The Chinese text below was taken from "Stories of the Opening of Taiwan (Southern Area) 臺灣開發故事 - 南部地區. The Chinese text was written by 趙莒玲. The English was written/translated by me. There will probably be four of these entries, all related to Pingtung County. The Southern Area book also covers Jiayi, Tainan and Kaohsiung.
The Man Who Revered Rukai Culture: The Amateur Artist Du Dzai-fu
原名為kalawa (魯凱語為 [等待] ) 的杜再福, 在三十二歲以前, 只不過是一位開卡車和挖土機的司機, 從來沒有雕過任何物品, 但為了學鳥兒 "自己築巢", 發憤蓋了代表魯凱文化的石板屋. Du Dzai-fu, originally known as Kalawa (Rukai, meaning: "wait"), worked driving trucks and operating construction equipment before the age of 32. He'd never carved [or sculpted] anything before reaching that age, but as a way of "building his own nest" he went on to construct a Rukai-style slate house.
杜再福的父親是一位木雕師, 從小, 杜再福便跟在父親身旁, 看著他工作; 但因不會畫圖, 杜再福一直沒想過從事雕刻的工作, 結婚生子後, 依舊做些開車和打零工的粗活. Du Dzai-fu's father was a woodcarver. From a young age Du Dzai-fu watched his father working. But because he couldn't draw pictures, Du Dzai-fu never thought he could be a woodcarver. After he married and fathered children, he paid the bills by driving a truck and working odd jobs.
不穩定的收入, 讓杜再福始終無法擁有一棟房子, 丈母娘從旁看得很焦急, 於是慨然允諾負責外孫生活的支出, 要杜再福全心蓋一間屬於自己的房子. 在這項鼓勵下, 個性好強的杜再福心想: "連鳥兒都以棉薄之力築巢, 我為什麼不試試看做自己的窩呢?" 於是下定決心, 蓋一棟既可真正過魯凱族人的生活, 又能將族裡的文化延續下去的石板屋. His uncertain income kept Du Dzai-fu from owning a house. His mother-in-law was very worried by this, and for her grandchildren's sake she pledged the money he needed to acquire the sort of house that suited him. With her encouragement, the opinionated Du Dzai-fu came to think: "Even the birds can build nests out of cotton. Why not try to build my own nest?" From this point on he decided to live an authentic Rukai life, and to keep the tribe's culture alive by building himself a slate house.
回首昔日那股衝勁和傻勁, 杜再福自己都覺得有點像在作夢般. 因為在建屋的兩年期間, 他只有太太一個幫手, 一切所須材料都得靠自己搬運和雕刻, 從無到有的箇中艱辛, 說不清也數不盡. Looking back on that momentous, if foolhardy moment in his past, Du Dzai-fu can't help but feel like it was all a dream. During the two years spent building his house, he only had his wife to help him. He had to carry and carve all of the materials himself. There were difficulties from the very beginning, and the problems he encountered were many.
"魯凱族階級觀念相當嚴格, 要蓋一棟完全依照大頭目房子的建築, 事先得經過頭目的同意, 而且不准在門前矗立象徵頭目地位的石板勇士雕刻." 杜再福緩緩說出建頭目房屋的歷程. "Social status looms very large in Rukai culture, and buildings shouldn't clash with the chief's dwelling. Before starting the project you must consult with the chief, and placing a warrior carving - which symbolizes the chief's status - in front of your slate house is forbidden," Du Dzai-fu carefully explains of the building process.
為完全符合頭目住宅的陳設, 他每件家具都經過考究後才安置, 如一進門是一起居室, 往內走左邊為客廳, 靠窗邊的, 是一大塊頁岩石做成的石板床, 這便是全家人的臥房. In order to precisely match the furnishings in the chief's house, he carefully studied the positions of each piece of furniture. As you enter the house, the living room is on the left side, with a large slate bed near the window. This is the sleeping area for the whole family.
屋內各個雕刻的圖藤, 他原本可請身為雕刻師的父親和弟弟幫忙, 可是因為他不會畫圖, 無法將其腦海裡的圖藤表達出來, 只好自己慢慢動手摸索了. He could have asked his father and younger brother, each expert carvers, to help with the carvings inside the house, but because he couldn't draw the carvings he envisioned, he had to slowly carve them himself.
沒有美學基礎, 他只好以比例尺的方式作為雕刻的準則, 例如雕人像, 他先將整塊質材畫一條中線平衡左右, 再丈量長寬, 並按自己身上各器官比例, 予以放大或縮小. "這種方法滿準的喔!" 杜再福強調說. Lacking a background in art, he had to use the scale method for his carvings. For example, when carving a person, he drew a line down the center of the wood block, and then measured distances on the right and left sides of the line. He also measured his own body, using it as a model, making his own proportions larger or smaller as needed. "This method works perfectly!" Du Dzai-fu exclaims.
或許是家學淵源, 也可能是天生血液裡就有藝術天分, 使得他在無師自通的情況下, 一刀一斧地雕刻出一件件質樸又具生命力的藝術品. It might run in the family, or it might be a natural artistic talent which runs in his veins. Whichever the case, he was able to carve vital, naturalistic pieces of art without having been taught how to do so.
剛投入雕刻世界的前幾年, 他因居住於深山中, 未被人賞識. 淡泊名利的他, 仍舊埋頭雕刻腦海裡的圖案, 並把這些成品當成家中裝飾物, 結果使家裡成為霧臺鄉最具特色的傳統建築. Before entering the world of carving, he lived an unappreciated life deep in the mountains. Unconcerned with building his reputation, he carved whatever came into his head. The carvings he produced became decorations within his house. As a result his house became the most uniquely traditional house in Wutai Township.
"由於蓋房子的經費有限, 只有斷斷續續地建, 整整兩年期間, 我每個月有二十天在外面打零工賺錢, 只有十天在家蓋房子." 杜再福吐霧那段咬緊牙根拚命的辛酸. "Because the funds for building a house were limited, I had to build it gradually. In two years' time I had to work 20 days outside the village to earn money, which left me 10 days a month to build my home," said Du Dzai-fu of this bone-wearying experience.
近年來, 他的名聲漸漸響亮, 慕名來購買和訂做作品的人愈來愈多, 但他不願自己作品變成商業化, 創作被市場牽著鼻子走, 因而只賣給懂得欣賞的人, 否則寧可餓肚皮也不賣. In recent years his reputation has grown, and the number of people seeking him out to buy his carvings has increased. But he doesn't want his carvings to become his main source of income, or his work to be dictated by market fluctuations. He only sells his carvings to people who appreciate them, and otherwise - regardless of necessity - he doesn't sell them.
所以, 至今已被視為 "藝術家" 的杜再福, 除了偶爾幫一些機構做雕刻品外, 只要的家計來源, 依舊靠開卡車和幫商家裝潢等零工, 因為他將大部分的時間, 都用來陶塑魯凱族古早的傳說. For this reason Du Dzai-fu is now seen as "an artist," and aside from giving a few of his carvings to certain organizations, he still earns most of his income from working odd jobs as a truck driver, or from helping businesses remodel. He spends most of his free time crafting pottery based on Rukai legends.
例如兩兄弟射太陽的故事, 貴族少女巴冷嫁給蛇郎的淒美軼聞, 以及族人日常生活喝酒, 老人講古的動態等, 他用自己的想像力和跟老人聊天所得的靈感, 逐一以陶土雕塑成作品, 一者建立自己的風格, 再則具有傳承的用意. Examples [of these legends] include the story of the two brothers who shot the sun with an arrow, the story of the girl Ba-Lan marrying a snake, or other stories of tribal members passing their days drinking wine. The older people talk about life in the old days, and Du Dzai-fu uses his imagination to conjure forth images of what they've related. He then slowly shapes these images in clay, creating timeless artifacts in his own particular style.
因為魯凱族沒有文字, 必須用有形的物體來呈現其真正的文化, 因此, 杜再福的最大心願, 就是讓年輕一輩的族人和社會大眾, 透過他的作品, 來認識魯凱族的文化. Because the Rukai Tribe has no written language of its own, it must use tangible objects to present its culture to outsiders. For this reason Du Dzai-fu's fondest wish is that the younger members of his tribe and members of the general public will come to understand Rukai tribal culture through his work.
目前有不少單位力邀杜再福傳授魯凱族的雕刻課程, 他都推給父親和弟弟, 他聳聳肩苦笑, "我不會畫畫, 作品的產生都是天馬行空, 實在不知如何教人, 所以上課時, 我通常只從旁指導雕刻技法." Many people have invited Du Dzai-fu to teach classes on Rukai carving, but he always introduces them to his father and younger brother instead. He shrugs and smiles, "I don't know how to draw, and the carvings just seem to form themselves in my hands. I don't know how to teach this to other people, so during class I usually just teach some carving techniques from the side."
熱情的他每次指導別人雕刻, 都非常熱心, 仔細, 傾囊相授, 於是有人開玩笑地對他說: "別將本事都傳給別人囉!" 他最後不但不緊張, 反而更堅定樂觀地回答: "我不怕將自己的東西教別人, 因為他的夢永遠跟我不一樣!" He is friendly and enthusiastic when teaching others to carve. He teaches people carefully and in detail, to the point where others have joked with him: "Don't give away your secrets to other people!" He is not worried by this, however, countering with: "I'm not afraid to teach what I know to other people, because their dreams are always different from mine!"
Stories of the Hundred Pace Snake and the Rukai Tribe
在魯凱族的雕刻品上, 常會出現百步蛇的圖藤, 這不是魯凱族對百步蛇的崇拜, 而是因百步蛇為該族的 "同伴". In Rukai carvings one often comes across the image of the hundred pace snake. This is not because the Rukai Tribe worships the hundred pace snake, but rather because the hundred pace snake is seen as the tribe's "companion."
很早以前開始, 魯凱族便稱百步蛇為Baladan "我們的同伴", 何以會與百步蛇成為親密的朋友, 據魯凱族老一輩的說法, 有兩種傳說. For a long time the Rukai Tribe has referred to the hundred pace snake by the name Baladan, which means "our companion." As to why the Rukai consider the hundred pace snake such a close friend, the older members of the tribe have two legends to explain it.(1)
一種傳說是, 以前有個部落的公主在屋裡養了一隻百步蛇, 有一回敵人靜悄悄地摸進村內, 欲搶奪公主. 由於百步蛇與敵人奮戰, 才保住了公主, 百步蛇護駕有功, 自此以後, 族人便稱百步蛇為同伴, 並在雕刻物上以其為圖藤, 以示紀念. One of the legends has it that a village princess raised a hundred pace snake in her home. One day a member of another tribe stole into the village with the intention of abducting this princess. The hundred pace snake fought off this intruder and managed to protect her. Because of the protection it afforded, the tribe came to call the hundred pace snake their companion, and commemorated its status by adding it to their carvings.
老一輩的族人, 至今還對百步蛇存著感激之心, 在路上如果遇到百步蛇, 口中還會念念有詞地對蛇說: "快走吧! 快走吧! 免得被人踏了和殺了." To this day members of the older generation maintain a sense of gratitude toward the hundred pace snake. If they happen upon a hundred pace snake on the trail, they still intone solemnly: "Hurry on! Hurry on! Don't get killed by the feet of men!"
另一種傳說是, 霧臺鄉大武村有位貴族女子Ba-Lan (巴冷), 愛上一位百步蛇化身的英俊男子. 奇怪的是, 所有的族人都看到那名男子為蛇, 唯獨巴冷堅持其情郎為人, 並決心嫁給蛇郎, 拗不過巴冷的決定, 族人只得將她許配給蛇郎. There is another legend, in which Ba-Lan, a tribeswoman from Da Wu Village in Wu Tai Township loved a handsome man who'd been transformed into a hundred pace snake. Strangely enough, the other members of the tribe only saw him as a hundred pace snake, while Ba-Lan maintained that the snake was her beloved, who she determined to marry. The tribe acquiesced and allowed her to marry the snake.
依據相傳, 巴冷下嫁的新居, 就是終年多被雲霧籠罩, 族人聞之多不太敢接近的大鬼湖 (今稱巴油池), 有人說大鬼湖就是蛇郎, 但自此以後族人便不曾再看見巴冷. According to this legend, the house occupied by Ba-Lan after her marriage was surrounded by clouds year round. The members of the tribe refrained from approaching Da Guei Lake (called Ba You Pond today), because it was said that Da Guei Lake was the snake. From that time onward the tribe never saw Ba-Lan again.(4)
後來, 巴冷託夢給族人, 提醒到大鬼湖狩獵的人, 若是看見有熱的食物才是她準備的, 冷的東西絕對不要吃, 這就是巴冷和族人最後所通的訊息. Later Ba-Lan sent a dream to her tribe, for the instruction of those hunting around Da Guei Lake. If they saw warm food it was food she had prepared for them, and if it was something cold they shouldn't eat it. This was Ba-Lan's final message to her tribe.(5)
傳聞, 巴冷的兒子曾經回過母親的娘家探視, 但自此音訊全無, 至今仍可確定的是, 凡是巴冷家族的門楣, 都特許雕刻百步蛇的圖藤. It's also said that Ba-Lan's son later returned to his mother's house to visit, but since that time there is no word of her. Up until the present day the members of Ba-Lan's family are allowed to place carvings of the hundred pace snake on the lintels of their homes.
到底哪一種傳說才正確, 魯凱族的族人並不在意, 因為根深蒂固的觀念裡, 百步蛇就是他們的同伴. As for which legend is true, the Rukai people don't really care. Regardless of either story, it remains a deep-rooted concept that the hundred pace snake is their companion.
Hakka Buildings Exemplify Hakka Culture
明鄭時期, 客家人即大量來臺. 潮州和汀州籍客家人都是鄭成功父子孫三代的支持者. 鄭氏失敗之後, 客家人多半進入高屏盆地及沿山地區. 所以客家六堆文化在屏東占有相當重的分量. During the reign of Koxinga, Hakka people immigrated to Taiwan in great numbers. The Hakka people from Chao Jhou and Ding Jhou (in China) were all supporters of Koxinga, his son, and his grandsons. After Koxinga's family passed from the scene, most Hakka people moved into either the flat lands or hills between [present-day] Kaohsiung and Pingtung. For this reason the Liou Dui Culture of the Hakka people plays an important role in the history of Pingtung.(2)
客家人第二度大批移民臺灣, 是在清康熙三十五年 (西元一六九六年) 以後的事, 當時他們沿臺灣南部西南岸, 向東北部航行, 在各小港口登陸, 而後分往東北部各地區墾居. There was a second wave of immigration by Hakka people to Taiwan after 35th year of the reign of the Ching Emperor Kang-shi (1696 on the Western calendar). At that time they sailed along the southwest coast of the island to the northeast coast, landed at various small ports, and eventually settled in various areas near the northeast coast.
在清康熙四十年 (西元一七0一年) 前後, 滿懷拓荒雄心的客家先民, 開始越過隘寮溪, 分成三路, 向廣闊的高屏平野推進. After the 40th year of Emperor Kang-shi (1701 on the Western calendar), the pioneering ancestors of today's Hakka people began to cross the Ai Liao River, and from there they took one of three routes into the highlands of northeast Pingtung and Kaohsiung.
他們在南臺灣建立的第一個據點, 是屏東縣萬丹鄉的濫濫庄, 並在高屏地區形成 "六堆" 生活聚落. Their first settlement in south Taiwan consisted of an obscure village in Wan Dan Township, Pingtung County, but it was on the highlands of northeast Pingtung and Kaohsiung that they established "Liou Dui" as a refuge.(3)
"六堆" 的名稱, 起源於地方自衛性的兵勇組織. "堆" 原本是 "隊" 的意思, 傳聞客語 "隊" 的發音與漢音的 "堆" 相近, 經過口傳之後, 成了 "六堆". The name "Liou Dui" ("Six Piles") came from a local self-defense organization. "Dui" originally meant "team," but in the Hakka language "team" sounded a lot like "pile" to Mandarin speakers. After many years of use "Six Teams" became "Six Piles."
今日的六堆, 包括右堆 -- 美濃 (高雄縣), 高樹; 左堆 -- 佳冬, 新埤; 前堆 -- 長治, 麟洛; 後堆 -- 內埔; 先鋒堆 -- 萬巒; 中堆 -- 竹田. 六堆的命名由來, 除了萬巒是因該隊的祖先劉庚甫, 每逢對外作戰都打先鋒, 而命之為先鋒堆外, 其他五堆都是按地理位置命名. The "Six Piles" today include "Right Pile" in Meinong (Kaohsiung County) and Kao Shu ["Tall Tree"], "Left Pile" in Jiadong and Shin Pi, "Front Pile" in Chang Jr and Lin Luo, "Back Pile" in Neipu, "Shian Feng Pile" in Wan Luan and "Middle Pile" in Jhu Tian. The names of five of the piles were chosen based on their geographical location, while "Shian Feng Pile" was named for Liou Geng-fu, an ancestor who fought in the vanguard in foreign wars.
早期南部客籍先民, 多無在臺灣長期定居的打算, 只要財富足以衣錦還鄉, 便毫不留戀地將產業轉賣給其他族人, 並收拾行囊回原鄉. In south Taiwan the early ancestors of the Hakka people didn't have a long-term plan for living in Taiwan. Once they had amassed enough wealth to return home, they sold their belongings to another Hakka person and gathered their belongings for a trip back to their hometowns [in China].
這種心態, 可自萬巒鄉五溝水家族的更迭, 看得非常清楚. 五溝水最初整個產業都是熊姓家族所有, 後來熊家賺了一筆錢, 便將產業全賣給吳姓家人; 但吳家發達起來, 便義無反顧地返回家鄉, 除了一些家族產業外, 將其他資產全部轉售給劉姓家族. This attitude can be seen very clearly in the doings of a family that lived in Wu Gou Shui, in Wan Luan Township. At first all of the industries in Wu Gou Shui were owned by the Shiong Family. After the Shiong Family earned enough money, they sold everything they owned to the Wu Family. After the Wu Family struck it rich, they also returned to their hometown [in China] without hesitation. They sold almost everything they had to the Liou Family.(6)
原本僅打算在臺灣賺一大筆錢便回老家的劉家, 因碰到日據時期的動盪不安, 只得 "暫時" 留下來. 沒想到這一留就是百餘年, 現在的五溝水便以劉姓為最大家. 因綿延下來的住民都為客家人, 且保存的古宅最多, 該地保留的客家文化也最完整. The Liou Family also planned to earn enough money to return to their hometown in China, but because of turmoil during the Japanese occupation they were forced to stay [in Wu Gou Shui] "temporarily." They didn't anticipate that this "temporary" stay would exceed a hundred years, and the most common surname in Wu Gou Shui is now Liou. Because most of the people still living there are Hakka, this community has preserved the greatest number of traditional houses. In this place Hakka culture has been retained in its most complete form.
祖先來自彭城的五溝水劉家, 以 "天下第一家" 自居, 其住宅的建築, 除了因地制宜稍微修改一些地方外, 大多依照原鄉的圍龍屋興建. Wu Gou Shui's Liou Family, which hails from Peng Cheng [in China], considers itself "the first family" to live there. The residences there, with the exception of certain modifications made in response to local conditions, have all been constructed in the traditional style.
所謂 "圍龍屋" 建築, 其橫向的主堂和兩旁縱屋 (即廂房, 又稱護龍) 是不相連的, 利用縱屋將主堂 "圍" 起來, 有防禦外人入侵的作用. 圍屋內房間的門全部面向正中間的和平 (曬稻穀的空地), 以隨時觀看主堂四周的動靜. 但為防止外頭的人看見裡面情形, 多在門外加一道簾子, 遮蓋屋內的光線, 是深具防禦性的建築. The so-called "dragon-encircled house" is composed of a main building running horizontally, and two adjoining wings (or "protective dragons") running perpendicularly from either side of the main building. These adjacent wings are not connected to the main building. The adjacent wings are used to "encircle" the main building, and protect it from outsiders. The doors of the adjacent wings all face the inner courtyard (the empty space where rice stalks are dried in the sun), allowing those within the complex to watch the main hall/family shrine from any room, and making it difficult for outsiders to see into the structure. Curtains are hung before every door to obscure the sources of light within. It's a very defensive building.
講究慎終追遠敬祖精神的客家人, 主堂中間的正廳用來擺祖先牌位, 內部陳設非常簡單, 但每件物品都有著特別的含意. Hakka people revere their ancestors, and in such buildings the ancestral tablets are placed within the main hall/family shrine. The furnishings of the altar are very simple, but every item placed there has a special meaning.
屋梁的一根橫柱專掛燈對, 分為龍燈和鳳燈兩種, 龍燈分掛兩旁, 鳳燈則居中. 凡是族裡娶進一門媳婦, 便多一個鳳燈, 外人如果要了解該家族最近有無添新人, 只須看燈對有無增加便一目了然. Lamps are hung from horizontal poles hanging from the roof of each house. Some of these lamps are called "dragon lamps" and others are called "phoenix lamps." The dragon lamps are hung over either side of the courtyard, while the phoenix lamps are hung over the center. When a male member of the family marries, a new phoenix lamp is added. Any outsiders wishing to know whether or not a family has grown need only look and see if a lamp has been added to one of the poles.
有些建築設計和訓誡子孫的匾額, 也明白地傳承客家文化精髓. 例如重視科名的客家人, 其家族屋舍的屋脊多故意蓋成 "小燕尾", 這是因為早年有功名的家族, 才可以蓋 "大燕尾", 但一心盼望後裔耕讀光耀門楣的客家人, 將屋脊故意蓋成小燕尾, 是期待祖先庇佑子孫爭氣. In some houses instructional plaques provide an even clearer demonstration of Hakka culture. Another example is the Hakka emphasis on family names. Families also build "little swallowtails" on the roofs of their houses. [They're called "little" swallowtails because] in earlier times only the most esteemed families could build "big swallowtails." It is hoped that the descendants of every Hakka person will work hard to build little swallowtails onto their ancestral homes, thus ensuring their ancestors' continual blessing.(7)
除了 "小燕尾" 之外,在觀察客家人的古建築時, 會發現許多人家的主堂裡, 都掛著 "進士" 的木匾. 由於清朝時, 五溝水劉家出了三名 "恩進士" (這種恩進士與一般進士不同, 只有册封, 不派官職), 因而劉家主堂便懸掛著 "進士" 的大匾額, 以昭告子孫先人的光榮事蹟. Aside from these little swallowtails, when observing ancient Hakka buildings one can see many "Jin Shr" ["entering scholars"] plaques hanging in the main hall/family shrine. From the Ching Dynasty onward, Wu Gou Shui's Liou Family hung three types of plaques in their homes. (This type of "gratitude toward arriving scholars" plaque is different from other "Jin Shr" plaques. They only bear their seals, not their official positions.) These "Jin Shr" plaques were hung within the Liou household so that younger generations would remember the glorious deeds of their ancestors.
至於沒有任何功名的人家, 為仿效劉家, 便也 "刻意" 在主堂裡, 掛著 "進士" 的木匾, 其目的為勉勵後代, 以此為目標光宗耀祖. 所以參觀客家祖廟時, 別誤以為只要掛 "進士" 的家族, 便有人當過官. Those of more modest family origins also hung "Jin Shr" plaques within their main halls in imitation of the Liou Family. The purpose of this was to encourage future generations to glorify their ancestors by reaching similar heights. So when visiting Hakka ancestral temples, don't see a "Jin Shr" plaque and mistakenly assume that the head of that household was a scholar.(9)
除了以小燕尾和掛進士匾額祈求祖先保佑外, 客家人在建房子的時候, 還非常講究風水. Aside from building "little swallowtails" and hanging plaques as a means of securing the blessings of ancestors, Hakka people place great importance on fengshui when building a house.
客家住宅的地理, 大都採前虛後實, 後高前低的模式, 以求藏風聚氣, 前方必有溪流 (因玉帶水, 主財位), 而且圍龍屋的主軸, 必定得跟屋主的生辰八字契合. The way in which Hakka houses are situated utilizes a "true" front behind a "false" front exterior (or facade), with the rear of the dwelling higher up than the front. This is done so that the house is more open to the flow of air or "chi." A stream should flow in front the building (so that prosperity can "flow" into the house), and the position of the house must be consistent with the owner's horoscope.(8)
可惜的是, 年輕一輩的客家人, 有許多人不明瞭祖先的建築特色, 使得客家文化逐漸失傳, 所幸還有不少祭祀公業留下的老建築, 可作為 "活歷史" 教材, 否則後人都不知該如何尋找先民文化了. The sad thing is that many younger Hakka people don't understand the characteristics of their own ancestral architecture, which leads to a gradual loss of Hakka culture. Fortunately many of these houses built with ancestral traditions in mind remain in place, and can be viewed as "living history books" for the use of future generations unacquainted with their ancestral culture.
不過, 經過多元文化融合, 六堆文化已逐漸被淡忘. 以前他們引以自豪的性格, 如婦女刻苦, 勤勞能幹的特性, 目前在新女性時代裡, 已不太容易顯現了. Liou Dui's local culture has, however, been largely forgotten due to cultural assimilation. The characteristics they once took pride in, such as the hardihood of their women and their dedication to hard work, are not as obvious in a new era of female empowerment.
如果要繼續保存客家文化,不能僅靠六堆文化, 而要找出新的特定文化發展, 才不致使客家文化失傳. In the interest of continuing to preserve Hakka culture, we can't just rely upon the Liou Dui Culture. We need to look forward to new cultural developments, so that Hakka culture can continue to thrive.
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1. Several other aboriginal tribes have stories about the hundred pace snake as well. Many of these stories are very similar. The Bunun, for example, consider the hundred pace snake to be their "big brother."
2. The Ming Loyalist Koxinga drove the Dutch from their stronghold in present-day Tainan. The dynasty he established in Taiwan didn't last beyond the reign of his grandson, who was driven out by the Ching Dynasty, which later assumed nominal control of the island.
3. An "obscure village" or an actual place? From the Chinese this is somewhat unclear. There is, however, a Lan Village in Wan Dan Township, Pingtung County.
4. "Da Guei" as in 大鬼 or "big ghost/spirit." This place is deep in the mountains of Pingtung, and very hard to get to. There is also a "Xiao Guei" or "little ghost/spirit" Lake in Taitung County.
5. I feel like something was lost in the telling of this story. It might be the original story refers to animals that the hunters caught in traps around the lake. Warm or freshly killed animals were safe to eat, cold or animals that had remained in traps too long were not safe for consumption.
6. 五溝水 or "Five Water Channels" / "Five Canals."
7. These "little swallowtails" are an architectural feature of Hakka houses. There are pictures here. If you look at the roofs of these buildings you'll notice sweeping beams extending from the middle of each roof. These beams are the "little swallowtails."
8. "Horoscope" is an oversimplification, but it suffices for this chapter of the book.
9. "Scholar" or "official." In ancient China the two things were often the same. Rising to a certain level of scholarship carried a certain level of social status and/or standing in the government.