二 Two: 家鄉巡禮 Hometown Institutions
家鄉是先民辛苦建立的生活場所, 從他們居住的傳統住屋, 信仰中心的廟宇或教堂, 以及商品買賣的老街, 都可以認識先民的生活情形, 也可以了解到家鄉生活的特色. [Our] hometown is the place we live in, established through the hard work of [our] ancestors. From their traditional houses, [their] temples and churches (places of worship), and from the old streets where goods were bought and sold, we can acquaint ourselves with the ways in which our ancestors lived. We can also acquaint ourselves with the unique characteristics of hometown life.
1傳統住屋 Traditional Houses
原住民族的傳統住屋 Traditional Aboriginal Houses
為了方便取得材料, 並配合地形, 氣候等環境特色, 原住民族的傳統住屋發展出多樣化的建築形式與風格. 例如: 為了取材方便, 有的住屋會用石板, 竹子, 茅草等搭建; 為了躲避強風, 有的住屋形式比較低矮; 為了適應濕熱的天氣, 有的則是利用木頭把住屋架高. In accordance with available materials, [local] geography, weather and other environmental factors, traditional aboriginal houses have developed into several distinctive architectural forms. For example: some aboriginal houses incorporate stone, bamboo or thatch [because] those materials were most easily acquired; some aboriginal houses are shorter to withstand strong winds; others are elevated on wooden stilts to accommodate humid weather.
漢人的傳統住屋 Traditional Chinese Houses
漢人的傳統住屋大多就地取材, 用竹子, 木頭, 土石或燒製的磚瓦來建造. 房屋會有不同的外形, 有的幾間連成一排, 稱為正身; 有的則在正身的一側或兩側加蓋護龍; 由正身和兩側護龍組成的建築, 稱為三合院. Most traditional Chinese houses were made with local materials such as bamboo, wood, stone or fired bricks. Houses may come in different shapes. [In some] several rooms are arranged in single file, and this is called a "Jeng Shen." To this [central section] are added wings on either side, called "Hu Loong." A "Jeng Shen" with "Hu Loong" on both sides is called a "San He Yuan" [or courtyard enclosed on three sides].
[In the book follows an interesting illustration of these houses and how the various spaces in and around them are traditionally used.]
傳統住屋的轉變 Changes to Traditional Houses
隨著工商業的發展, 生活方式的轉變, 及建築物材料的革新, 傳統住屋已經漸漸消失, 現代住屋的主要建築材料, 改為鋼筋混凝土, 住宅也大多改為樓房的形式. 有些留存的傳統住屋則改建為特色民宿, 餐廳等, 吸引遊客前往, 體驗傳統的生活. Alongside industrial development, people's lifestyles have also changed, and new construction materials are being used. Traditional houses are slowly disappearing as reinforced concrete is used to build modern homes. Single-family dwellings are also giving way to apartment buildings. Some of the remaining traditional houses have been converted into homestays, restaurants and other things. These [traditional houses] attract many tourists wishing to experience a more traditional way of life.
近年來, 政府和民間也積極推動傳統建築的維護, 例如: 設立原住民族文化園區, 保存, 維護原住民族的文化資產; 規劃文化聚落的護區, 使傳統聚落成為當地的觀光景點, 也為老建築找到了新生命. In recent years, the government and individuals have been working hard to preserve traditional buildings. For example: aboriginal culture parks have been established to preserve and protect aboriginal tribes' cultural heritage; cultural preservation areas have been created, which bolster tourism through the preservation of local culture, thus giving old buildings a new lease on life.
2廟宇與老街 Temples and Old Streets
廟宇的功能 Uses of Temples
人們沒有辦法避免生老病死, 悲歡離合, 於是往往會興建廟宇, 祭拜神明, 以祈求平安, 獲得心靈安慰. 在家鄉廟宇裡供奉的神明, 最常見的有土地公和媽祖等神明. No one can avoid growing old, getting sick, dying or disappointment, so we often build temples to ask favor from the gods, request safe passage through life, and seek spiritual comfort. Of all the gods worshiped in [our] hometowns, Tu Di Gong [the "Earth god" or "local diety"] and Matsu are the most often seen.*
廟宇不但是當地的信仰中心, 廟前廣場也是許多人休閒聚會, 欣賞表演和舉辦祭典的場所. Temples aren't only centers of spiritual worship. The plazas in front of every temple are also used for recreational gatherings, performances and rituals.
家鄉中除了廟宇外, 也可以看到許多教堂. 教堂是信徒做禮拜及情感交流的地方. Aside from temples, [our] hometowns also have churches. Churches are places where believers pray and share a sense of community.
老街的功能 Uses of Old Streets
由於廟宇附近人潮較多, 經常有許多商人, 小販聚集, 進行商品買賣, 因此較易形成市集或商店街. 這些早期的商店街, 部分演變為現在家鄉的老街. Temples are crowded places where businessmen congregate and merchants set up shop. For this reason they are convenient places to set up markets or shopping streets. Some of the early shopping streets have become old streets in modern hometowns.
老街是各種貨物頻繁進出的地方, 顧客往來不絕. 老街的店鋪通常位在道路兩旁, 店面朝向街道, 並設有騎樓, 供顧客, 行人遮陽避雨. 店鋪的後方, 則是商家起居作息的場所. Old streets are places where all manner of goods are bought and sold, and where customers come and go. The shops on old streets are usually on either side of the road, the storefronts face the road, and there is a porch allowing customers to avoid the sun and rain. The families of shop owners live behind their shops.**
廟宇與老街的新風貌 New Looks for Temples and Old Streets
到了現代, 廟宇和老街隨著時代的潮流, 產生新風貌. 廟宇的活動, 除了保存傳統的民俗曲藝外, 也加入新的做法, 促進當地觀光活動, 例如: 台南市鹿耳門的媽祖繞境活動, 每年都吸引各地信徒參加. Temples and old streets have kept pace with the times, and taken on new looks. Temple festivals, aside from preserving traditional folk arts, also host events for tourists. For example: every year the procession of the goddess Matsu at Tainan's Lu Er Men Temple attracts many believers from all over.
有些老街則經過改建和更新, 變成家鄉居民平日休閒購物的商店街; 有些則刻意保持原始風貌, 吸引遊客觀光, 成為家鄉重要的文化資產, 例如: 彰化縣鹿港鎮的鹿港老街, 將具有特色的古老建築, 規劃成觀光區, 並帶動糕餅, 香燭等傳統手工業, 為老街注入新生命. Some old streets have undergone renovation or restoration, and have become recreational shopping streets for local residents. Some have retained their original appearance, and both attract tourists and remain important cultural relics for hometown [people]. For example: Chang Hua, Lu Gang Municipality's Lu Gang Old Street not only has historic buildings, but is also an important tourist district specializing in cookies, scented candles and other traditional businesses. [In this way] an old street can have a new life.
學習加油站 Study "Gas Station"
如何進行觀察 How to Start an Investigation
小朋友, 想要進一步認識家鄉, 可以從觀察家鄉的廟宇或老街開始. 我們要如何進行觀察呢? 可以按照下列步驟學習. Children, if you want to take a step toward understanding your hometown, you can begin by investigating your hometown temple or old street. How can we begin an investigation?
步驟1 Step 1: 列出觀察重點 List Investigation Points
列出觀察時需要注意或記錄的重點. 例如: 老街的建築特色, 居民的生活方式, 商家的種類等. List the goals of the investigation. For example: special characteristics of old street buildings, local people's way of life, types of businesses, etc.
步驟2 Step 2: 事前的準備工作 Things to Prepare
1. 規劃當天的路線 Plan your route for the day.
2. 準備必要的觀察用品 Prepare items needed for your investigation.
步驟3 Step 3: 進行觀察 Begin Investigation
依照觀察紀錄表進行觀察活動. 如當場發現有趣或特殊的事物, 也可以記錄下來. 例如: 老街牆面的裝飾, 有的用花草, 有的用八仙的圖案. Follow your investigation worksheet while participating in the investigation activity. If you run into any interesting or unique things during your investigation, you can also record them. For example: some of the wall decorations on old streets depict plants and flowers, some depict fairies.***
步驟4 Step 4: 完成觀察紀錄表 Complete the Observation Worksheet
觀察結束後, 把觀察重點紀錄在觀察紀錄表內. After the observation has been concluded, record important points on the observation worksheet.
三 Three: 家鄉的生產方式 Hometown Production Methods
家鄉的居民, 為了維持生活的需要, 從事的生產活動多采多姿. 以下我們以水稻農業為例, 說明灌溉設施, 農具和肥料從早期到現代的轉變. In order to meet their daily needs, hometown residents engage in a variety of activities. Below we use rice agriculture as an example, explaining changes in irrigation methods, farming implements and [the use of] fertilizers from early times to the present.
1灌溉設施與農具 Irrigation Facilities [Methods] and Farming Implements
傳統的水稻農業 Traditional Rice Agriculture
早期的家鄉, 是以種植水稻為主的農業社會. 為了農業的發展, 先民會興建池塘, 水圳等灌溉設施, 以獲得水源來灌溉農田. The earliest hometown societies were based upon rice agriculture. As agriculture developed, our ancestors built ponds and canals to irrigate farmland.
從池塘水圳到抽水機 From Ponds and Canals to Water Pumps
後來由於部分農民在田邊鑿井, 利用抽水機抽取地下水灌溉, 使得農田的灌溉水源更加穩定, 對池塘或水圳的依賴也逐漸減少. Later on, some farmers dug wells next to their fields and used pumps to extract groundwater. This was a more reliable source of water for irrigating fields, and reduced the need for ponds and canals.
隨著都市與工商業的發展, 傳統水稻農業逐漸沒落. 因此, 有些水圳變成附近工廠或住家排放汙水的溝渠; 有些池塘被填平當作建築用地; 有些則用來放養魚蝦或重新改造, 成為居民的垂釣, 遊憩的場所. With the industrial and commercial development of cities, traditional forms of rice agriculture slowly declined. For this reason, some canals became channels for wastewater from factories or homes. Some ponds were filled in for development, while others were used for aquaculture, or renovated for residents' fishing or other recreational needs.
從鋤頭到耕耘機 From Hoes to Tillers
早期家鄉的農民, 為了從事耕作, 會使用鋤頭, 犁, 秧盆等農具. 這些農具多依賴人力或牛隻來操作, 工作效率較低. Farmers in earlier times used implements such as hoes, plows and seed pots when farming. These farming implements relied upon manpower or oxen. Their effectiveness was low.
隨著科學技術的進步, 農民使用現代化農業機械來進行耕作. 由於這些農業機械只需少數人就可以操作, 工作效率較高, 也降低了對人力和牛隻的需求. Alongside technological innovations, farmers now use modern agricultural machinery. This type of agricultural machinery can be operated by fewer people, its effectiveness is high, and it does not require manpower or the use of oxen.
2生生不息的土地 The Renewable Soil
堆肥是天然的有機肥料 Compost is an Natural, Organic Fertilizer
在傳統的農業社會裡, 農民為了維持土地的生產力, 會自製堆肥當成肥料. 堆肥的使用, 不但可以使土地生生不息, 也可以讓動植物的廢棄物回歸大地, 避免汙染環境. In a traditional agricultural society, farmers use compost to maintain the fertility of the land. The use of compost not only regenerates the soil, but also returns plant and animal waste to the soil, thus eliminating pollution.
從堆肥到化學肥料 From Compost to Chemical Fertilizers
隨著科學技術的進步, 出現了化學肥料. 由於使用方便, 又能快速補充農作物需要的養分, 提高作物的產量, 農家就大量購買使用. 長期使用的結果, 不但使製作堆肥的原料變成廢棄物, 也使土壤受到不良的影響. Alongside technological development, chemical fertilizers have appeared. Although [the use of these chemical fertilizers] is very convenient, farmers need to buy a lot of them. Long-term use not only means that compost becomes a form of waste, but also that the soil is adversely affected.****
農業的新風貌 A New Kind of Farming
現代農民為了減少對化學肥料的依賴, 常會利用農作物採收後或休耕的期間, 種植波斯菊, 油菜等植物做成肥料, 提高土地的梅沃度. In order to lessen their dependence on chemical fertilizers, modern farmers often plant garden cosmos or rapeseed during fallow times. These plants can also be used as fertilizer, and make the land more productive.
有些農民則捨棄農藥和化學肥料, 改採自然, 無毒的耕種方式發展有機農業, 不但滿足了現代人追求健康, 注重環保的需求, 更可以維護自然生態環境的平衡, 讓農業生產永續發展. Some farmers have given up the use of pesticides and chemical fertilizers altogether, and have switched to natural, non-toxic farming methods as organic agriculture has expanded. This not only satisfies modern people's desire for healthy [food] and [addresses their] concern for the environment, but also protects the ecological balance [necessary to] preserve that environment. It also allows for the continued expansion of agriculture.
Related Entries 相關的文章:
鐵道迷的第一本書 A Book for Train Aficionados 3
What's Going in Taitung City and County Townships/Municipalities 台東市,鄉,鎮最近動向 7
Social Studies 社會 3, Second Semester 下, Unit 2-3 第二單元到第三單元
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*Interested this topic? I went a lot deeper into this topic a couple years back. For the curious, start with the 就要這樣拜! 拜拜宜忌一本通 This is How You Worship! A Comprehensive Guide to the Dos and Don'ts of Worship (2 of 2) entry and work backward from there.
**Those looking for more specific information on this topic are hereby directed to the Blog Archive 很久很久以前的文章 33 entry, in which you will find "Train Stations, Old Streets and Academies 舊火車站, 老街跟書院."
***I used "fairies" for 八仙, even though the meaning isn't quite the same. The 八仙 or "Ba Shian" are more literally the "Eight Immortals" from Chinese mythology.
****A prime example of this is the sugar apple or 釋迦. They just don't get that big or that flavorful naturally. Farmers need to dump A TON of chemicals into the soil, use lights to speed up the growing period, and the runoff from sugar apple orchards can be a major problem.