2019年1月7日 星期一

The Three-Character Poem 三字經 4

The first part of the Three-Character Poem can be found here.  The second part can be found here.  The third part, with an introduction, can be found here.  The Three-Character Poem (or "Three-Character Classic") consists of 1071 characters arranged in three-character sentences.

This entry brings us most of the way through the Three-Character Poem.  The next Three-Character Poem entry will bring us to the end.




三字經 The Three-Character Poem (4)

五子者
The five philosophers
有荀揚
Are Shun and Yang,
文中子
Wen Jong-dze,
及老莊
Lao and Juang. (1)
經子通
Once the Thirteen Classics and other books are understood, (2)
讀諸史
One can begin studying history.
考世系
They must be studied in order
知終始
From beginning to end. (3)
自羲農
From Xi, Nong,
至黃帝
To Huang Di (4)
號三皇
Known as the three kings
居上世
Lived in ancient times.
唐有虞
Tang and You Yu
號二帝
Known as the two kings
相揖遜
Relinquished their power (5)
稱盛世
For the good of the country.
夏有禹
The Xia had Yu,
商有湯
The Shang had Tang,
周文武
The Jhou had Wen and Wu,
稱三王
They are called the Three Kings. (6)
夏傳子
During the Xia kingship was passed from father to son,
家天下
And the country was like one big family.
四百載
In 400 years
遷夏社
The Xia passed away.
湯伐夏
Emperor Tang defeated the Xia,
國號商
The nation became Shang.
六百載
In 600 years
至紂亡
It passed away with Emperor Jhou. (7)
周武王
Emperor Wu of the Jhou,
始誅紂
Killed Emperor Jhou.
八百載
At 800 years
最長久
It was the longest.
周轍東
The Jhou moved east,
王綱墜
The prestige of the emperors diminished.
逞干戈
They grew warlike,
尚游說
And advisers were prevalent. (8)
始春秋
From the Spring and Autumn Period,
終戰國
To the Warring States. (9)
五霸彊
There were five strong lords,
七雄出
And seven states were born.
贏秦氏
Emperor Chin won out, (10)
始兼併
Absorbing smaller states.
傳二世
It lasted two generations,
楚漢爭
Battling Chu and Han.
高祖興
By their revered ancestor
漢業建
The Han Dynasty was established.
至孝平
The line survived until Ping,
王莽篡
Until usurped by Wang Mang.
光武興
Guang Wu established
為東漢
The Eastern Han.
四百年
It lasted 400 years,
終於獻
Until Xian. (11)
蜀魏吳
Shu, Wei and Wu (12)
分漢鼎
Contended over the Han spoils.
號三國
Called the Three Kingdoms,
迄兩晉
Up until the Eastern and Western Jin.
宋齊繼
The Song and Chi rose to power
梁陳承
Succeeded by the Liang and Chen.
為南朝
These southern dynasties
都金陵
Had their capital in Jin Ling.
北元魏
The northern Yuan Wei,
分東西
Was split into east and west.
宇文周
Yu Wen-jhou
與高齊
And Gao Chi. (13)
迨至隋
Up until the Suei
一土宇
Controlled everything.
不再傳
They had no successors,
失統緒
And their nation disappeared.
唐高祖
The revered ancestor of the Tang,
起義師
Restored order.
除隨亂
Ended the disorder left by the Suei,
創國基
Founded a new nation.
二十傳
Twenty generations,
三百載
300 years.
梁滅之
The Liang extinguished them,
國乃改
The name of the country changed.
梁唐晉
The later Liang, the later Tang, and the later Jin, (14)
及漢周
The later Han and Jhou.
稱五代
These are called the five eras,
皆有由
Fell for various reasons.
炎宋興
The Yan Song Emerged, (15)
受周禪
Succeeding the later Jhou.
十八傳
18 generations,
南北混
Disorder to the north and south.
遼與金
The Liao and the Jin,
皆稱帝
Both crowned themselves emperors.
元滅金
The Yuan destroyed the Jin, (16)
絕宋世
Bringing to an end the Song empire.
輿圖廣
The realm was vast,
超前代
Exceeding previous dynasties.
九十年
In 90 years
國祚廢
This dynasty's day had come and gone.
太祖興
The honored Tai arose,
國大明
Founding the Ming dynasty.
號洪武
From the time of Hong Wu, (17)
都金陵
The capital was in Jin Ling.
迨成祖
Up until the honored Cheng,
遷燕京
Moved the capital to Yan Jing,
十六世
16 generations
至崇禎
Up until Chong Jen.
權閹肆
Courtiers and eunuchs indulged themselves,
寇如林
Unrest filled the land.
李闖出
Li Chuang set forth,
神器焚
And burned it all to the ground. (18)
清世祖
The honored founder of the Ching dynasty,
膺景命
Appointed by heaven.
靖四方
Peace reigned,
克大定
And order pervaded.
由康雍
From the reign Kang and Yong,
歷乾嘉
To Chien and Jia.
民安富
The people were prosperous,
治績誇
They were ruled wisely.
道咸間
Up until the reigns of Shian and Jian,
變亂起
When disorder started.
始英法
England and France appeared,
擾都鄙
Menacing the capital from afar.

Related Entries 相關的文章:

民族復興節 "National Revival Day"
20 Tang Dynasty Poems 二十首唐詩
The Three-Character Poem 三字經  3
教師節 Teacher's Day

Notes:

1. All of the names in this part aside from Wen Jong-dze 文中子 are abbreviations.

2. In other words, all of the books mentioned in the previous part of the poem.  Refer to The Three-Character Poem 三字經 3.

3. More specifically, from the beginning and end of each dynasty.

4. The first two names are abbreviations.

5. According to legend, the two kings/emperors mentioned here could have chosen one of their own sons as successor, but instead chose someone more capable for the good of the country.

6. The Xia 夏, Shang 商 and Jhou 周 were the founding dynasties of ancient China.  The kings/emperors mentioned were the founding kings of those dynasties.

7. The name of the last Shang emperor, different character from that used to describe the following dynasty.  Of the two following "jhous," the first describes the dynasty, and the second describes the emperor of the previous dynasty.

8. Advisers as in advisers to the king/emperor.  This was a prominent feature of Chinese imperial administration even before Confucius.

9. The Spring and Autumn and Warring States Periods form the two halves of the larger "Eastern Jhou" period.

10. This is the Emperor Chin who gave us the Great Wall of China and the Terracotta Warriors.  I think most historians would agree that he was a real bastard.

11. As in Emperor Xian, the last emperor of that dynasty.

12. The famous Three Kingdoms described in the Romance of the Three Kingdoms 三國演義, inspiration for countless video games.

13. Yu Wen-jhou (周 as in Jhou Dynasty, another Jhou Dynasty) and Gao Chi (齊 as in Chi Dynasty) founded other dynastic offshoots during this time.  It was all very confusing!

14. Just to make Chinese dynastic history even more confusing, these dynasties took the names of earlier dynasties.

15. This is the Song 宋 Dynasty.  Previous dynasties chose their names from one of the five elements.  In the case of the Song they chose fire.  炎 symbolizes their association with fire.

16. The Yuan were the Mongol dynasty founded by Kublai Khan.

17. In case you're more interested in this stuff, Hong Wu was a nasty character.

18. Kind of a metaphor.  He "burned it all to the ground" as in he ended the dynasty.

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