2021年5月9日 星期日

台灣的老街 Old Streets of Taiwan 2

The Chinese text below was taken from "Old Streets of Taiwan" 台灣老街.  The Chinese was written by 黃诏元 Huang Jhao-yuan, and the English was written/translated by me.  This book was published by Walkers Cultural Ltd. 遠足文化事業股份有限公司 in 2002.  This is the second of two entries from this book.

Fengtian Old Street

清康熙25年 (1686) , 施琅平定台灣後 , 部分土兵被安置在屏東縣一帶墾荒 : 後來遇上朱一貴作亂 , 墾民組成六股義勇團守護家園 , 稱為 "六堆" .  而屬於 "後堆" 的內埔 , 位於平原與山地交界處 , 水源豐沛 , 土壞肥沃 , 逐成為拓展墾務的首選 , 豐田村更是其中開發最早的地區 .  During the 25th year of Emperor Kangxi's reign (1686 on the Western calendar), after he reclaimed Taiwan [from the Ming loyalists], some of the soldiers [serving under the Ching emperor] were resettled in Pingtung.  Later, after [the rebel] Jhu Yi-gui's [uprising] brought chaos to the area, the settlers formed six militias to protect their homes, and these militias were referred to as "the Six Dui."  Neipu, which was at the time called "the Rear Dui," was located in an area where the western agricultural plain and the mountains meet.  It has abundant water resources, the soil is fertile, and it has expanded slowly over time.  Fengtian Village, located in this area, was one of the earliest areas to develop. (1)

到了乾隆初年 , 豐田村已成為鄰近聚落貨物的集散中心 .  日治大正9年 (1920) 的市區改正計畫 , 將傳統的三合院改建為2層樓房 , 演變成現在的模樣 .  豐田老街以寬達12米的新中路為主 , 兩旁街屋風格多樣 , 有巴洛克式的 (鴻祥雲) , (坤協盛) 等商號 , 立面山牆雕飾繁複 , 屋身則仍保留閩式建築的馬背屋脊 ; 也有昭和年間流行的現代主義 , 外觀雖較檏實 , 仍不乏幾何圖案和花草浮雕 .  由老街巷道轉進住宅區 , 古老的建築 , 水井 , 溝渠皆保留完整 , 流露出濃厚的古早味 , 但不少傳統客家夥房禁步起歲月的侵蝕 , 不若美濃 , 旗山等地來得完整 .  In the early years of Emperor Qianloong's reign, Fengtian Village had already become an important center of trade between local settlements.  The ninth year of the Japanese Emperor Taisho (1920) saw the release of an urban renewal plan, and this plan did away with the traditional three-sided courtyard houses in favor of the two-story buildings seen there today.  Fengtian Old Street [was at that time] Xinjhong road, which was 12 meters wide.  Every style of architecture could be seen along its two sides, including the [local] "baroque" style exemplified in Hongxiangyun, Kenxiesheng and other local businesses.  The facades and gables of these buildings display complicated carvings.  The buildings also retained the Fujian-style roof in conjunction with the "modernism" of the Showa period, [as seen in] Japan.  Although their appearance is less than graceful, there are many geometric patterns and plant carvings to be found on these buildings.  As one turns from the Old Street into the lanes of the old residential quarter, one can see the old buildings, wells and ditches which have been preserved intact there.  They give one a strong sense of older times.  It's a pity that many of the traditional Hakka structures have been abandoned to the elements for so long, and are not as complete as those seen in Meinong or Qishan. (2)

豐田村屬於客家聚落 , 三山國王廟自是其守護神 , 國王宮廟埕廣場則扮演吸引人潮的角色 , 每天清早和黃昏都聚集了各式各樣的攤販 , 宛如臨時市場 .  與六堆天后宮同年修築的 "昌黎祠" , 是全台唯一供奉韓愈的廟宇 , 由於整修時未依原貌施工 , 竟遭到撤銷為古蹟的命運 .  附近尚有光緒26年建造的隘門 , 雖被列為古蹟 , 但幾經重漆已失去原貌 , 十分可惜 .  Fengtian Village is a Hakka settlement, and the Lords of the Three Mountains are its protective deities.  The King's Palace Temple attracts many people to the area, and every morning and afternoon a variety of vendors gather there, forming a temporary market.  There is also the Liu Dui Queen of Heaven Temple, which was built the same year.  It is the only temple in Taiwan dedicated to the poet Han Yu.  Originally declared a historic monument, this status was later revoked because its renovated appearance does not conform to what it looked like previously.  There is also a gate dedicated to the Emperor Guangshu nearby, and despite being listed as a monument the original paint has since fallen [from the structure].  This is a great pity. (3)

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NOTE 1: There are only two of Pingtung's old streets in this book, but there are others in the county.

NOTE 2: I passed through this area not long ago.  It WON'T blow your mind.

1. The "Ming loyalists" were soldiers under the command of Koxinga's grandson.  They were mostly Hakka people from the same part of China.  Jhu Yi-gui's rebellion had to do with taxes (corrupt) Ching officials were demanding from local farmers and artisans.  At the height of his uprising he managed to wrest control of present-day Gangshan from the authorities.  The "Six Dui" or "Liu Dui" are integral to the history of Pingtung.  Those interested in these militias and the time period should visit the Liodui Hakka Culture Park 六堆客家文化園區 near Pingtung City.

2. "Baroque" in this context is a particular architectural style found in Taiwan.  Maybe also in China?  Not sure.  "Hongxiangyun" and "Kenxiesheng" are the names of two local buildings.  I typed "Fujian style" 閩式 here, while I used "Taiwanese style" in a previous entry.  I'm really not sure which term is more accurate.  Meinong and Qishan districts in Kaohsiung were also part of the Liu Dui settlements, and have retained their original Hakka character far more successfully than Fengtian Village.

3. The Lords of the Three Mountains are usually associated with Hakka people, but not all Lords of the Three Mountains temples belong to that ethnic group.  Near where I teach in Jiadong there are two Lords of the Three Mountains temples, one frequented by the Hakka residents and another frequented by Taiwanese (Hoklo-speaking) people.