2018年11月26日 星期一

20 Tang Dynasty Poems 二十首唐詩

Every Taiwanese person studies at least a few of the Tang Dynasty poems at some point in their life.  Either they study these poems in a collection, or as part of their Chinese curriculum.  Many people also study these poems again, much later, in college.  Depending on how deeply you want to understand the poems, you can opt for either a children's collection or one of the more scholarly editions aimed at adults.

The importance of these poems to an understanding of Chinese culture cannot be overestimated.  They inform Literature, parts of them have become idioms, and you'll even find them written into the corners of famous paintings.  They cast a long shadow, but there's no need to feel intimidated by them.  Most of them are actually easy (and fun!) to learn.

The introduction to the poems below was taken from 華一兒童啓蒙文學2: 唐詩 ("The Hua Yi Guide to Children's Literature 2: Tang Dynasty Poems").  This book was published by 華一書局 (Hua Yi Books) in 1982.  I have the feeling that this particular guide is long, long out of print.

唐詩的世界 The World of Tang Dynasty Poetry

在進入 "唐詩的世界" 以前, 先讓我們來了解一下, 詩是怎麼產生的?  Before entering the "world of Tang Dynasty poetry," let's learn a little bit about how the poems came to be.

在我國古老的時代裏, 人與人交往, 除了自己的親戚以外, 很少有見面講話的機會.  尤其在還沒發明文字以前, 人們要完整的表達心裏的話, 更是困難重重.  可是人跟其他動物一樣, 生下來就有啼叫的本能.  因此, 我們聰明的祖先, 便利用工作, 遊戲的時候, 把一些令人感動的想法, 編成有節奏的短歌, 歌詞非常簡單, 有時還一直反覆不停.  就這樣一人唱大家和的情形下, 慢慢的聯絡起眾人的感情: 另一方面也建立起 "詩" 的形式, 奠定我國文化的根基.  In ancient times, people in our country had few opportunities to communicate with those outside their family circle.  This was especially true before the invention of writing, and during that time expressing one's deepest thoughts and feelings was very difficult.  But people are just like other animals, born with the ability to communicate.  For this reason our wise ancestors preserved heartfelt sentiments in short songs that they would sing during their work or leisure activities.  The words to these songs were very simple, and sometimes involved repetition.  In this way people shared their emotions through song, and communicated these emotions to other people.  They also established the forms of poems, and provided a basis for our nation's culture.

這種利用詩歌來表達心裏感觸的方式, 不但符合我們中國人溫文儒雅的個性, 而且也充分的發揮了中國地大物博的文化特色.  於是, 儘管朝代不停的轉換, 詩的生命卻始終不斷.  This way of expressing one's feelings through poetic songs not only suits the gentle and elegant personalities of we, the Chinese people, but also demonstrates an appreciation for China's geography and cultural heritage.  Poems have a life of their own, extending beyond the duration of any dynasty.

到了唐朝, 詩人們在富足, 安樂的生活下, 創作了許多不巧的詩篇, 同時也把中國詩的領域, 帶上最顛峰的境界.  今天, 只要我們提到 "詩", 就會馬上聯想到唐詩.  難怪現代人常說: 熟讀唐詩三百首, 不會吟詩也會吟了.  With the arrival of the Tang Dynasty, poets wrote many classic Chinese poems, and pushed the boundaries of the art during more prosperous times.  Today, we need only mention "poetry" and the Tang poems immediately come to mind.  This is why modern people usually say: "Read 300 Tang Dynasty poems and you will not be disappointed."

那麼, 唐詩的世界到底是怎樣的呢?  So what is "the world of Tang Dynasty poems," really?

我們都知道, 詩的句子很短, 字數一定, 可是所表達的意思卻很完整.  在這本書上, 我們選的詩有絕句, 律詩, 古詩和樂府四種體裁.  古詩和樂府是唐朝人學漢, 魏以前人的作法寫的詩.  相傳本來古詩和樂府都是配有歌曲的詞, 後來因為沒有留下歌譜, 現代的人也不知怎麼唱了.  不過唐朝的時候, 仍然有人會吟唱這些曲調, 只是後來漸漸受到冷落, 詩人們也不再寫古詩和樂府詩了.  本書上選的這幾首, 都是很有名的.  例如: 陳子昂的登幽州臺歌和孟郊的遊子吟, 相信小朋友都曾聽說過.  As we all know, the sentences in the poems are very short, and the number of words/characters is set, but the meanings within them are expressed fully.  In this book we have selected quatrains, "lu" poems, [more] ancient poems, and "yue fu" poems.  The [more] ancient poems and the "yue fu" poems were written by Tang Dynasty scholars studying Wei methods of writing poetry.  The [more] ancient and "yue fu" poems were traditionally used as lyrics to accompany music, but because the music to them was lost modern people don't know how to sing them.  Nevertheless in Tang times these poems were often sung, it's just that they slowly fell out of favor and later poets stopped writing the [more] ancient and "yue fu" styles of poetry.  The few examples of these kinds of poetry found in this book are all very famous.  For example: "Chen Dze-ang's "Song of Arrival in a Peaceful Province" and Meng Jiao's "The Wandering Child Sings."  [We] believe that every child has heard of these poems.

至於被稱為近體詩的絕句和律詩, 除了押韻和對仗的要求外, 它們的字數都有一定的限制: 不是五個字, 便是七個字.  絕句每首四句, 律師每首八句, 甚至可以八句以上, 不過那又稱為 "排律" 了.  Modern poems like quatrains and "lu" poems, in addition to rules about rhyming and apposition, are restricted in terms of the number of words/characters in each line.  These are not 5 word [poems], but rather 7 word poems.  Quatrains consist of four lines, while "lu" poems consist of 8 or lines or more.  "Lu" poems longer than 8 lines are referred to as "pai lu."*

知道這個分別以後, 我們才能輕鬆欣賞唐詩.  為了讓小朋友對整首詩有一個完整的認識, 在 "詩意" 裏, 我們把該首詩的精神和意思, 用非常淺顯的文字, 有連貫的表達出來.  然後再在 "詩話" 裏, 把這首詩的內容, 作法, 意義和欣賞的方法, 簡單扼要的解釋一下, 希望能幫助大家在欣賞的時候, 不致於找不到頭緒.  為了追求原詩的韻味, 我們特別將一些字的念法, 用讀音標示出來, 以方便同學在朗頌的時候, 更能體會詩的 "音響".  例如常見的有: "白", "斜", "綠", "我", "北", "百", "誰"....  Now that we understand the differences between types of Tang Dynasty poems, we can begin a relaxed appreciation of them.  In order to provide children with the fullest understanding of each poem, under "Meaning of Poem" we've highlighted the spirit and meaning of [each poem] in plain text to make their import clear.  After this, under "Commentary on Poem," we explain the contents, form, [deeper] meaning and method of approaching the poem.  It is our hope than in thus assisting everyone in an appreciation of the poems we won't confuse you, and [students] will be able to enjoy the poems as they were originally intended.  [For this reason] we have included phonetic symbols indicating the original pronunciation of certain words/characters, so that students can read the poems aloud with the correct intonation.  For example, commonly seen forms of pronunciation [in the poems] are: "白"(bo), "斜"(shia), "綠"(lu), "我"(uh), "北"(bo), "百"(bo), "誰"(shui)....

唐詩的內容包羅萬象, 除了抒情, 寫景, 詠史和描寫各種事物外, 也用來寫信和對話.  不僅心中難過要寫詩, 心情愉快要寫詩, 甚至看到花落, 下雨, 風吹也要小提大作一番.  這種無微不至的寫作方式, 確實留給我們許多模倣的對.  小朋友!  熟讀這些唐詩以後, 希望你也能夠信手寫上一首好詩!  The content of Tang Dynasty poems is far-ranging.  Aside from lyricism, depictions of landscapes, history and descriptions of various [other] things, they were also used as letters and [attempts] at conversation.  Some poems were written in a time of sadness, others were written in a time of joy, some were written while watching the petals fall from flowers, or during the rain, or in the midst of a great wind.  Their unparalleled method of execution can engender in us many different emotions.  Children!  After reading these poems we hope you will write a poem of your own!

[Twenty Tang Dynasty Poems 二十首唐詩]

春曉 Spring Dawn     孟诰然 by Meng Kao-ran

Spring sleep insensible of dawn,
Everywhere the chirping of birds.
With night came the sounds of a storm,
How many flowers have fallen?

雜詩 Miscellaneous Poem     王維 by Wang Wei

You've just arrived in our hometown,
You probably know the hometown news.
When you arrived I looked out my window,
How many flowers blossomed on the plum tree?

竹里館 The Bamboo Grove     王維 by Wang Wei

I sit within the lonely bamboo,
Playing a zither and singing loudly.
No one knows I'm in this forest,
There is only the bright moon shining upon me.

相思 Affinity     王維 by Wang Wei

The red bean tree grows in the south,
With spring it grows new branches.
I hope you pick a few and bring them back to me,
They represent our affinity.

新嫁娘 Newly-Married Wife     王建 by Wang Jian

After three days she enters the kitchen,
Washes her hands and makes a stew.
She doesn't know what flavor her mother prefers,
So she first asks her sister-in-law to try it.

小松 Little Pine Tree     王建 by Wang Jian

The little pine shoots up a few meters,
But has yet to grow other branches.
I relax, standing next to it,
Noticing how slowly it grows.

登鸛雀樓 Ascending the Guan Chue Pagoda    
王之渙 by Wang Jr-huan

At sunset the sun sinks behind the mountains,
The Yellow River flows toward the sea.
If you want to see farthest of all,
You must ascend to a higher floor.

夜宿山寺 Spending the Night in a Mountain Temple     
李白 by Li Bai

The tower teeters at a hundred meters,
My hands can almost touch the stars.
I fear to speak loudly,
Afraid to alert heavenly spirits.

夜思 Nighttime Thoughts     李白 by Li Bai

At the foot of the bed the moon appears,
Making the earth look frosted.
I look up to the moon,
And look down to recognize my hometown.

獨坐敬亭山 Sitting Before Jing Ting Mountain     李白 by Li Bai

A flock of birds ascend the heavens,
Clouds drift lazily across the sky.
Looking back at me unperturbed,
There is only Jing Ting Mountain.

憫農詩 A Poem for Longsuffering Farmers     
李紳 by Li Shen

Every hot day around noon,
Their sweat drips into the earth.
Who knows that the rice in our bowls,
Grows from the hard work of farmers.

渡漢江 Crossing the Han River     李頻 by Li Ping

I lived abroad in study,
Two winters and springs passed by.
As I approach closer and closer to my home,
I fear to greet those coming up the road.

登樂遊原 Arriving at the Chariot Fields     
李商隱 by Li Shang-yin

As evening approaches I grow sad,
And ride my chariot to the old fields.
The setting sun is glorious,
It has almost disappeared.

問劉十九 A Question for Liou Shr-jiou     白
居易 by Bai Ju-yi

I have here a fresh pot of wine,
Red clay warmed upon the fire.
It will snow in the evening,
How many cups will we drink?

秋夜寄     邱員外 Sent from the Official, a Fall Night     
韋應物 by Wei Ying-wu

Recalling you during a fall night,
The coolness of our walks.
The pine cones fall throughout the mountains,
I doubt you're sleeping.

江雪 River Snow      柳宗元 by Liou Dzong-yuan

In the high mountains with no sign of birds,
Nor signs of other people.
A lone fishing boat upon the water,
Fishing the snowy river.

終南望餘雪     祖詠 by Dzu Yong

The mountains to the south are especially beautiful,
Their peaks float above the clouds.
Even though the sun shines brighter beyond the forest,
The city is still much colder.

尋隱者不遇 A Missed Meeting     賈島 by Jia Dao

I ask the child under the pine tree,
He says his teacher has gone to pick medicinal herbs.
He is somewhere on this mountain,
The clouds are thick and I don't know where.

答人 A Reply     太上隱者 by Tai Shang Yin Je

I happen upon a pine tree,
And rest my head upon a rock in sleep.
There is no calendar in the mountains,
The cold reaches its height and I do not know the year.

涼州詞 A Song for Liang Jhou     王翰 by Wang Weng

A cup of grape wine at night,**
The sound of a pipa intrudes upon my reverie.
If in my stupor I fall asleep here, on the battleground, don't laugh,
How many warriors have returned from ancient battles?

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*Of the 20 poems included here, the first 19 are 5-word quatrains, and the 20th is one of the "more" ancient poems.  I felt obliged to add the "more" because the Tang Dynasty poems are already ancient by our definition.

**It's not really grape wine, but grape is one of the ingredients.