2018年5月2日 星期三

Social Studies 社會 6, First Semester 上, Unit 1 第一單元


The Chinese text below was taken from the textbook published by Kang Shuan 康軒文教事業.




一 One: 東瀛來的統治者 The Rulers From Tokyo

甲午戰爭後, 臺灣成為日本的殖民地.  總督府基於日本本國的需要, 在臺灣進行各項經濟建設及開發; 為了有效統治, 進行風俗習慣的改善, 推展新式教育.  這些措施不但加速了臺灣現代化的腳步, 也奠定日後發展的基礎.  After the Sino-Japanese War, Taiwan became a Japanese colony.  In accordance with Japan's needs, the Japanese Colonial Administration enacted a series of reforms intended to improve the island's economy.  In order to improve the effectiveness of their administration, they also tried to improve certain customs, and introduce a new method of education.  These measures not only accelerated the modernization of Taiwan, but also created a foundation for future development.




1: 日治時代的殖民統治 Colonial Administration Under the Japanese

歷經清朝兩百多年的統治, 臺灣成為漢人移民的新天地.  在清朝統治時期, 為了防止臺灣成為反清的基地, 最初採取的是消極統治.  直到清末受到外國侵優後, 才被迫開港通商, 並積極進行各項建設, 為臺灣開啟了現代化的大門.  During more than 200 years of administration under the Ching Dynasty, Taiwan became a preferred destination for Chinese immigrants.  While under Ching rule, the government adopted a very lenient role in order to prevent Taiwan from becoming a refuge for anti-Ching agitators.1 After the Ching Dynasty was forced to open its ports to trade by foreign countries, it began a series of building projects intended to modernize Taiwan.

西元1894年, 清廷與日本爆發甲午戰爭, 清廷戰敗.  隔年被迫簽訂馬關條約, 將臺灣, 澎湖割讓給日本.  從此, 臺灣成為日本的殖民地, 長達五十年之久.  In 1894 the Ching court and Japan began the Sino-Japanese War.  The Ching court was defeated, and during the following year it was forced to sign the Treaty of Shimonoseki, ceding Tawan and Penghu to Japan.  After this, Taiwan entered into a 50 year period of Japanese colonial rule.

當割讓的消息傳來, 臺灣人民十分悲憤, 部分官民擁立唐景崧為總統, 成立臺灣民主國, 企圖阻止日本占領.  但日軍登陸後不久, 唐景崧即逃亡回中國, 各地抗日義軍則繼續抵抗, 由於雙方武器, 兵力相差懸殊, 最後以失敗收場.  After the news of Taiwan's partition arrived, the people were furious.  Some people in the government promoted Tang Jing-song to the office of President, and established the Republic of Taiwan as a way of averting Japanese occupation.  But not long after the Japanese army landed, and Tang Jing-song fled to China.  Anti-Japanese forces remained all over the island, but after a few battles these forces were quickly outmaneuvered and defeated.

日本占領臺灣後, 設立臺灣總督府為最高統治機關, 實施專制的殖民統治, 對臺灣造成深遠的影響.  After the Japanese took control of Taiwan, they established the Japanese Colonial Government as the highest authority on the island.  The assumption of colonial power over Taiwan had a lasting effect.

日治時代初期, 臺灣不斷發生武裝抗日活動, 總督府為了維持治安, 鎮壓抗日活動, 在全臺建立嚴密的警察制度.  警察的權力非常大, 監視和控制著臺灣人民的生活與言行.  當時的保正 (村, 里長) 和甲長 (鄰長), 也配合警察執行相關任務.  In the early days of the Japanese colonial administration, armed rebellion was a constant feature of life on the island.  In order to ensure order and suppress rebellion, the Japanese introduced a strong police force.  The police force's powers were wide-ranging, involved a close monitoring of Taiwanese citizens, and placed many restrictions upon them.  At that time village and neighborhood chiefs had to fulfill their duties as instructed by the police.

面對日本的殖民統治, 民間發動了許多武裝抗日的行動, 其中較為著名的有羅福星等人領導的苗栗事件, 余清芳等人領導的西來庵事件 (又稱噍吧哖事件), 以及莫那魯道等人領導的霧社事件.  這些事件最後都在日本的強力鎮壓下失敗了.  Under Japanese colonial administration, many armed rebellions occurred.  The most famous of these incidents was led by Luo Fu-shing and several others in Miaoli.  [There was also] the Shi Lai Incident (also called the Jiao Ba Nian Incident) led by Shu Ching-fang and several others, and the Wushe Incident led by Mona Ludao and others.  All of these incidents [movements] were suppressed and defeated by Japanese military superiority.2




日治時代著名的抗日事件 Famous Anti-Japanese Incidents During the Colonial Administration

苗栗事件領導人之一羅福星, 原籍廣東, 早年隨祖父移居到苗栗.  西元1912年, 他在臺灣各地籌畫抗日行動.  西元1913年9月, 由於大湖支廳 (今苗栗縣大湖鄉) 的槍械失竊, 日本警察搜補全臺抗日人士.  羅福星於年底在淡水被捕, 隔年被處死.  The instigator of the Miaoli Incident was Luo Fu-shing.  He was originally from Guangdong, and in his youth migrated to Miaoli with his grandfather.  In 1912 he organized anti-Japanese activities throughout Taiwan.  In 1913 the Japanese police force located the hideout of several anti-Japanese agitators in the Dahu Office (in what is now Dahu Township, Miaoli County).  Luo Fu-shing was arrested in Danshui later the same year, and during the following year he was executed.

除羅福星案外, 總督府將當時其他的抗日案件合併審理, 合稱為 "苗栗事件".  In addition to Luo Fu-shing's case, the Japanese Colonial Government combined several other cases of anti-Japanese subversion around the same time, and these were collectively referred to as the "Miaoli Incident."

西元1915年, 在今臺南市玉井區爆發了規模相當大的西來庵事件.  當時余清芳等人藉著民間信仰的力量, 密謨驅逐日本人, 結果因事機洩露而失敗.  被此事件後, 漢人的抗日運動由武裝抗暴方式轉為理性和平的抗爭.  In 1915 the Shi Lai Incident erupted in Yu Jing District, Tainan City.  Back then Shu Ching-fang and several other leaders invoked folk beliefs to exorcise the Japanese.  Their plan failed, and after this incident [the method of] anti-Japanese movements within the Chinese population changed from armed struggle to peaceful demonstration.3

霧社地區 (今南投縣仁愛鄉) 的原住民不滿日本官吏長期殘暴的統治, 於是在西元1930年, 由賽德克族的莫那魯道率領族人襲擊日本警民.  日本軍警馬上以大炮, 飛機及毒瓦斯等武力, 向霧社各部落展開攻擊, 造成霧社地區的原住民傷亡慘重.  事件發生後, 總督府重新檢討對原住民族的統治政策, 從此不再發生大規模的武力鎮壓事件.  In Wushe District (now Ren Ai Township in Nantou County), the aboriginal people were unhappy with the long and brutal rule of the Japanese.  In 1930 Mona Ludao, a member of the Seediq Tribe, led his tribesmen in an attack on Japanese police forces.  The Japanese military police responded with canons, aircraft, and even poison gas, attacking all of the villages in Wushe.  This exacted a heavy toll on the aboriginals.  After this incident occurred, the Japanese Colonial Administration changed many of their administrative policies toward the aboriginals, and this type of violent, oppressive incident did not occur again.



在日本殖民統治下, 臺灣人始終沒有獲得平等的待遇.  例如: 在工作上, 臺灣人的薪水比同樣職位的日本人低; 在參政的權利上, 臺灣人也遠不如日本人.  Under Japanese colonial rule, Taiwanese people never received fair treatment.  For example, in the workplace the salaries of Taiwanese people were always lower than those of Japanese people doing the same job, and Taiwanese people never had the same political rights as Japanese people.

為了爭取應有的基本權利, 林獻堂, 蔣渭水等人挺身而出, 成立臺灣文化協會, 利用報紙, 雜誌, 演講, 請願等方式, 不斷的向總督府抗爭, 要求平等的待遇.  In order to secure their fundamental rights, Lin Shian-tang, Jiang Wei-shui and and others established the Taiwanese Cultural Association.  They used newspapers, magazines, speeches, and other methods to protest the Japanese Colonial Administration's policies, and to ask for fair treatment.

這些抗爭雖然遭到打壓, 卻喚醒了臺灣人的民族自覺, 迫使殖民政府在日治後期, 開放部分地方民意代表名額, 提供人民選舉擔任, 讓部分臺灣人獲得選舉民意代表的機會.  Although these [types of] protest activities were suppressed, they awoke in Taiwanese people a sense of cultural affinity, and during the later years of the Japanese Colonial Government they caused the authorities to allow the election of local representatives in some places.

日治時代後期, 中日戰爭爆發, 總督府為了消除臺灣人的民族意識, 真正為日本效忠, 開始進行 "皇民化運動", 鼓勵臺灣人說日語, 改成日本姓名, 穿著和服, 參拜日本神社等.  但皇民化運動的結果, 並未能消除臺灣人的民族自覺, 也無法阻止臺灣人堅持傳統文化的決心.  In the later years of the Japanese Colonial Administration, the Sino-Japanese War erupted.  [During this time] the Japanese Colonial Administration tried to extinguish the sense of cultural solidarity within the Taiwanese [population], and to encourage loyalty to Japan through "Loyal Subject Activities."  They encouraged Taiwanese people to speak Japanese, to switch to Japanese names, to wear kimonos, and to worship at the Shinto temple.  Yet the "Loyal Subject Activities" did not extinguish the cultural solidarity between Taiwanese people, and did not cause Taiwanese people to abandon their cultural traditions.




2: 日治時代的經濟發展 The Development of the Economy Under the Japanese Colonial Administration

日治初期, 總督府為了有效統治臺灣, 積極展開各項基礎建設.  在經濟方面, 發行貨幣, 建立商品買賣秩序; 在土地與人口調查方面, 實施土地調查和戶口普查, 確立土地所有權和戶口資料, 不但增加了賦稅收入, 也便於加強社會控制在交通建設方面, 興建鐵路, 港口, 公路, 方便商品流通與物資運送, 還在各地設立郵局; 在能源建設方面, 興建大型發電工程, 提供發展工業所需的動力.  In the early years of the Japanese Colonial Administration, the government improved every aspect of Taiwan's infrastructure, as a way of making its administration more effective.  With regard to the economy, it issued currency and established business practices.  With regard to land and population, [the government] surveyed land and took a census.  Verifying land rights and household information didn't just increase tax revenues, but also consolidated [the government's] authority over citizens.  With regard to transportation infrastructure, [the government] established rail lines, ports, and highways so that goods and information could flow freely.  They also set up post offices in every place.  With regard to power projects, they built power plants to accelerate the development of [local] industries.4

總督府推動這些基礎建設, 雖然是基於殖民統治的需要, 但也奠定了臺灣經濟發展的基礎.  Although it was done to meet the needs of the Japanese Colonial Government, these infrastructure projects also provided a base from which Taiwan's economy could grow.

日本統治臺灣以後, 致力發展農業, 目的在獲取經濟利益, 或將農產品輸往日本以滿足需求.  例如: 改善農田水利設施, 擴大灌溉面積; 興建新式糖廠, 增加蔗糖產量; 設立農業改良場, 培育優良品種.  這些措施雖然讓臺灣農業逐步現代化, 稻米與蔗糖的產量都大幅增加, 不過, 當時臺灣農產品的價格, 大多被日本商人操控, 農民往往被剝削, 生活仍然很困苦.  After Japan's administrative control over Taiwan began, [the colonial government] developed agriculture with the aim of establishing the island's economic independence.  Exporting agricultural goods to Japan was another goal.  For example; [the government] improved irrigation, increased the amount of land that could be farmed, built new types of sugar refineries, increased the sugar cane yield, and established experimental farms - all for the sake of improving the quality of agricultural goods.  Although these reforms had a modernizing effect on Taiwan, and the sugar cane and rice yields increased in both quality and size, the quality agricultural goods produced in Taiwan were still controlled by Japanese businessmen.  The farmers were often exploited, and life for them was very difficult.

為了增加收入, 日本也致力於臺灣自然資源的開發.  例如: 在臺灣較低矮的山區, 大規模砍伐樟樹, 熬製樟腦; 在高山地區砍伐珍貴的林木; 同時也在北部地區開採煤礦和金礦.  As a way of increasing revenues, Japan also focused on developing Taiwan's natural resources.  For example, at lower elevations they logged eucalyptus and camphor trees.  At higher elevations they logged exotic woods.  At the same time they opened coal and gold mines in north Taiwan.

總督府為獲取更大的利益, 還實施鴉片, 食鹽, 樟腦, 菸酒等專賣制度, 從生產到銷售都由總督府獨占, 民間不得私下生產或銷售.  As a means of attaining still greater advantages, the Japanese Colonial Administration secured a monopoly over opium, salt, camphor, tobacco, alcohol, and other goods.  The government exercised control over these goods from farm to point of sale, and individual citizens were forbidden from growing or selling them.

日治初期, 總督府已開始發展農產品的加工業.  後來為了準備戰爭的需要, 又推動煉鋁, 化學, 機械等工業建設, 使臺灣社會逐漸轉變成半工半農的型態.  In the early part of the Japanese Colonial Administration, the government had already developed industries for processed agricultural products.  Later, in order to meet the necessities of war, the colonial government promoted aluminum smelting, chemistry, machinery, and other industries, all of which transformed Taiwan's [economy] into a mixture of industrial and agricultural ventures.

日治後期, 由於日本對外發動戰爭, 臺灣主要的基礎建設和工業設施, 都成為美軍轟炸的目標, 工業建設因此遭受嚴重的打擊.  Towards the end of the Japanese Colonial Administration, Japan began fighting the [Second World] War beyond the confines of the island.  The important infrastructure and industrial projects begun by the Japanese in Taiwan then became bombing targets for the Allies.  For this reason, many of the industrial projects from that time sustained heavy damage.5




3: 日治時代的社會變遷 Social Changes Under the Japanese Colonial Administration

總督府為了改善環境衛生, 防止傳染病的傳播, 積極倡導衛生習慣, 推動防疫措施; 而在風俗習慣的改革上, 更積極推動婦女不再纏足, 宣導守時守法觀念.  這些措施, 逐漸改變了臺灣傳統社會的風貌.  In order to improve public hygiene and reduce the spread of disease, the Japanese Colonial Administration worked strenuously to encourage cleaner habits and healthy customs among the Taiwanese.  They discouraged women from binding their feet, and encouraged punctuality and the observance of law.  These reforms slowly changed the nature of traditional Taiwanese society.6

總督府也引進西方的星期制, 規定星期日為休假日, 另外還設有國定假日.  假日讓民眾有了閒暇的時間, 可以進行各種休閒活動.  政府除了設立公園, 鼓勵民眾從事各種戶外活動外, 也推廣音樂會, 藝術展覽, 電影欣賞等活動.  從此, 休閒生活逐漸成為許多民眾生活中的一部分.  The Japanese Colonial Administration also introduced the Western custom of working set hours, and forbid people from working on Sundays.  They also introduced set national holidays, and these holidays gave people time to rest and engage in every kind of recreational activity.  Aside from establishing parks and encouraging people to take part in leisure activities, the government also promoted concerts, art exhibitions, and the enjoyment of movies.  From this point onward such recreational activities became part of most people's lives.

日治時代, 總督府引進現代化的教育制度, 在臺灣各地設立公學校, 作為初等教育機溝, 供臺灣人子弟就讀.  又設立中學校以及師範學校, 醫學校, 農工商等專門學校, 提供臺灣人更多學習的機會.  During the Japanese Colonial Administration, the government modernized the education system and set up public schools.  This became the primary system of education for all Taiwanese people.  [The government] also set up secondary schools, teacher training colleges, medical schools, and other types of vocational schools.  [These schools] improved Taiwanese people's educational opportunities.

當時, 臺灣人子弟的教育機會, 並未受到公平對持.  例如: 臺灣兒童就讀小學校公學校, 不論在師資, 設備上都不如小學校, 升學管道也受到限制.  但是, 臺灣人仍然努力進取, 爭取各種升學機會, 甚至到海外留學.  因此, 在日治時代, 臺灣也出現許多優秀人才, 成為社會進步的推動者.  At the time, however, Taiwanese people did not receive the same opportunities with regard to education.  For example, Taiwanese children could only attend public elementary schools, where the teachers and equipment were substandard.  Their opportunities for educational advancement were also limited.  Despite this, Taiwanese people worked hard to advance themselves, and competed for every kind of educational opportunity, including study overseas.  For this reason, during the Japanese Colonial Administration many talented people appeared, and they worked for the improvement of society as a whole.

日治時代, 總督府除了大力推展日本文化, 也帶來西方文化.  因此, 西方的飲食, 服飾, 建築等, 大量傳入臺灣, 使臺灣文化更加豐富多元.  Aside from strenuously promoting Japanese culture, the Japanese Colonial Government also introduced Western culture [into Taiwan].  For this reason Western food and drink, clothing, and architecture entered into Taiwan, and made Taiwanese culture much richer.7

以服飾為例, 日治時代臺灣民眾的穿著有很大的變化.  男子多已剪去髮辮, 改穿西式服裝; 女子也不再纏足, 並穿著改良式的傳統服裝或洋裝.  社會上的審美觀念也隨之改變.  Taking clothing as an example, the way Taiwanese people dressed changed dramatically during the Japanese Colonial Administration.  Most men cut off their queues [the symbol of their loyalty to the Ching Emperor], and began wearing Western clothes.  Women stopped binding their feet, and started wearing more comfortable traditional clothes or Western dress. 

西方的繪畫, 雕塑和音樂, 也透過學校教育和展演活動, 逐漸傳入臺灣, 並且培育了不少人才.  這些現代藝術家的創作與教學活動, 對臺灣的工藝, 美術和音樂發展, 有很大的貢獻.  Western painting, sculpture, and music were slowly incorporated into
Taiwanese school activities and exhibitions, and many new artistic talents emerged.  These artists' artworks and school activities contributed a lot to the development of Taiwanese crafts, art, and music.





社會FUN輕鬆 Social Studies Easy Fun

奔馳在甘蔗田裡的小火車 -- 臺灣糖業的興衰 The Little Train Speeding Through the Sugar Cane Field - The Rise and Fall of Taiwan's Sugar Industry

自荷西時代開始, 蔗糖就是臺灣重要的輸出商品.  日治時代, 日本企業大規模投入臺灣糖業生產, 便得臺灣躍升為重要的蔗糖產地.  Sugar cane had been an important Taiwanese export since the Dutch and Spanish first colonized the island.  During the Japanese Colonial Administration, Japanese industries invested heavily in Taiwanese sugar cane, causing Taiwan's rise to prominence as an important producer of this crop.

日治初期, 糖業是產業工業化的重點.  西元1900年代初期, 在高雄成立了臺灣第一座新式糖廠, 除了代表臺灣農業機械化的開端外, 其最早興建的糖業鐵路, 更方便原料的運送.  此後, 各地糖廠與糖業鐵路也陸續興建.  當時, 臺灣的糖業鐵道很多, 總長達兩千多公里, 其中以西部平原地區最為密集.  In the early years of the Japanese Colonial Administration, sugar refining was an important industrial goal.  In the beginning of 1900, Taiwan's first modern refinery was built in Kaohsiung.  This didn't just represent the start of industrial agriculture in Taiwan, but also the construction of a railway to service the refinery, which made it more convenient to transport raw materials there.  After this, sugar refineries and associated railways were built all over Taiwan.  At the time Taiwan's sugar railways were quite numerous, with over 2000 kilometers of track.  Most of these were located on flat terrain on the western side of the island.

臺灣糖業火車, 俗稱 "五分車", "五分仔車", 通常以運送甘蔗為主, 也能載運旅客, 曾經是臺灣重要的交通工具之一.  糖業火車之所以有 "五分車" 的名稱, 其中一種說法是, 五分車鐵軌之間的距離, 是國際標準軌距的一半; 另一種說法則是, 糖業火車的推力及車速, 只有普通火車的一半.  Taiwan's sugar refinery trains were called "fifty percent cars," or "five tenths [?] cars."  Their primary function was the transportation of sugar cane, but they also transported passengers.  They were an important mode of transport in Taiwan.  A possible reason sugar refinery trains were referred to as "five part cars" was that the distance between their tracks was only half the international standard.  Another possible reason is that the sugar refinery trains power and speed were only half that of normal trains.

糖業鐵路通常以糖廠為中心, 成放射狀分布, 為便利運輸, 也與當時官方的鐵路在車站接軌, 以便轉運.  日治時代, 由於糖廠多為私人企業, 糖廠的鐵路並不相連.  直到二次大戰結束, 中華民國政府接收後, 把所有糖廠整併為國營的臺灣糖業公司, 才將鐵路線加以連結.  戰後, 由於甘蔗品種的改良, 蔗糖產量一度恢復戰前的水準, 為國家賺取大筆收入.  但是, 民國六十年代以後, 國際糖價持續下跌, 臺灣糖業逐漸沒落, 而糖業鐵路也不斷縮短, 停駛.  Sugar refinery trains were usually located around the sugar refinery, to facilitate the transportation of goods.  But they were also connected to government railways for transit purposes.  During the Japanese Colonial Administration, most sugar refineries were managed privately, and the individual railways were not connected.  This [state of affairs] persisted until the end of World War II, when the Republic of China government combined all of the sugar refineries into the state-owned Taiwan Sugar Corporation8, and also joined the railways together.  After the war the quality of sugar cane was improved, and this important source of revenue returned to pre-war levels.  After 1971, however, the price of sugar declined steadily, and Taiwan's sugar industry slowly faded from the scene.  The sugar refinery railways were likewise shortened or decommissioned.

近年來, 糖業鐵路不斷的嘗試轉型, 朝向觀光方面發展, 橋頭, 新營, 溪湖等糖廠的小火車重新啟動, 搭載旅客奔馳在原野, 重返惜日的榮景.  In recent years, the sugar railways have undergone continuous changes, and have also been developed for tourism.  Little refinery trains like the Chiao Tou, Shin Ying, and Shi Hu have been renovated, and are now carrying tourists back into the remote glory of days past. 

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1. It was 200 years, so the definition of "anti-Ching agitator" varied.  In the 1600s the Ming loyalist Koxinga used Taiwan as a base from which he hoped to regain China from "Ching usurpers," though towards the end of the Ching administration they were probably more worried about rebellious elements in general.  It's funny how history has a way of repeating itself.

2. The last of these, the Wushe Incident, forms the basis of the movie Seediq Bale.  It is often referred to as the "Musha Incident."  Maybe 霧社 is "Musha" in Japanese?  At any rate, the movie's fairly low budget, and in my opinion grossly overrated.  Saving Private Ryan it ain't.

3. Reminds me a lot of the Boxer Rebellion in China.  Both incidents ended in similar ways.

4. And this is how the older generations best remember the Japanese.  At their worst they were colonial oppressors, and at their best they modernized Taiwan.

5. Let's face it: back in the day Taiwan was filthy.  People threw their garbage behind their houses, the roads were like open sewers, and women - when they were allowed outside - limped from place to place.

6. The sugar factory in Dulan was also bombed.  It wasn't destroyed entirely (of course), and was later refurbished and reopened by Chinese businessmen following the KMT takeover.

7. This is, I think, and important thing to remember about Taiwan.  Most Western culture was introduced through Japan, and was thus translated through Japanese culture.  This process has colored many Taiwanese people's understanding of Western things up to the present day.  Sure, the Spanish, Dutch, and British were here earlier, but one gets the feeling that they didn't mix much with local populations.  (Reverend Mackay aside)

8. Or TTL, as it's still known today.  This corporation is still an important part of Taiwan's economy, though the monopoly it once enjoyed has shrunk dramatically.  It still owns and operates leisure farms, experimental farms, grocery stores, gas stations, and many other businesses.

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