them I actually did. 你們來決定, 下列哪些事情是我2010年六月到2015年六月期間做過的.
  • I watched the World Cup. 看世界盃.
  • I fled Kyrgyzstan after anti-government protests erupted in the capital. 我在首都的抵抗政府遊行發生之後離開吉爾吉斯斯坦.
  • I went back to Seattle for the summer. 回去西雅圖過暑假.
  • I became the 32nd member of the OECD. 我成為經濟合作暨發展組織第三十二個會員.
  • I joined the Kaohsiung Marathon. 參加高雄馬拉松.
  • I shelled Yeonpyeong Island. 砲擊延坪島.
  • I started the First Libyan Civil War. 發起第一場利比亞內戰.
  • I complained about the heat. 抱怨天氣很熱.
  • I won the Eurovision Song Contest in Germany. 在德國舉辦的歐洲歌唱比賽獲得第一名.
  • I completed my first orbit since discovery in 1846. 把自1846年之後的行星軌道完成.
  • I began a major prisoner exchange. 開始引渡囚犯.
  • I went to Dong Shan River Park in Yilan. 去宜蘭冬山河親水公園.
  • I suspended all exports to Britain and France. 短暫停止外銷到英國與法國.
  • I declared independence from Mali. 從馬里宣布獨立.
  • I drove around eastern Pingtung County. 在屏東東部開車.
  • I also wondered if Taitung building a new movie theater was necessary. 考慮台東是否需要蓋新的電影院.
  • I visited the Taiwan Soya-Mixed Meat Museum in Kaohsiung. 參觀高雄的滷味博物館.
  • I "soft"-landed on the moon. 軟著陸月球.
  • I decided not to hang out with certain foreign friends for a while. 我決定一段時間內不要跟某些外國朋友保持聯絡.
  • I annexed Crimea. 我吞併克里米亞.
  • I drove from Seattle to Yellowstone National Park, camping in three different states along the way. 從西雅圖開車到黃石國家公園, 沿路在三個州露營.
  • I won the World Cup. 我在世界盃獲得第一名.
  • I bought a new car. 我買了一部新車.
  • I opened the tallest building in the Western Hemisphere. 在西半球經營最高的建築物.
  • I visited the oyster-harvesting area north of Tainan City. 參觀台南北部牡蠣養殖區.
  • I started using clip pedals on my road bike. 我開始騎單車時穿卡鞋.
  • I released Pokemon Go. 我發佈寵物小精靈Go.
  • I recovered two lost paintings by Vincent Van Gogh. 我取得二幅遺失的梵古繪畫.
  • I went to Beigang to visit an old temple there. 去北港參觀媽祖廟.
  • I visited Da Peng Bay in Pingtung for the first time. 第一次去屏東的大鵬灣.
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2020年5月20日 星期三

Taitung City, Viewed Through the Side by Side Textbook, Book 1, Unit 7

Q: Where's the restaurant?

A: It's next to the bank.

I can think of several restaurants next to banks.  The first one that sprang to mind was the hot pot restaurant on Jung Hua Road.  Haven't been there in ages.  My favorite hot pot restaurants are the one inside the Showtime Cineplex and Ning Ji, which is tucked behind the Poya on Shin Sheng Road.

Banks in Taitung City: Almost all the banks in Taitung City are on Junghua Road.  The Bank of Taiwan is the best place to go if you're dealing with foreign currencies or anything international.  The worst place to go is the post office, where simple things become very complicated.

Q: Where's the supermarket?

A: It's across from the movie theater.

There are no supermarket across from the movie theater!  There is however a PX Mart not far from the Showtime Cineplex.  I almost never go to that one.  There's another PX Mart on Kai Feng Street, which I go to a lot more.

Supermarkets in Taitung City: There are PX Marts everywhere.  Carrefour, on Jeng Chi Road, and RT Mart near the Prehistory Museum have large selections of international foods.

Q: Where's the school?

A: It's between the library and the park.

Can't think of any school between a library and a park.  The City Library is on Nan Jing Road behind the Teacher's Hostel, not far from the McDonald's on Shin Sheng Road.  My school is between Mackay Hospital and a bunch of houses.  I can see Liyu Mountain from where I'm sitting right now, and on the other side of my school is the Tai Ping River.

Schools in Taitung City: The big university is Taitung University, about 20 minutes south in Jerben.  The Taitung Boys' and Girls' senior high schools are where kids go to study things more academic.  There are many other vocational schools in and around the city.

Q: Where's the post office?

A: It's around the corner from the hospital.

I can't think of any post office around the corner from any hospital.  There's no post office near Mackay.  The closest hospital/post office combo I can think of is that tiny hospital on Jung Hua Road, which is down the street from a post office.

Post offices in Taitung City: They're everywhere of course.  One of the bigger ones is at the intersection of Geng Sheng Road and Chuan Guang Road.

Q: Where's the bakery?

A: It's next to the video store.

There are no more video stores.  Blockbuster is history, as is the Eastern King.  I used to spend many hours in both places.  The internet has robbed us of those experiences - hanging out in video stores, pouring through CD shops - but I guess we'll always have the memories.

Bakeries in Taitung City: There are countless small bakeries around town.  None of these bakeries will serve bread that foreign visitors will like that much.  In my opinion you might as well just buy your bread at Carrefour.

Q: Where's the barber shop?

A: It's across from the bakery.

This one might actually be true, but I can't think of where it is.  It seems likely there's at least one barber shop across from one bakery somewhere in the city.  There are a lot of barber shops and bakeries that escape people's notice.

Barber shops in Taitung City: They are numberless.

Q: Where's the book store?

A: It's between the bus station and the cafeteria.

This might have been true when the Eslite was still open, and also if you translate "cafeteria" as 自助餐.  Eslite was about halfway between the bus station and a buffet on Bo Ai Road.  The Tong Yi Bookstore was also, for that matter, halfway between the old, secret bus station and another "cafeteria" on Jung Hua Road.

Bookstores in Taitung City: With Eslite now closed, the biggest bookstore is the Tong Yi Bookstore on Junghua Road.  They don't sell English books however.  If you're looking for English books your best bet is probably the Taitung City Library. 

Q: Where's the bus station?

A: It's around the corner from the clinic.

This is true.  There's a Chinese medicine clinic on Shin Sheng Road.  If you turn past there and go all the way down you'll see the bus station.

Bus stations in Taitung City: The big bus station is behind the Showtime Cineplex.  I haven't taken a local bus in ages so I am not a good person to ask about that.

Q: Where's the cafeteria?

A: It's next to the department store.

If you define the Showtime Cineplex as a "department store" there might be a cafeteria of sorts next to it.  In the alley behind Uniqlo there's a vegetarian grocery store, and I believe they used to serve cooked food.  Do they still do so?  I'm not sure.

Cafeterias in Taitung City: There's a good vegetarian one in Beinan Township, on Jong Shing Road, just before you reach the Beinan Ruins Park.  That place is surprisingly popular.

Q: Where's the clinic?

A: It's across from the drug store.

This has got to be true.  There are so many clinics, located near so many drug stores.  I'm thinking near the Pizza Hut there's got to be a clinic across from a drug store.

Clinics in Taitung City: As with the barber shops, they are numberless.

Q: Where's the department store?

A: It's between the hair salon and the health club.

I can't think of any hair salons or health clubs anywhere near the Showtime Cineplex.  The only health club I can think of downtown is that Hideout place.  It's an odd little combination of gym, bar, and restaurant.  A friend of mine said the bar is frightfully expensive.

Department stores in Taitung City: As said above, the Showtime Cineplex is as close as Taitung City comes to having its own department store.  Back in the day we had a San Shang 三商, but that's long gone.

Q: Where's the drug store?

A: It's around the corner from the hotel.

There is a drug store around the corner from the Naruwan Hotel.  Sort of.  I can't think of any drug stores near the Sheraton or the Gaya.  I've been glad to see fewer hotels going up in recent years.  For a while the construction was out of control.

Drug stores in Taitung City: There's probably one around the corner from wherever you are.

Q: Where's the hair salon?

A: It's next to the laundromat.

This has to be true somewhere.  With all the hotels springing up a lot of laundromats were opened up too.  The closest laundromat to my house is on Jong Shing Road, about halfway to the 85 Coffee Shop on Geng Sheng Road.  The closest hair salon is right around the corner from my apartment building.

Hair salons in Taitung City: Too many to count.

Q: Where's the health club?

A: It's across from the school.

Can't think of any health clubs across from any schools.  I believe Taitung City's biggest health club is on Geng Sheng Road, on the way to the train station.  Am I cynical, or is the ultimate goal of any health club to get laid?  I differentiate here between gyms and health clubs.  I could see people going to (smaller) gyms without sexual intentions, but I'm not sure why anyone would bother with one of those health clubs if they weren't looking for a boyfriend or girlfriend.

Health clubs in Taitung City: For a weirder alternative you could go to the second floor gym near the intersection of Sse Wei Road and Chuan Guang Road.

Q: Where's the hotel?

A: It's between the train station and the video store.

Zooming WAY out on the map, the Bali Hotel at the intersection of Geng Sheng and Chuan Guang Roads was once between the train station and the Eastern King video store.  But of course the Eastern King is history now.

Hotels in Taitung City: The most famous is probably still the Naruwan Hotel, which has several buildings around the city.  After that are probably the Sheraton and the Gaya, both downtown.  There are hundreds of places to stay in Taitung City.  It's a big business.

Q: Where's the laundromat?

A: It's around the corner from the bakery.

Again, this has to be true somewhere.  And if we were to put it to a vote, what would the best bakery in Taitung City be?  Donutes?  Obama?  Apollo?  I have a couple foreign friends who enjoy Donutes, Obama is the most expensive, and Apollo's moon cakes are very popular.

Laundromats in Taitung City: There are laundromats everywhere.  I usually go to the laundromat behind the police station near Carrefour.  It can be an interesting place to watch people.

Q: Where's the train station?

A: It's next to the barber shop.

Not true.  There's not much out by the Taitung Train Station, though the area has "improved" in recent years.  There are a lot more houses/homestays in that area, a 7-11 and a Family Mart, and even a couple restaurants.  At the time of writing the roads around the train station are being resurfaced, and driving into that place is not fun.

Train stations in Taitung City: The Taitung Train Station is northwest of downtown.  The Kangle Train Station is also inside the city, and a convenient place if you're headed to the Prehistory Museum.  I believe the Jerben Train Station is technically in the city limits, but that would only be convenient if you're headed to the hot springs.

Q: Where's the video store?

A: It's across from the book store.

No, it never was.  The Blockbuster's old location is now the home of the Taitung Farmer's Association, a stationary store, and Lai Lai Steakhouse.  Across from that location is McDonald's, Net, the Farmer's Association supermarket and Poya.  Where the Eastern King used to be there's a Korean restaurant.  Across from that there's a ginger duck restaurant.

Video stores in Taitung City: Nope.

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2020年5月14日 星期四

臺灣開發故事 (南部地區) Stories of the Opening of Taiwan (Southern Area) 2

The Chinese text below was taken from "Stories of the Opening of Taiwan (Southern Area) 臺灣開發故事 - 南部地區.  The Chinese text was written by 趙莒玲.  The English was written/translated by me.  There will probably be four of these entries, all related to Pingtung County.  The Southern Area book also covers Jiayi, Tainan and Kaohsiung.

The Paiwan Tribe's Many Unusual Customs

牡丹社事件的主角之一, 就是排灣族.  因為該事件中, 排灣族強焊的民風, 使一般人對該族有 "蠻橫不講理" 的刻板印象: 但若經過深入了解, 將會發現, 排灣族其實是一支很懂禮數的族群, 它是九族中最講究階級的一族, 而且在日常生活的進退, 亦相當有禮數. The Paiwan Tribe were the primary actors in the Mudan Incident.  Because of this incident, and also because of the close-knit nature of Paiwan society, people get the impression that they are "arrogant" or "unreasonable."  After learning more about them, however, one discovers that the Paiwan Tribe is a very ceremonious group of people, and also one of the most status-conscious of Taiwan's nine tribes.  They are, moreover, quite well-mannered in their daily lives.(1)

時至今日, 該族依舊維持著貴族沿襲制度, 大頭目和大頭目家族結為親家後, 其後代子孫便為大頭目的繼承人: 大頭目和平民結婚時, 其所生的孩子則降格為中頭目. To this day the tribe maintains a rigid hierarchy, with the high chief, his wife, and their close relatives handing down authority from one generation to the next.  If a member of the chief's family marries outside the tribe, their children's status is reduced to that of "middle chief."

以婚姻大事來說, 該族非常講究 "門當戶對", 因而 "親上加親" 的情形比比階是.  如排灣族聚居地之一的泰武鄉平和村, 便有好幾樁兄弟娶姊妹的婚姻, 因而都是好幾代的親戚. As far as marriage is concerned, this tribe is very focused on "keeping things in the family," so having intra-familiar romantic relationships is more common.  One example of this is Ping He Village, in Tai Wu Township.  [In this place] several pairs of brothers and sisters have married one another, to the point where intra-familiar relationships are very complex.

[NOTE 1: I asked a Paiwan friend about this.  She said: 沒有了耶.  隨著時代越來越先進, 知道近親結婚會生出不正常的後代, 所以現在已經很少了, 幾乎沒有. ("No.  With the passage of time we know that marriages between closely related people result in abnormalities within the following generation.  For this reason this practice is now infrequent.  Almost no one does it.")  She's from a village in Jinfeng 金峰 in Taitung County, but I can only assume it's the same in the village mentioned above.  Also keep in mind the fact that Paiwan communities are now - for the most part - Christian communities, and Christianity has a thing or two to say about inbreeding.]

在男女交往方面, 排灣族亦十分注重分寸.  從年輕人談戀愛開始, 父母親都會 "坐陪" (陪伴之意), 情侶不能完全單獨相處, 直到結婚入洞房, 抱孫心切的父母親及近親, 還會在洞房外的客廳 "陪睡" 呢! With respect to male-female relations, the Paiwan Tribe pays close attention to degrees of physical maturity.  When young people begin their courtships, the parents will "sit alongside" (accompany) [the couple], and they are not allowed to spend time together alone until they've entered the bridal chamber.  Even then the parents and extended family members will "sleep alongside" the couple outside the chamber during their wedding night.

由於在結婚前, 排灣族的青年都准許同時結交好幾位異性朋友, 但是在結婚前夕, 有一項不成文的習俗, 即新郎倌必須買襯衫或手帕, 贈送給每位交往過的女孩子, 以表示 "分別" 和給一個 "交代" 的意思, 免得日後見面尷尬. Before marriage, Paiwan youths are allowed to make many friends of both sexes.  But on the eve of marriage it is customary for the groom to give a shirt or handkerchief to girls he's had sexual relationships with.  This expresses his separation from them and serves as a confession of their previous relations.  This is done to prevent embarrassment later on.

最有趣的畫面是, 在婚禮進行跳團體舞時, 新郎還可與曾經交往過的女友相擁而泣, 一副依依不捨的樣子.  不明就裡的人, 看到這種悲悽的情景, 可能會誤以為這是樁 "心不甘, 情不願" 的婚姻. The most interesting thing is the tribal dances during the wedding.  During this time the groom can still hug and cry with his old girlfriends, thus expressing his reluctance to part from them.  For those unfamiliar with this custom, the forlorn aspect of it can lead one to the conclusion that these ceremonies are conducted against the bride and groom's wishes.

[NOTE 2: Paiwan friend: 關於交往方面的解釋現在大部分都沒有了. "As far as the explanation of relationships is concerned, most of these customs have disappeared.]

排灣族婚禮不講究挑日子, 只要是假日或族人較多的時候, 便是 "好日子".  此觀念在同族通婚時沒有問題, 但若與漢人結婚時便有點麻煩.  該族耆老舉例, 曾有一件排灣族女孩嫁漢人的婚姻, 女方挑的日子剛好是農曆七月, 為避開 "鬼月", 雙方討論好久才定案. The date on which a Paiwan wedding occurs is not important.  It only needs to be a holiday or a time when more members of the tribe are present.  This time is considered "a good day."  This attitude is not a problem when two members of the Paiwan Tribe marry, but it can create difficulties when a Paiwan person is marrying a Chinese person.  Within the tribe there is a well-known anecdote in which a Paiwan woman marries a Chinese man.  The woman's side of the family selects a day falling on the seventh month of the lunar calendar - ghost month - for the wedding.  The bride and groom's family discuss this matter for a long time before reaching an agreement on the date.

當然, 排灣族也有些風俗與漢文化相類似, 像男子當兵前夕, 常會以戒指或衣裳送給女友作為訂情之物. Of course the Paiwan Tribe has many of the same customs as Chinese people.  For example, when a man is about to begin his military service he'll give his girlfriend a ring or an item of clothing for a keepsake.

[NOTE 3: Paiwan friend: 當兵前送東西的習慣台東這邊也沒有. "The custom of giving a gift before entering military service does not apply to Taitung."]

結婚儀式部分, 排灣族也漢化不少, 但保留該族的重要文化 -- 語言, 如信仰基督教的平和村民, 現在雖大多在教堂舉行婚禮, 新人也穿著白紗和西裝.  唯一不同處是, 婚禮進行中, 不論是唱聖詩, 祈禱, 講聖訓, 甚至新人的誓約, 都以排灣語進行, 以示不忘本. And as regards the marriage ceremony, the Paiwan are also not that different.  The only difference being that that the tribe preserves its most important cultural trait - its language.  The peaceful villagers are now Christians, and most weddings are held inside churches.  The groom wears a white cotton shirt with a Western suit, even though the wedding ceremony involves the participants singing hymns, praying, conducting sermons and exchanging vows in the Paiwan language.  This is to show that they haven't forgotten their tribal origins.

近年來, 為保留排灣族的文化, 該族有心人士不但傳承母語, 並在山地鄉的國中開課教授排灣族的雕刻和刺繡.  以這種方式扎根, 希望排灣族子弟能真正認識自己的文化. In recent years the members of the tribe haven't only tried to preserve their language, but they also learn wood sculpture and embroidery from experts in the mountain township middle schools.  Through this type of activity it is hoped they can preserve and understand their own culture better.

[NOTE 4: Paiwan friend: 排灣族有分東排灣, 南排灣及北排灣.  這三個群族在些文化食物甚至語言上會有些差別. 就比如貴族制度, 其實貴族跟平民在衣服上有很多的限制, 但現在排灣族在穿著上已經沒有所謂的貴族和平民差別了, 大家都只覺得好看就好. "The Paiwan Tribe is split into the East Paiwan, South Paiwan and North Paiwan.  These three groups exhibit cultural differences with regard to food and language.  Although the chief's family is more restricted than others in terms of what they can wear, these days there is no difference between how Paiwan people and other types of people dress.  Everybody wears what looks good to them."]

[NOTE 5: Someone in the comments below would add a Central Paiwan 中排灣 to the list of Paiwan tribal groups.]

魯凱族的世外桃源 -- 霧臺鄉
The Rukai Tribe's Paradise: Wutai Township

數百年前, 因為台東卑南族和阿美族反目成仇, 從台東知本翻過大武山到達霧臺鄉的魯凱族, 是屏東唯一的魯凱族聚落. Hundreds of years ago in Taitung, the Beinan Tribe and the Amis Tribe turned against one another.  As a result the Rukai Tribe, then living in Jer Ben, migrated to the other side of Da Wu Mountain and settled in Wutai Township.  They thus became the only Rukai settlement in Pingtung.(2)

魯凱族的傳統習俗有許多與排灣族很相近, 所以一般人大多將這兩族視為同一族.  事實上, 這兩族還是有些差別, 尤其魯凱族比排灣族更保守, 且注重進退禮節. Many of the Rukai people's customs are similar to those of the Paiwan, so many people group these two tribes together.  There are, however, some differences between these two tribes, especially given that the Rukai are a more conservative sort of people who stand on ceremony.

舉例來說, 進入很愛乾淨的魯凱族原住民的住宅前, 務必記得脫鞋, 否則會遭到鄙夷的眼光.  最沒面子的是, 女主人會拿著拖把, 一直盯著你的腳步後面擦地, 直到客人難為情為止. For example, before entering a Rukai person's tidy traditional house, you should remember to take off your shoes if you don't want to be the object of scorn.  More shameful still, if you don't remove your shoes the lady of the house will take out a broom, and begin sweeping your path through the room until you realize your mistake.

此外, 魯凱族人的打扮與穿著亦須得體, 不然會遭到異樣的眼光.  像結過婚的婦人, 絕對不敢穿少女時代光鮮亮麗的傳統服飾, 參加族裡的典禮或活動. In addition, Rukai people must pay close attention to how they dress if they don't want to be looked down upon by other members of the tribe.  Married women, for example, are forbidden from wearing the brightly colored clothes they wore when they were maidens to tribal events or ceremonies.

雖然現在的魯凱族人平日都穿現代裝, 但參加族裡的重要聚會, 必定以傳統盛裝出席, 以表示對主人的尊重; 且如果要帶朋友列席, 也要為朋友更換族裡的服飾, 才准加入慶典行列, 否則將招致族人的抗議. Although Rukai people now wear modern clothes most of the time, when taking part in important gatherings they must wear traditional costume as a way of showing respect to their hosts.  If friends are brought to these gatherings, they too must change into traditional Rukai clothes before the celebration.  Otherwise they will incite protests from within the tribe.

魯凱族非常注重傳統服飾的縫製.  據估計, 如果要仔細打理一頂頭飾, 不論男女, 至少得花新台幣一萬元以上, 因為成本 "貴", 所以也很 "重", 掂掂至少好幾公斤, 這或許也是該族的舞蹈無法熱情擺動, 而為簡單前進後退的八步舞的原因. The Rukai people attach great importance to how traditional clothing is sewed.  It's estimated that if you want a traditional headdress made - regardless of whether you're a man or a woman - the cost will be over 10,000 NT.  And because the headdress is "honorable," it is also "heavy."  This weighty headdress, amounting to several kilograms, is probably the reason the Rukai dance in such a subdued manner, engaging in a simple back and forth dance that has eight steps.

魯凱族的頭飾除了 "重", 繁複耀眼的頭飾中還大有 "文章" 呢!  例如插百合花的少女象徵純潔, 不是處女的未婚女子也不敢戴, 免得被族人嘲笑; 男性插百合花代表勇士, 必須獵得六頭以上公山豬的人, 才有資格佩帶. Aside from being heavy, each headdress worn by the Rukai tells a story.  For example, when a girl inserts a lily into her headdress it emphasizes her purity, and unmarried women who are not virgins would never dare to wear such a flower.  Were they to do so they would be laughed at by the tribe.  A man who inserts a lily into his headdress declares his status as a brave, and also the fact that he has hunted at least six wild boars. 

至於插羽毛則為榮譽的標誌, 必得為族裡光耀門楣的人, 或參加族中競賽且有得名次的人, 才能以羽毛展示功績. Feathers worn in one's headdress are a sign of honor.  Only those who've gained esteem within the tribe or ranked in tribal competitions are allowed to wear a feather.

少女的上衣和裙子點綴物也是琳琅滿目, 零零碎碎加起來, 最保守的估算也要新臺幣一, 兩萬, 自此看出該族在傳統服裝投資相當可觀.  不過這些衣物許多是代代相傳的老骨蕫, 至今還有許多少女漂亮的傳統衣服, 是母親當新嫁娘時的禮服.Girls' tops and skirts are also dazzling, constructed as they are of many separate pieces.  A lower estimate for the price of these clothing items would be from ten to twenty thousand NT.  From this price one can see that the tribe's investment in traditional clothing is considerable.  Even so, most of these clothing items are family heirlooms, and thus passed down from one generation to the next.  The beautiful traditional clothes that many young women wear are the same clothes their mothers were married in.

魯凱族也很重視女孩的名節, 如果隨便和男人打情罵俏, 馬上會被扣上 "壞女人" 的形象, 因而女孩子言行都十分謹慎. The Rukai people also place a great importance on a girl's reputation.  If a girl plays fast and loose with men, she'll be immediately labelled a "bad woman."  For this reason girls are very circumspect in their words and deeds. 

舉例說: 平常族人除非遭遇危險, 發出求救訊號, 否則不准在山林裡大聲吼叫; 但如果女孩子被男孩子 "吃豆腐", 包括僅口頭上的占便宜, 女孩子為保自己的名節, 都可以喊 "救命", 且這種事, 族裡還會特別召開會議處理, 並要求男方公開道歉. Another example of this emphasis on circumspection is that members of the tribe should not cry out in the mountain forests unless they've encountered danger.  If, however, a young woman fears either rape or damage to her reputation from a young man, she is allowed to cry out "Save me!"  The tribe will then convene a special meeting to deal with this issue.  It will also ask the young man to apologize.

結交男女朋友的過程中, 魯凱族也堅守 "一對一" 和 "先來後到" 的遊戲規則.  最早大夥兒一塊兒玩, 但各自選定成為固定情侶後, 別人便不能亂插隊, 除非第一個分手, 第二順位的人才可遞補. In the matter of courtship the Rukai Tribe also adheres to "one on one" and "first come, first served" rules.  Boys and girls begin by playing together, and are later considered fixed couples.  Interlopers cannot come between them unless they first decide to separate.  After their separation, another suitor can take up the previous suitor's claim.

魯凱族的人情味非常濃厚, 任何一家有婚喪喜慶, 全村的人都會主動去幫忙. The Rukai people are very humane people.  The entire village helps with weddings, funerals and celebrations.

該族辦喪事的作法十分 "人性化".  在日據時期以前, 為與親人永遠在一起, 都是將死去親人的屍體埋在屋內, 擺放的位置也有規矩, 男的埋在客廳地下, 女的則埋在臥室地下.  後來日本人認為不衛生而嚴加禁止, 才抬到外面去埋葬.  但為了表示誠心幫忙, 族中年輕人都會搶著抬棺, 即使是使不上力也會刻意去觸摸. The funeral practices of this group are very "people-centric."  Before the Japanese Colonial Administration, the bodies of family members were interred within the confines of the house, so that family members could reside together continually.  There were rules for such burials: men were buried beneath the living room, women beneath bedrooms.  The Japanese, who arrived later, considered the practice unhygienic and forbade it, encouraging the practice of burying loved ones outside the house.  Yet to show their concern for the deceased, younger people will still rush to lift the coffin, and even if it's nor really helping they will struggle to touch it.

除主動弔唁喪家外, 村裡人還會輪流陪喪家守靈.  葬禮後, 為疏導喪家悲傷心情, 左鄰右舍還會常去 "陪宿", 並準備飯菜請喪家用餐. Aside from offering condolences to the bereaved, the villagers will take turns watching over the deceased's spirit.  After the funeral, in order to assuage the bereaved family members' feeling of loss, everyone will "keep vigil" with them and prepare their food. 

戴孝的方式也很特別, 如果是父母, 配偶或親生子女過世, 須以黑紗披頭, 為期一個月: 若是旁系親屬去世, 也要戴孝, 不過是披如深藍色等深色頭布. Funeral clothes are also unique.  If one's parent or children die, this person must wear black gauze for a month.  If more distant relatives die, black gauze must also be worn, but with a dark blue cloth around the head.

和漢人傳統習俗一樣, 魯凱族也相當重男輕女, 家業必定傳子不傳女, 而且長子一定得留在家鄉.  如果因職業關係無法留在家裡, 其子女必須送回老家讓父母親扶養; 倘若家中全為女兒無兒子, 則為長女招贅以繼承產業. Like the Han Chinese, the Rukai are a very patriarchal society.  Family trades are passed from father to son, not from father to daughter.  The eldest son is expected to remain in his village.  If, for professional reasons, this son cannot remain in the village, his children must be sent back to the village to take care of their grandparents.  If the family has only daughters, the oldest daughter inherits the family trade.

目前魯凱族最困擾的是, 不能使用原住民的名字.  漢名對原住民而言, 僅具代表意義, 根本無法讓人追溯家世, 因為魯凱族命名方式是採代代相傳, 因此只要聽到名字, 便可知曉出自哪個家族. In older times the difficulty for Rukai people was the fact that they couldn't use their aboriginal names.  As far as Chinese names for aboriginal people are concerned, these names are useless in terms of tracing their genealogy.  This is because Rukai names are passed from one generation to the next, and when you hear a Rukai name you'll be able to tell which family that person belongs to.

為新生兒取名字, 對於較為特殊的情形, 魯凱族人也和漢人一般, 取些不吉利的名字以去晦氣, 如經常流產的婦女所生的子女, 在幼年時期都被命名為nizu (可隨便丟棄的果皮) 或kalasubrla (米糠) 等乳名, 以免被惡魔嫉妒奪去性命, 直到成年後才開始叫其真正的名字. When giving names to newborns, the Rukai are like some Han Chinese in giving uncouth-sounding names as a way of avoiding bad luck.  For instance, girls born to women who often miscarry are named "nizu" (meaning a fruit peel which is easily discarded), "kalasubria" (rice husk) or other similar baby names.  This is done to protect them from evil spells which incorporate their true name.  It isn't until they've become adults that these children are called by their real names.

族裡還有一個很特殊的命名作法, 即對族人有重大貢獻的人, 他的新生兒將由頭目和長老等人 "封名", 通常都會賜予如 "虎頭蜂" 等, 象徵孔武有力的名字. There is another special naming practice in the tribe.  If someone has made a special contribution to the community, his [or her?] child will be given a special title by the tribal elders.  This child will be named "Wasp" or some other fierce-sounding name.

雖然遠離塵囂的霧臺鄉, 至今在風俗習慣, 語言等方面, 還保留得相當完整, 仍不免因與其他族群通婚, 而有所改變, 其中以建築最為顯著.  像原本可就地取材興建的傳統石板屋, 因受漢化影響, 大部分均改為鋼筋水泥房舍, 遠望霧臺鄉, 已見不到傳統魯凱村落的風貌了. Even though Wutai Township is far from the hustle and bustle of other places, and even though the [Rukai Tribe's] customs and language have been preserved in their entirety, they've still experienced change due to intermarriage with other groups.  One example of this trend is the Chinese-style, reinforced concrete houses they now inhabit.  These have replaced the traditional slate houses they once called home.  Looking at Wutai Township from a distance, one no longer sees the traditional Rukai way of living.

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"Jinfeng" to Jinluen "金峰" 到金崙

1. If you're interested in learning about Taiwan's aboriginal tribes, the Taiwan Aboriginal Culture Park 九族文化園區 in Nantou 南投 and the National Museum of Prehistory 國立史前博物館 in Taitung 台東 are worth visiting.  I'd rank the other Taiwan Aboriginal Culture Park 台灣原住民文化園區 a distant third behind the other two.

2. I don't know anyone in the Rukai Tribe.  Otherwise I would have asked them about this article.

Jinluen River to Jia Jin Lin Village 金崙溪到加津林部落

The Jinluen River is just south of Jinluen Village, in Taimali Township.  From the 7-11 a narrow road leads across a bridge, and on the other side of this bridge the road leads back to Highway 9. 金崙溪位於太麻里金崙村的南部.  經過7-11的那條路會帶你來到一座橋, 這座橋會再帶你回到台9線.

This is where the river meets the Pacific Ocean. 這是金崙溪太平洋的出海口.

From the Jinluen River we drove south to Duoliang  When I first moved to Taitung this place wasn't famous, but in recent years it's become a major tourist destination.  The picture above was taken in their concession area. 我們從金崙溪往南到 "台灣最美麗的車站-多良".  我剛搬到台東的時候, 多良不是有名的景點, 可是這幾年到那裏觀光的觀光客越來越多.  上面的照片是在那邊的美食區拍的.

This is the view from halfway up the hill.  Is it the most beautiful view in Taiwan?  Not even close.  It's ok if the weather isn't too hot, but be warned that there's very little shade to be found in Duoliang. 這是半山腰的風景.  台灣最美的風景嗎?  好像不是.  如果不是那麼熱的話, 風景還是很不錯, 可是多良只有少數的樹蔭可躲太陽.

The local church has installed these "stations of the cross" markers all the way up the hill.  For me these were the most interesting part of the place. 村裡的教會把這些 "苦路" 的指標裝設在上坡的路上.  我覺得這個部分最有趣.

Further south is the village of Da Shi/Loong Shi.  It's a very sleepy village, but it does have its own train station.  Another road leads from there into the mountains. 多良以南有大溪 (瀧溪) 村.  這個寂靜的鄉村也有火車站,  也有路通往山區.

Behind Da Shi the landscape widens out, and it's much more beautiful.  This picture was taken along the road that leads to Tai Ban and Tu Ban villages. 大溪後面的景觀變得很空曠.  這照片是在往台坂土坂的路上拍的.

We didn't go into Tai Ban because I'd been there not long ago.  Instead we drove to Tu Ban, which I hadn't visited before.  Most (all?) of the people in Tu Ban are members of the Paiwan Tribe. 我們沒去台坂, 因為我沒多久前去過.  我們去了我沒去過的土坂土坂大部分 (全部?) 的居民是排灣族民.

The signs outside of town say there's a hot spring here, but according to two of the villagers we talked to it isn't finished yet.  This picture was taken from behind Tu Ban Elementary School. 部落外面有指示牌說這裡有溫泉.  但當地的二個村民說這個溫泉還沒蓋好.  這照片是在土坂國小後面拍的.

This is inside Tu Ban Elementary School.  One of the school's functions is introducing local culture to those outside the village.  It would be a great place for a field trip - IF it wasn't so far from everything. 這在土板國小裡面.  這所國小的發展特色之一是把部落文化介紹給外地人.  在這裡舉辦戶外教學一定很好玩, 問題是土坂很遠.

This is the lower part of the village.  It's super quiet.  While we were there I saw an activity center, a Catholic church, a Protestant church, a restaurant that looked like no one could be bothered to open it, and a single small store.  Most people here probably drive down the road to Da Shi when they need things. 這是部落中比較低的地方.  這裡很安靜.  我們在那裏的時候, 我看到了活動中心, 天主教堂, 基督教堂, 隨興開的餐廳還有小雜貨店.  住這裡的人大概是去大溪買東西.

On the other side of the village there's a suspension bridge.  There's a trail leading along the river from one end of the bridge. 部落另外一邊有座吊橋.  橋的另一邊有步道.

The river below the bridge is very clean and cool.  ...and OF COURSE there are signs telling you not to play in the water.  But are you going to let the government tell you how to live?  Are you?  Are you? 橋下面的小溪很乾淨又涼快.  當然也有 "禁止戲水" 的牌子.  真是要讓政府告訴你該怎麼活嗎?  真是要這樣子嗎?

We found this dead thing on the riverbed.  A Reeve's munjac?  I think so, but I'm not sure. 我們在河床上看到這隻死掉的動物.  是不是山羌?  我不清楚.

Still further south is the village of Jia Jin Lin.  Not the best place to see the ocean, but there are a couple convenience stores nearby selling drinks. 再往南有加津林部落.  這裡的海景不特別, 但還好有兩家便利商店賣飲料.

Like a lot of Da Wu Township, Jia Jin Lin is a place most people pass by.  And while it does take a bit more effort (and a car) to explore this area, it's beautiful if you venture just a little bit off Highway 9. 加津林大武鄉的其他村落一樣, 人們只會經過, 但不會停下來.  探索這個地區不是很方便, 但你只要下台9線, 你就可以找到風景很不錯的地方.

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2020年5月7日 星期四

What's Going in Taitung City and County Townships/Municipalities 台東市,鄉,鎮最近動向 10

This will be the last news entry for a while.  Even in the best (and worst) of times there aren't a lot of things happening in Taitung, and since I'm probably moving to Pingtung next semester I'd rather start fresh with news from that part of the island. 這會是關於新聞的最後一篇.  通常台東沒有什麼事發生, 我下學期也應該會搬到屏東, 所以下學期會從屏東新聞開始.

For those less familiar with Taiwan, the "big" cities are divided into districts (區), and the counties are divided into cities (市), townships (鄉), and municipalities (鎮).  給對台灣比較不熟悉的讀者: 大城市 (高雄, 台南, 台中, 新竹, 桃園, 基隆, 嘉義, 台北, 跟新北市) 以下劃分為"區", 縣 (城市外的地方)則由市, 鄉, 鎮組成.

1. Da Ren Township 達仁鄉公所

There's a trail leading into a nature reserve between Nan Tian Village in Taitung County and Shu Hai Village in Pingtung County.  There is a limit to how many hikers can walk this trail each day, and Taitung County is hoping to raise the limit by 80 people. 台東南田部落和屏東旭海中間有一條進入自然保留區的步道.  台東縣希望把每日的使用人數提高到80人.

They've added three new speed cameras along the South Cross-Island Highway.  Two of these cameras are in the tunnel between the counties, one other is near Da Niao (Big Bird) Village. 警方在南迴公路上安裝三個測速照相桿.  兩個在連接台東縣與屏東縣的隧道裡, 還有一個在大鳥附近.

A man in in Da Ren was interviewed about growing quinoa there.  According to him the water supply in that area is a problem. 達仁鄉的 "紅藜先生" 為了水源煩惱.

2. Da Wu Township 大武鄉公所

New Tang Dynasty television has a video/article introducing Dawu Village.  It's somewhat interesting.  Be warned that aside from the trail on the hill behind the village there's not much there. 新唐人電視台有短片介紹大武村.  有興趣可以看.  除了村後面的步道, 大武村的景點不多.

An article in Chinese AND English!  This one's about the old Gu Jhuang Train Station being reopened as a tourist destination.  Duo Liang further north sees a lot of visitors so this makes sense. 這篇報導是中文, 還有英文翻譯喔.  這是關於重開古莊站當觀光景點.  參觀北邊多良站的觀光客非常多, 所以這是一個好主意. 

Construction crews recently dumped some of their equipment in front of a sculpture that the Taitung County Government paid WAY too much money for.  Most people probably didn't even notice. 最近南迴有工程單位施工, 把很多東西丟在很貴的藝術品旁邊.  大部分的人大概沒有注意到.

The temperature recently got as high as 37.1 in Da Wu, but it wasn't bothering the kids there all that much. 最近大武的高溫到達35.3度, 可是那邊的學童早就習慣炎熱的天氣了.*

3. Jin Feng Township 金峰鄉公所

The daylily flowers are blooming on Jinjen Mountain金針山的金針花開花了.

4. Tai Ma Li Township 太麻里鄉公所

No recent news out of Tai Ma Li.  最近太麻里沒有消息.

5. Orchid Island Township 蘭嶼鄉公所

Last Friday was Labor Day in Taiwan.  During the three-day weekend about 2000 people visited Green and Orchid Islands. 上週五是臺灣的勞動節.  兩千遊客去綠島蘭嶼.

Several homestays on Orchid Island were recently made legal.  All of the land there belongs to the local tribe, and this presented legal problems for such businesses. 蘭嶼11家民宿合法立案.  因為蘭嶼都是原住民用地, 很多民宿沒辦法取得建照跟使用執照.

6. Green Island Township 綠島鄉公所

No recent news out of Green Island. 最近綠島沒有消息.

7. Taitung City 台東市公所

A monkey recently wandered into Bao Sang Elementary School.  Conservation workers brought it down with a tranquilizer dart and took it away. 寶桑國小有猴子出現.  保育員吹箭之後帶走了.

Work continues on the new road along the Tai Ping River between Taitung City and Beinan Township.  在太平溪旁邊, 台東市與卑南鄉間的道路還在施工.

A homestay along Jeng Chi Road was recently defaced.  Police are investigating this act of vandalism. 最近正氣路上的一棟民宿受到破壞.  警方目前正在偵辦中.

8. Beinan Township 卑南鄉公所

Beinan Junior High School recently won a baseball championship卑南國中在全國青少棒賽奪冠.

There's a new aboriginal-themed post office in Beinan. 卑南的 "原住民風" 郵局落成營業.

9. Dong He Township 東河鄉公所

A junior high school student almost drowned after playing with friends in the ocean.  四個國中生去海邊戲水, 一個溺水獲救命危.

10. Cheng Gong Municipality 成功鎮公所

The ashes stored in a Cheng Gong cemetery tower were disturbed by a recent earthquake. 最近的地震將成功公墓塔的部分骨灰甕震落摔破.

An aluminum shack in Cheng Gong caught fire.  The cause of the fire is still under investigation. 成功鐵皮屋發生火警, 原因待查.

The Taitung version of "The Old Man and the Sea."  A fisherman in Cheng Gong caught a prize tuna, only to have it devoured by dolphins. 台東版的老人與海, 成功漁民捕獲了黑鮪魚, 最後卻發現被海豚吃到只剩下頭.

11. Chang Bin Township 長濱鄉公所

No recent news out of Chang Bin. 最近長濱沒有消息.

12. Lu Ye Township 鹿野鄉公所

This is how little news there is in Taitung.  There's an actual news article about people seeing clouds in Lu Ye. 台東真是沒有消息.  有報導介紹鹿野天空的雲.

The Taiwan International Hot Air Balloon Festival will start on July 11 this year. 台灣國際熱氣球嘉年華今年七月十一日開幕. 

A Hakka group in Lu Ye recently convened a workshop on Japanese-era census information.  This workshop helped improve local knowledge of family histories. 鹿野的客家團體最近舉辦了日治時期戶口名簿工坊, 讓當地人更了解自己的家族系譜.

13. Yan Ping Township 延平鄉公所

No recent news out of Yan Ping. 最近延平沒有消息.

14. Guanshan Municipality 關山鎮公所

No recent news out of Guanshan. 最近關山沒有消息.

15. Hai Duan Township 海端鄉公所

No recent news out of Hai Duan. 最近海端沒有消息.

16. Chr Shang Township 池上鄉公所

Despite a virus-related downturn in rice exports, one brand of rice in Chr Shang is still seeing a surge in demand. 台東農產外銷受到武漢肺炎疫情影響, 可是池上米品牌卻是逆勢成長.

On June 21 Chr Shang will be a good place to view an eclipse.  There will be eclipse-related events around Da Po Lake on that day. 六月二十一日可以去池上看 "日環食".  那一天大坡池會舉辦相關的活動.

Related Entries 相關的文章:

*There were several different reports on how hot it got in Da Wu recently.  All of these reports stated slightly different temperatures.  Most of them stated that it was hotter than 37 degrees.

2020年5月1日 星期五

From a Friend

The following was written by Brendan Bates and posted on Facebook.  I'm posting it here because I agree with him.

I’d like to post an update about my current situation in Taiwan regarding the coronavirus as many of my friends and family on the outside are perhaps unaware of it. I think they might find this interesting, especially as Taiwan is not often in the global spotlight and many of us here believe there are clear and present forces at work to keep our story silent and hidden from the rest of the world.

I have been critical of friends who have flaunted success stories coming from this island because I’m skeptical of prematurely claiming victory over something as unpredictable and insuppressible as a global pandemic. But now that enough time has passed, I feel more confident in stating the obvious and openly joining friends of Taiwan in their optimism. Simply put, Taiwan has been kicking some serious coronavirus ass!

While America's economy has been plummeting, I have not experienced any economic or social disruptions since the onset of this pandemic. Not a single business, restaurant, or public place I frequent has closed its doors to me. Not a single class has been canceled at my school. Not one. In fact, I have even experienced several benefits from this situation. I’ve filled up my gas tank a few times recently and been pleasantly surprised at how low the price has dropped (yes, we can drive here!). Some of the places I visit have been less crowded due to there being fewer tourists and travelers. Also, although I am missing out on watching my Dodger games, baseball is alive and well in Taiwan. We are currently hosting the one and only active professional baseball league in the entire world at this time. And they have cheerleaders, too!

Specifically in Taitung, life is good. As of now, Taitung County has reported a grand total of ZERO coronavirus cases, and there are currently ZERO people undergoing quarantine here as well. Everything has remained open. We can go to the beaches and mountains unabatedly, and we can even go out to bars and enjoy live music here. Some friends claim Taitung is one of the safest places on Earth right now. I have to agree, they are probably right.

Don't get me wrong, some major changes have taken place here in Taiwan. An astounding number of flights have been canceled. The airline and tourism industries are definitely suffering. Arrivals are being quarantined and visas are being compulsorily extended - a real bureaucratic nightmare. Those who’ve been infected or exposed to the covid have undergone strict quarantine, including a few people I know. Some public transportation schedules have been altered. And various mass gatherings have been postponed. But again, very little (if any) of this has affected me directly. The most notable change I’ve experienced is being encouraged to wear a surgical mask and have my temperature checked and hands sanitized when entering public areas. But after having lived here for over 5 years, all that is really no big deal to me. In truth, the biggest headache I’ve had to endure is witnessing what’s been going on in the media - it’s taxing and exhausting. Even the memes just don't seem so funny anymore.

That being said, to this day, Taiwan - an island of over 23 million people - has recorded fewer than 500 cases of coronavirus. The vast majority of those cases have been imported through ports of entry (mainly the airport) and effectively been quarantined and cut off from the surrounding community. A mere 6 deaths have been credited to COVID-19. If you can fathom the close proximity of relations between Taiwan and China, let alone the rest of the world, these results are undeniably outstanding.

So, what do people here attribute this success to? As I understand it: a functional public health care system and a benevolent government that is swift, efficient, and transparent about issues regarding public health and safety. Also, Taiwan’s Central Epidemic Command Center has become more prepared for pandemic counteraction than most other countries due to previous experiences with health scares, most notably the SARS epidemic a few years back. Needless to say, most folks here keep the government in good faith and are feeling relatively safe right now, much more so than in other parts of the globe.

Now, why does it seem that most of the world is oblivious to Taiwan’s ongoing success with the coronavirus? And why aren’t other governments and media outlets promoting Taiwan's exemplary handling of this pandemic or even asking for their advice? In a word, politics. More specifically, politics regarding China. It's undeniable that the Chinese Communist Party has a large influence in global affairs. And they do NOT want the world to know that Taiwan is, indeed, independent from them in so many ways. Giving any acknowledgment whatsoever to any achievement by Taiwan is contradictory to their agenda. And it's for that reason that the World Health Organization has continually ignored warnings and advice coming from Taiwan – information that could have potentially been critically helpful to many other countries, including the United States where so many of my family and friends are currently suffering from restrictions, lock-downs, economic losses, and even illness and death from the virus itself.

The way I see it, most people here are quite unsatisfied with the WHO's handling of this pandemic and the lack of recognition Taiwan is receiving. Despite their frustration, Taiwan is still sending out massive shipments of surgical masks and medical supplies to countries in need, including the USA. Check out the hashtag #TaiwanCanHelp if you'd like to see for yourself.

As for me, I'm pretty sure many of my friends and family have questioned my decision to move to Taiwan when I did all those years ago. To tell the truth, I've questioned myself countless times for making that decision, trust me. But lately I have been feeling very grateful for being here where I am now, and our situation regarding the coronavirus has increasingly helped to validate that decision. Furthermore, an ongoing theme I continue to encounter during my time here is the wonderful privilege of living in a society that provides affordable health care for its people. It's not perfect, and I wouldn't dare say it could be identically implemented in the States. But seriously, how can the so-called greatest nation on Earth not provide adequate health care for its own citizens? Call me an idealist, but I just don't think I'm ever going to be able to get past that question.

Ultimately, there's no guarantee Taiwan will continue to enjoy the success against the coronavirus we've been experiencing thus far. Things have a way of changing. The world can suddenly find itself turned upside down. So I encourage my friends both in and out of Taiwan to stay vigilant. Keep washing your hands and wearing those masks. I'm optimistic we'll all get through this eventually.

And dang, I sure do wish I could stream a Dodger game right now, or at least listen to a live radio broadcast. But hey, Taiwan’s got baseball. So I guess public health is not the only lesson the world can learn from Taiwan. I'll leave a photo of the cheerleaders in the comments.

Taiwan can help.