2018年5月15日 星期二

Social Studies 社會 6, Second Semester 下, Unit 1 第一單元


The Chinese text below was taken from the textbook published by Kang Shuan 康軒文教事業.




第1單元 Unit One: 科學的啟蒙 The Rise of Science

十七世紀以來, 科學技術不斷進步革新, 為人類創造了富裕的物質生活, 也衝擊了傳統社會的思想觀念.  臺灣在這股追求工業與科技發展的浪潮中不斷努力, 創造出驚人的成就.  In the 17th century, scientific methods underwent a continual revolution.  [These methods] not only considerably improved people's material well-being, but also challenged more traditional beliefs and ideas.  Taiwan also strove toward this wave of technological progress, and [in doing so] has achieved remarkable things.




1科學革命 The Scientific Revolution

科學革命的起源 The Beginning of the Scientific Revolution

近代科學的迅速發展, 大約從十七世紀的歐洲開始.  在此之前, 歐洲人的生活與思想主要以宗教信仰為主, 當時認為大自然是神所創造的, 神的神聖旨意, 不是渺小的人類所能了解, 所以探索大自然的真相, 被教會視為是觸犯神的旨意.  後來有一些具有懷疑精神的人, 認為不應該盲目相信宗教的說法.  而應該從實際的觀察與實驗中獲取知識, 於是掀起一股科學研究的風氣.  The accelerated type of scientific progress [experienced] in recent times has its roots in 17th century Europe.  Before that time, European lifestyles and philosophies were primarily a reflection of religious beliefs.  [They believed] that the natural world was created by God, that God ordered the world according to His will, and that much of His creation was beyond human understanding.  For this reason, closer investigations of the natural world were considered sinful.  Later on there were some people more skeptical toward this religious [point of view], and they didn't possess a blind faith in what the Church told them.  [They believed that] our knowledge of the world should proceed from practical observation and experiment, and this began a trend toward scientific research.

科學發現改變人類的價值, 信仰與態度 Scientific Discoveries Change Human Values, Beliefs, and Attitudes

十六世紀著名的天文學家哥白尼, 仔細觀察天上星球的運行, 並加以記錄, 發現地球是以太陽為中心, 圍繞著太陽運行, 推翻了當時人們認為宇宙是以地球為中心的觀念.  到了十七世紀, 伽利略利用自製的望遠鏡, 證實哥白尼的說法.  The famous 16th century astronomer Copernicus carefully observed and recorded the motions of the planets, and he discovered that the Earth revolved around the sun.  [This belief] that the Earth revolved around the sun was contrary to the commonly held perception that the [entire] universe revolved around the Earth.  Then, in the 17th century, Galileo used a telescope he'd made to prove what Copernicus has said.

後來, 牛頓又以哥白尼和伽利略的研究為基礎, 在科學上有了更多的創新和發現.  他認為宇宙就像是一座巨大的機械, 透過觀察, 實驗, 計算與測量的過程, 可以了解它的運行規律, 因而建立了科學研究的方法.  這些研究方法促進了科學的發展, 也對人類的價值, 信仰和態度造成重大的影響.  Later still, Newton used Copernicus' and Galileo's discoveries as the foundation for later, more recent discoveries of his own.  He thought of the universe as a giant machine.  Through observation, experimentation, calculation, and measurement, the operations of this machine could be understood, and the the scientific method was thus established.  These research methods spurred further scientific discoveries, and also had a huge effect on people's values, beliefs, and attitudes.

這時期還發明許多新的儀器, 可以讓科學家用來實驗和記錄自然界的現象, 甚至利用儀器了解人體血液循環的情形, 因而促進自然科學和醫學的發展.  Many new [scientific] instruments were also developed during this time, enabling scientists to perform experiments and record new aspects of the natural world.  Instruments could be used to determine how blood was circulated through the human body, and this [in turn] spurred further developments [with respect to both] science and medicine.

這些科學家以懷疑的精神和實事求是的態度, 幫助人們的認識自然界, 擴充知識的範圍.  科學的方法也運用在日常生活中, 成為各種科學技術發展的基礎.  技術的發展, 不但助長人們對於科學研究的興趣, 也提升了人們的自信心.  有些科學家甚至相信, 人類可以改造自然, 成為世界的主宰.  These scientists' skeptical pursuit of truth helped mankind understand the natural world and deepen its own knowledge.  The scientific method was also incorporated into daily life, and became the foundation from which other scientific techniques evolved.  Technological progress didn't only increase people's interest in science, but also increased their self-confidence.  Some scientists even believed that people could improve upon nature, and become the masters of the world.

近代科學的快速發展 The Fast Pace of Scientific Development in Recent Years

科學研究的發展, 也被認為是國家富強的基礎.  因此, 歐洲各國, 無論是政府或民間, 紛紛投入科學研究的行列, 並且成立各種研究機構, 定期出版科學刊物, 促進了近代科學的快速發展.  The development of scientific research also formed a basis for national strength.  For this reason, many governments and private individuals made investments in the scientific enterprise, forming many types of scientific associations, and regularly publishing scientific journals in order to speed the rate of scientific progress.




2工業革命 The Industrial Revolution

工業革命的起源 The Beginning of the Industrial Revolution

到了十八世紀, 許多科學家開始應用科學知識, 發明各種機械動力和機器, 安裝在工廠中, 從事大規模生產.  這種利用機器代替人力的生產方式, 改善了以往傳統手工業產量少, 物資缺乏的問題, 對後來的世界造成極大的影響, 因此被稱為 "工業革命".  By the 18th century, many scientists used their scientific knowledge to invent machines and devices that they installed in factories to improve production.  This method of replacing manual labor with machines improved upon the output available with traditional, manual production methods, and also reduced scarcity.  This [method of production] later had a massive effect on the world, and for this reason [this period] was called "the Industrial Revolution."

工業革命的發展 Development of the Industrial Revolution

工業革命首先從民生用品的紡織業開始, 正如俗語所說: "需要是發明之母."  由於當時各國市場, 需要更多的棉紗和布料, 所以發明了各種紡紗機和織布機.  為了讓產品順利行銷到市場, 需要更便捷的運輸和通訊工具, 於是帶動了冶金, 煉鋼技術的進步, 以及火車, 汽船, 電報等不斷的發明和改良.  後來, 為了擴張產品的市場和控制廉價的原料, 需有強大的武力作後盾, 於是促進了各種戰艦, 槍砲等新式武器的製造技術.  因此, 工業革命發生以後, 技術的水準愈來愈高, 影響的範圍也愈來愈大.  The Industrial Revolution began in the textile industry, and [inspired] the phrase "Necessity is the mother of invention."  At the time, markets worldwide demanded more cotton yarn and fabric, so the invention of spinning and weaving machines became necessary.  In order to more effectively get these products to markets, more effective networks of transportation and communication had to be devised, and these [networks] led to continual advances in metallurgy techniques, trains, boats, and telegraphs.  Later still, [governments] had to improve the military technology used in vehicles and cannons in order to protect their control over markets, and their sources of supply.  For this reason, the level of technology rose steadily after the Industrial Revolution, and the effect [of this technology] was increasingly large.

工業革命促進國家的富強 The Industrial Revolution Promotes National Prosperity

工業革命發生以後, 能夠運用新機器和新技術的工廠, 不但產量增加, 品質提高, 而且還能獲得更多的利潤.  英國是最早發生工業革命的國家, 各種工業產品快速行銷全球各地, 獲得非常可觀的財富, 因此成為當時世界上最富強的國家, 工業革命也被認為是追求國家富強的必要途徑.  After the Industrial Revolution, factories that used new machines and new techniques didn't only increase their production and level of quality, but also increased their profits.  England was where the Industrial Revolution occurred first, so they were able to get their goods to market quickly, and realized great prosperity from this fact.  For this reason they became the most prosperous nation at the time, and the Industrial Revolution was considered necessary to continuation of this prosperity.

工業革命造成工業強國對弱國的侵略 The Industrial Revolution Causes Strong Countries to Invade Weaker Ones

在英國因工業革命而成為富強大國之後, 有些國家如法國, 德國, 美國等, 體認到工業的重要, 也開始急起直追, 很快成為進步的工業強國.  這些工業強國常常利用先進的科學技術, 發展優越的軍火武器, 對工業弱國進行土地侵占, 資源掠奪, 人力剝削, 甚至以傳播上帝的福音為藉口, 希望讓侵略的暴行得到合理的解釋.  歐洲各國對非洲的瓜分與剝削, 造成種族仇恨, 戰爭不斷, 就是一個典型的例子.  After England became a great power as the result of the Industrial Revolution, there were a few countries like France, Germany, and America that realized the importance of industrialization.  These countries began pursuing this [goal], and rapidly became industrial powers in their own right.  These industrial powers often used scientific methods discovered earlier to improve their weaponry, and to seize land and resources from weaker nations.  [They also] exploited manpower [in these weaker nations], and used the spread of the Gospel as an excuse.  They used the threat of military force to their own advantage.  [The way] the nations of Europe began dividing and exploiting Africa, creating racial hatred and continual war, was an example [of this trend].  *

工業革命對臺灣的影響 Effects of the Industrial Revolution on Taiwan

當時以傳統農業立國的中國, 日本等亞洲國家, 同樣也受到工業強國的侵略, 為了自保, 開始吸收科學知識, 並發展工業建設.  清末時, 臺灣已引進輪船, 開始建築鐵路, 鋪設電纜等.  至日治時代, 開始實施新式教育, 推廣科學知識, 工廠也開始採用新的生產技術.  民國三十四年以後, 政府更積極在各級學校發展科學與技術教育, 並設立科學工業園區, 生產更具競爭力的產品.  科技的研究和應用, 在政府的輔導和鼓勵之下蓬勃發展, 工業產品也開始在世界各地嶄露頭角.  At the time, traditional agricultural nations such as China and Japan were also threatened by the industrial powers.  In order to protect themselves, they also began to soak up scientific knowledge and begin industrial projects.  By the end of the Ching Dynasty, the steamboat had already been introduced in Taiwan, and the construction of railroads and telegraph cables was begun.  During the Japanese Colonial Administration, a new method of education was introduced, scientific knowledge was improved, and factories began using new methods of production.  After 1945, the government developed scientific and technological education in every school, established science and industrial parks, and to created competitive products.  Technological study and application developed rapidly under the government's encouragement, and the products of Taiwanese industries began to appear all over the world.**

近年來, 臺灣的科技產品, 行銷全世界, 創造了令人驚嘆的經濟成果.  臺灣的人民, 也因為創造這種成就, 而強化了自尊心和自信心.  In recent years the products of Taiwanese industries are sold worldwide, and represent an impressive economic achievement.  Taiwanese people can all be proud and draw strength from this accomplishment.

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*Lumping France, Germany, and the U.S. together was an odd choice, given that industrialization and colonization processes which took place in these three very different countries translated into very different foreign policies for each.

**This era of economic development after 1945 is often referred to as Taiwan's "economic miracle," and it really was quite impressive.  Sure, the price of that miracle might have been a sort of fascism, but it is/was still something to marvel over.

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