2019年6月17日 星期一

Social Studies 社會 3, First Semester 上, Unit 2-3 第二單元到第三單元

The Chinese text below was taken from the textbook published by Kang Shuan 康軒文教事業.  For the first unit of this book click here.




二: 家庭與倫理
Two: Family and Propriety

每個人都有親人, 和親人往來時要有適當的稱呼和問候.  當家庭組成發生變化時, 我們也要學習接納和珍惜.  平時和家人相處要遵守應有的倫理, 才能和家人維持良好的關係.  Everyone has loved ones.  When people are with their loved ones, they use the right titles and greet their loved ones appropriately.  When a family undergoes changes, we must learn to accept and value these changes.  For the most part, we must conform to the principles of our family unit in order to maintain good relationships with our family members.



第1課 Lesson 1: 親人的往來 Family Relationships

親人的稱呼 Family Titles

每個人都有親人, 爸爸的父母, 我們稱為爺爺和奶奶; 爸爸的兄弟, 我們稱為伯伯和叔叔; 爸爸的姊妹, 我們稱為姑姑.  媽媽的父母, 我們稱為外公和外婆; 媽媽的兄弟姊妹, 我們稱為舅舅和阿姨. Everyone has family members.  [Your] father's parents are referred to as "ye ye" and "nai nai."  [Your] father's brothers are referred to as "bo bo" and "shu shu."  [Your] father's sisters are referred to as "goo goo."  [Your] mother's parents are referred to as "wai gong" and "wai po."  [Your] mother's sisters and brothers are referred to as "jiou jiou" and "a yi."

正確稱呼親人, 是應有的禮貌, 可以使彼此相處得更融洽.  To refer to family members by their correct title is an important custom that helps everyone get along better.*

親人的往來 Family Relationships

親人之間的往來, 是我們日常生活中非常重要的一部份.  遇到喜事時, 可以彼此祝福; 碰到問題時, 也可以互相幫忙, 共度難關.  親人之間經常保持聯繫, 相互關心, 也能增進彼此的情感. The relations between family members are the most important part of our lives.  When good things happen, [family members] can celebrate together.  When problems are encountered, [family members] can help each other, and work to overcome difficulties.  Family members should stay in communication, and care about one another.  This can also improve the emotional ties between them. 

適當的稱呼 Correct Forms of Address

平時對鄰居或其他人, 我們也會借用對親人的稱呼來稱呼他們.  這些親切的稱呼和問候, 不但能夠表達對他們的尊敬, 也拉近了彼此的關係.  We often borrow the titles used for family members when greeting neighbors or other people.  These kind greetings and forms of address don't only represent our respect for these people, but also create a sense of togetherness.**




第2課 Lesson 2: 家庭的組成 The Composition of a Family

每一個家庭的組成成員並不完全相同.  例如: 有些人的家庭成員, 只有父母和子女; 有些人的家庭成員, 除了父母女外還包括了祖父母或外祖父母; 還有些人的家庭成員除了父母, 子女, 祖父母或外, 祖父母外, 還有其他親人. The composition of every family is different.  For example: the members of some families consist of only the parents and children; the members of other families consist of not only the parents and children, but also the paternal and maternal grandparents.  The members of other families consist of not only the parents, children, paternal and maternal grandparents, but also other family members.***

影響家庭成員產生變化的原因 Reasons for Changes in a Family

家庭的成員, 會因為出生, 死亡, 結婚, 離婚等因素而使得人數增加或減少, 也使家庭的組成產生變化. The number of family members can change due to births, deaths, marriages and divorces.  This can also bring changes to the family's composition.

當家庭的組成產生變化時, 有些人只能和爸爸或媽媽居住; 有些無法和爸爸, 媽媽住在一起的人, 則與爺爺, 奶奶或其他長輩住在一起.  也有些人因為失去家人, 而有其他家庭收養, 或住進育幼院. When the composition of a family undergoes changes, some people must live with their father or their mother.  Some people cannot live with their father or mother, but must go to live with their grandfather, grandmother, or other extended family members.  Some people who lose family members are raised by another family, or sent to live in an orphanage.

珍惜我們的家庭 Treasuring Our Family

不管我們的家庭成員有哪些人, 或產生哪些變化, 我們都要接納和愛護他們, 並且珍惜大家相處的時光. No matter who the members of our family are, or what changes our family undergoes, we must accept and support our family, and treasure our time together.




第3課 Lesson 3: 家庭倫理 Family Propriety

我們的社會一向重視家庭倫理.  家人相處, 要遵守應有的倫理, 才能維持良好的關係. Our society values family propriety.  When a family is together, [we] must observe certain norms in order to preserve good relationships.

孝道是美德 Filial Piety is a Virtue

在父母和子女的倫理關係中, 強調父母要愛護子女, 子女要孝敬父母.  我們常說: "百善孝為先", 從這句話可以知道, 孝敬父母和長輩, 是我們社會的美德.  到了現代, 我們表現孝道的方式, 也許和以前不同, 但是孝敬父母和長輩的心意卻都是一樣的. In the context of proper modes of behavior between parents and children, the important thing is that parents protect their children, and children respect their parents.  We often say: "Filial piety is the greatest virtue," and from this sentence we understand that deference towards our parents and extended family members is a virtue of our society.  In modern times our way of showing filial piety may differ from that of previous ages, but [the need to act in accordance] with the wishes of parents and extended family members is the same.

友愛兄弟姊妹 Caring for Brothers and Sisters

除了孝敬父母, 長輩外, 兄弟姊妹之間, 也要發揮友愛的精神.  雖然在日常生活中, 我們難免會和兄弟姊妹意見不同, 但是, 我們應該要彼此幫助, 相互照顧, 發揮兄姊愛護弟妹, 弟妹尊敬兄姊的精神. Aside from showing filial piety to parents and extended family, [we] should also care for our brothers and sisters.  Although we often disagree with our brothers and sisters over everyday affairs, we should help and care for each other.  Older brothers and sisters should protect their younger siblings, and younger siblings should respect their older brothers and sisters.

服務社會的行動 Helping the Community

我們還可以把孝敬父母, 尊敬長輩和友愛兄弟姊妹的心意, 再擴大到對其他有需要幫助的人.  這是一種愛心的表現, 更是服務社會的具體行動, 值得大家一起來實踐. We can extend both the filial piety reserved for parents and extended family and the mutual care between siblings to other people who need help.  This is a way of showing our love and improving our community, and it's also a goal that everyone should work toward.




三: 學習與成長
Three: Study and Growing Up

我們到學校的主要目的就是學習, 學校有許多課程和活動, 豐富我們的生活, 我們也要培養良好的學習態度和方法, 讓自己獲得更多知識, 在學習中成長. The goal of school is study.  School has many classes and activities which enrich our lives.  We also need to cultivate good study habits and good attitudes toward study.  This allows us to learn more and grow through study.




第1課 Lesson 1: 學習的方法 The Way to Study

學習的重要 The Importance of Study

學習是我們的權利, 也是我們來學校的主要目的.  在學校, 我們可以獲得許多知識, 培養各種能力, 也可以學習做人做事的道理. It is our right to study, and study is also the school's primary goal.  In school we can acquire a lot of knowledge, develop new skills, and learn how to be a better person.

隨著年級的升高, 學習內容更多, 範圍也更廣.  透過老師的教導, 讓我們增加各種知識和生活能力. As the years progress there is more to study, and a wider range of subjects.  [Our] teachers' instruction allows us to expand every type of knowledge, and improve every kind of practical skill.

良好的學習方法 A Good Way to Study

為了讓學習更有效率, 我們要懂得學習的方法.  無論學習哪些科目, 都要養成課前預習, 課後複習的習慣.  上課要專心聽老師講解, 遇到不明白的地方要勇於發問, 也可以利用下課時間請教同學, 和同學互相討論, 或回家詢問家長, 親友. In order to make study most effective, we need to understand how to study.  No matter the subject studied, [we] should always come to class prepared and review afterward.  During class [we] should pay attention to the teacher's explanations, and when [we] reach a part we don't understand we should be ready to ask questions.  [We] can also use break times to ask classmates, discuss things, or ask friends and family when we're at home.

主動解決學習問題 Being Proactive About Problem Solving

當我們碰到學習問題時, 可以主動利用圖書館, 電腦網路查詢資料, 也可以透過訪問他人, 實地調查或分組合作等方法來解決問題. When we encounter problems while studying we can take advantage of the library, [or use] the internet to look up information.  [We] can also ask other people, investigate things firsthand, or form a group to solve problems.

尊重別人的學習權利 Respecting Others' Right to Study

了解適當的學習方法, 養成良好的學習態度, 有助於我們的學習.  同時, 我們也要尊重別人的學習權利, 上課時遵守課堂秩序, 不影響他人, 讓大家都能擁有良好的學習環境. Understanding the right way to study and developing a good attitude toward study helps us study [better].  At the same time, we should also respect other people's right to study.  When in class we should follow [established] procedures and not bother other people.  This allows everyone to maintain a good environment for study.




學習加油站 "Study Gas Station"****

如何利用圖書館 How to Use the Library

當我們學習時碰到問題, 或需要蒐集資料時, 圖書館是我們的好幫手.  你知道如何快速找到自己需要的書籍嗎?  現在我們將告訴你簡單的步驟, 讓你學會利用圖書館! When we encounter problems while studying, or if we need to look for information, the library is our friend.  Do you know how to quickly find that book you've been searching for?  We'll now tell you how to do this in simple steps, so that you can learn how to use the library!

步驟1: 認識圖書分類 Step 1: Know the Types of Library Books

先找出自己想要查詢的書大概在哪一個類別的架上. First investigate what section [of the library] your book will probably be located in.

步驟2: 搜尋需要的書籍 Step 2: Look for the Books [You] Need

方法一 Method One

如果圖書館規模較小, 可依照分類直接到書架上尋找. If the library is smaller, you can directly go to that section and look.

小幫手: 如果你是想要搜尋某一類的資料, 用這個方法可以看到許多相關的書籍. Little Helper: If you are looking for a specific type of information, use this method to find many books on the same topic.

方法二 Method Two

利用圖書館的電腦查詢, 如果知道書名, 可以直接輸入書名尋找; 如果想查詢相關書籍, 可以多試試不同的關鍵字, 找出相關的資料. Use the library computers to search.  If you know the name of the book, you can enter it directly [into the computer].  If you want to search for books on the same topic, you can try out different search terms and find related information.

步驟3: 取出需要的書籍 Step 3: Check Out the Books [You] Need

找到書籍後, 可以在閱覽區閱讀, 或辦理借書手續帶回家參考. After you've found your book, you can read it in the reading area, or you can check it out and study it at home.

小幫手: 使用圖書館, 要遵守使用規則.  例如: 保持安靜不大聲喧嘩, 遵守借還書規定, 閱讀完的書籍要放在書車上或歸回原位等. Little Helper: When using the library, you need to observe the rules.  For example: maintain silence and don't talk loudly, follow the rules for checking out and returning books, and after you've finished reading a book place it on the trolley, or return it to its original place [on the shelves].




第2課 Lesson 2: 多元的學習 Many Ways of Learning

各種學習活動 Every Type of Academic Activity

在學校中, 除了課堂上的學習活動外, 參加合唱團, 田徑社等社團, 都能讓我們學到不同的知識與技能.  此外, 學校也經常舉辦各種活動, 像運動會, 校外教學等, 內容十分豐富.  透過這些活動, 我們可以學習跟同學, 老師合作和相處的道理. Aside from activities held inside the classroom, joining activities like the school choir or track and field club can help us gain new knowledge and skills.  Aside from this, schools normally host other activities like Sports Day and field trips which are very meaningful.  By joining these kinds of activities we can learn how to get along better with [our] classmates and teachers.

主動爭取學習機會 Taking Advantage of Learning Opportunities

有時候, 我們還可以主動爭取老師和學校的支持, 到校外參觀展覽或邀請文化團體到學校表演等, 讓自己有更多的學習機會. Sometimes we can also find support from our teachers and school to visit exhibitions, or to invite cultural groups to perform in school.  [These types of activities] give us more opportunities for study.

善用課後時間 Using Time Outside Class Wisely

在課後時間, 我們可以閱讀課外讀物, 也可以走出戶外到圖書館, 國家公園, 植物園, 博物館, 古蹟等場所進行參觀或學習. After class we can study materials outside of the curriculum, and go outside [the class] to visit libraries, national parks, botanical gardens, museums, archaeological sites or other places to learn more.

不論是學校安排的課程或是課後自己主動的學習, 透過這些多元豐富的學習活動, 我們可以增加更多的知識, 培養各種能力, 獲得學習的樂趣, 豐富我們的生活. Regardless of whether it's a class assigned by the school, or something you study on your own, taking part in these kinds of worthwhile academic activities increases our knowledge, develops our skills, adds interest to [our]  studies, and makes our lives better.

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*This is only critical if you're part of a Chinese family.  If you have married into a Chinese family, use of these titles makes you look well-mannered and respectful.  Chinese people put a lot of stock into using the right title with the right person, and addressing Chinese people in the right way is extremely helpful in forming relationships with them.  It can also make you money.  It can also get you jobs.  It can open many doors.

This said, I often forget how to address certain in-laws.  If in doubt, you can always whisper a question into a friend's ear.

**Such as calling so-and-so "uncle," or so-and-so "auntie," that kind of thing.

***I wonder if they'll be modifying this section of every third grade social studies textbook now that gay marriage is legal in Taiwan.  I kind of doubt it, but you never know.

****This is kind of a play on words.  加油站 means "gas station," but to say 加油 is to offer encouragement.

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