2018年5月14日 星期一

Chinese 國語 6, Second Semester 下, Lessons 1 and 2 第一課跟第二課


The Chinese text below was taken from the book published by Nan Yi Books 南一書局.

The red characters are the vocabulary words for that lesson.




第一課 Lesson One: 詩選 Poetry Selection


春夜喜雨 Joyous Rain on a Spring Night     杜甫 Du Fu

好雨知時節,
The rain arrives on time,
當春乃發生.
Just as spring erupts.
隨風入夜,
A quiet wind arises in the night,
潤物細無聲.
Silently watering all the plants.
雲俱黑,
The clouds over the country road all darken,
江船火獨明.
Only the lights of the riverboats can be seen.
曉看紅溼處,
In the early morning light one sees the wet red flowers,
花重錦官城.
They resemble Jin Guan Fort.

注釋 Comments

1. 好雨: 在本詩中指春雨, 及時的雨.
2. 時節: 時令季節.
3. 乃: 就, 於是.
4. 發生: 萬物萌芽生長.  詩中指雨的降臨有助於萬物的芽生長.
5. 潛: 動詞, 悄悄行動.
6. 潤物: 萬物受到雨水的滋潤.
7. 野徑: 鄉間的小路.
8. 俱: 都, 全.
9. 獨: 只有.
10. 曉: 清晨, 天剛亮的時候.
11. 紅潛處: 雨水沾溼紅花的地方.
12. 花重: 花朵因受雨水滋潤而潛重的樣子.
13. 錦官城: 又稱錦城, 三國時代國管理織錦的官曾此地, 因此得名.  原址在今四川成都市附近.

語譯 Note

這一場及時雨配合時令季節而降下, 幫助萬物在春天萌芽生長.  夜裡細雨伴著和風悄悄落下, 不聲不響的滋潤著萬物.  天空烏雲密布, 鄉間小路四周一片漆黑, 只有江上漁船的燈火是明亮的.  清晨, 看看雨水沾溼紅花的地方, 溼重的花朵必定會開滿了錦官城.  The rain fell during the right season, helping all the plants grow.  A fine rain arrived with a seasonable wind at night, moistening all the growing things.  Dark clouds covered the heavens over a country road, so that only the lights of the riverboats could be seen.  In the early morning [the poet] saw a place where the rain had moistened red flowers, bringing to mind the Jin Guan Fort.*

賞析 Summary

這首詩是唐朝大詩人杜甫在成都草堂所寫的作品.  杜甫因西災而到四川成都定居, 所以春雨來臨時, 他非常欣喜, 以久旱逢甘的愉悅心情, 抒發對這場春夜細雨的感受.  This poem was written by the great poet Du Fu during the Tang Dynasty.  He wrote this work in Tsao Tang, in Chengdu.  He went to live in Chengdu, Sichuan Province because of a drought in Shaanxi, so he was overjoyed when the spring rain finally arrived there.  He was happy the drought was finally over, and wanted to share his impressions of the fine spring rain.

詩歌第一, 二句把雨擬人化, 用 "好" 字讚美春雨, 說它 "知時節", 在人們需要的時候來臨, 滋潤萬物的生機, 表達盼望春雨的心情.  三, 四句用 "潛" 和 "無聲" 描寫寂靜的夜裡, 綿綿細雨無聲無息的隨風而至.  但是心思細密的詩人, 仍聽出綿密春雨悄悄的滋養了萬物.  In the first and second lines of the poem he personalizes the rain, using the word "good" to praise it, and going on to say "it knows what time of year" it must arrive and water the plants.  [These two lines] also represent one's hope for a spring rain.  The third and fourth lines use "inherent" and "soundless" to describe the night, and the way the rain arrives in concert with the wind.  But the careful poet still bears witness to how the spring rain nourishes all the plants.

"野徑雲俱黑, 江船火獨明" 兩句, 描述此時野外一片漆黑, 而江上的漁火若隱若現, 不但用江船漁火襯托春夜的幽暗, 也畫出春夜細雨迷, 氣瀰漫, 在蒼茫如的天色中生動描繪出雨夜郊野中的景物, 引人入勝.  "The clouds over the country road all darken, / Only the lights of the riverboats can be seen."  These two lines reflect the blackness of the sky, and the appearance of the fishing boats on the river.  [These lines] don't only contrast the darkness of the sky with the fires of the riverboats, but also depict the misty drizzle of a spring night.  [The poet] paints a compelling scene against the inky skies.

末兩句, 詩人推想錦官城經過春雨的洗禮滋潤, 明晨一定可以看到滿城鮮花紅豔欲滴, 欣欣向榮的景致.  春雨滋潤了大地, 為大地帶來蓬的朝氣, 詩人表達了盛讚春雨的心境.  In the last two lines the poet imagines Jin Cheng Fort struck by the spring rain, where one could see red flowers emerge brilliantly in the early morning light.  The spring rain covers the whole land, and the poet expresses his thankfulness for this development.

整首詩描述詩人從期盼下雨, 聽雨聲, 遠望雨景, 到推想雨後錦官城的景象, 由深夜寫到清晨, 由聽覺寫到視覺, 感受深刻, 描寫動人.  透過江村夜雨的描繪, 抒發心中對春雨的讚嘆.  全詩雖然沒有用到一個 "喜" 字, 但詩人的喜悅之情躍然紙上, 溢於言表.  The whole poem describes the poet's yearning for rain, the sound of rain arriving, and his mental picture of Jin Guan Fort.  [The poem] takes place from late at night to the early morning, includes both [the poet's] inner sensations and what he sees, and is very moving.  [In this poem] he draws a picture of a river village experiencing a nighttime rain, and extends his praise for the spring shower.  Although the word "joy" doesn't appear anywhere in the poem, the poet's joy informs the poem and does not need to be stated explicitly.




第二課 Lesson Two: 最後一片葉子 The Last Leaf**

蘇西和安娜都是年輕的畫家, 兩人合一間頂樓當畫室, 為雜誌畫插圖, 用微薄的收入支付房租.  樓下住著一位老畫家, 她們常常向老畫家請教畫圖的技巧.  Susie and Anna were both young painters.  They both rented an art studio, where they painted pictures for magazines.  Their small income from these pictures paid their rent.  On the floor beneath them lived an old painter, from whom they learned painting techniques.

一個多雨的夏天, 舊樓房潮溼熱, 原本瘦弱的蘇西不幸感染了炎, 不停的咳嗽.  蘇西站在窗前, 漫無目的的覽窗外的風景.  她發現不遠處的牆上, 垂掛著一株常春藤, 張開掌狀的, 墨綠的葉子.  After a rainy summer, their building became very damp and hot.  Susie, whose health was never good, developed pneumonia and couldn't stop coughing.  She stood before the window, and gazed abstractedly at the scenery outside.  She discovered ivy growing on a brick wall, growing many strong green leaves.

隨著秋天的腳步愈來愈近, 畫室裡更加陰暗溼冷, 蘇西的病情也愈來愈重.  她然的躺在床上, 望著秋風中的常春藤, 葉子一片片告別枯藤, 在薄霧裡, 輕飄飄的墜落地面.  蘇西暗自嘆息: 我的生命會不會也像落葉一樣短?  As autumn drew closer and closer, the art studio grew even more cold and damp.  Susie's condition grew worse and worse, and she lay on her bed gloomily, watching the leaves fall off the ivy as fall approached.  As she watched the leaves fall down through the fog, she wondered: will my life be as short as theirs?

蘇西的眼窩日益塌陷, 臉色如石膏像般蒼白.  一個晚秋的黃昏, 蘇西一臉疲上雙眼, 感傷的對安娜: "我好久沒有收入了, 不用再治療了, 讓我像落葉一樣的離開吧!"  Susie's eyes sunk into her head and her face grew very pale.  On a late autumn evening she closed her eyes tightly, and mournfully said to Anna: "I haven't earned any money for a long time.  Don't nurse me any longer.  Let me depart [this world], as if I were one of those leaves!"

"不行!  妳一定要作起來; 不要再去想什麼落葉了!" 安娜的焦急全寫在臉上.  "No!  You must beat this, don't think about the leaves any more!" Anna [said] with worry written all over her face.

安娜和老畫家想盡了辦法, 仍然鼓舞不了蘇西的求生意志.  在寒冬的夜裡, 蘇西推開安娜煮好湯, 說: "我不必喝什麼湯.  妳看!  寒冷的北風把常春藤的葉子落下來了.  最後一片葉子掉下來時, 我也要走了!"  Anna and the old painter tried and tried, but they couldn't think of a way to lift Susie's spirits.  On one wintry night Susie imagined that Anna was cooking chicken soup, and said: "I don't need any soup.  Look!  The freezing north wind has blown the leaves from the ivy, and the last leaf has disappeared!  I will disappear, too!"

"難道已經沒有法子可想了嗎?" 安娜淚水盈眶的反問自己.  "Is there nothing we can do?" Anna tearfully asked herself.

暴風雨來臨的那幾天, 狂風像野獸般哀號著, 蘇西把臉埋進溼透的頭裡, 低泣著: "最後一片葉子, 一定會隨著暴風雨掉下來!"  Over several days a storm howled outside like a wild animal, and Susie buried her face in her pillow, sobbing: "The last of the leaves will certainly be blown away by the storm!"

"不要害怕!  蘇西, 我就在妳身邊呢!" 安娜緊緊的握住蘇西的手, 輕輕的說: "常春藤的葉子掉了, 春天一到, 還會長出來; 可是生命消了, 就再也回不了頭!"  她彎下腰, 堅定的告訴蘇西: "朋友, 冬天已到盡頭, 春天就再不遠的地方等我們, 加油!"  "Don't be scared!  Susie, I am right beside you!" Anna held Susie's hand fretfully, and said softly, "The ivy's leaves fall off, but in the spring it will grow new ones.  But when a life ends, it is gone forever!"  She bent down, and told Susie resolutely: "Winter is at an end, my friend, and spring is not far off!  Keep fighting!" 

暴風雨停了, 安娜打開窗戶, 指著窗外的常春藤, 對蘇西說: "妳看!  那株常春藤的莖上, 還留著最後一片葉子."  雖然生病讓蘇西的視力模糊, 但是她仍然可以看見那最後一片葉子, 還高高的掛在藤上.  "這片葉子是在提醒我要堅強起來!"  蘇西轉頭看著安娜, 嘴角漾起一抹久違的笑意.  The storm subsided, [and Anna] pointed to the ivy outside the window, saying to Susie: "Look!  On that ivy branch there is still one leaf left!"  Although her eyes had been weakened by sickness, she could still see the leaf [hanging there], high upon the ivy.  "That leaf is urging me to be strong!" Susie [said].  She turned her head toward Anna, smiling resolutely.

蘇西在安娜的照顧下, 身體一天天好起來.  有一天安娜扶著蘇西在樓下散步, 她向蘇西說: "最後一片葉子為什麼永不掉落, 妳知道嗎?  那是樓下的老畫家, 冒著生命的危險, 在暴風雨的夜晚, 為妳畫上去呀!"  Under Anna's care, Susie recovered steadily every day.  One day Anna took Susie for a walk downstairs, and Anna said to Susie: "Do you know why the last leaf never fell down?  It was because the old painter downstairs risked his life to venture out during the stormy night.  He painted the leaf on the wall!"

"喔--" 蘇西恍然大悟, 為何老畫家在暴風雨後會一病不起.  溫熱的淚水滑過蘇西的臉頰, 彷彿在提醒她, 那一晚是那麼的寒冷, 而瘦弱的老畫家竟在風雨飄搖中, 一筆一筆的完成那最後一片葉子.....  "Oh..." Susie suddenly realized why the old painter had been ill after the storm, and warm tears flowed down her cheeks.  That night had been so cold, and the fragile old painter had gone out in the storm, to paint the last leaf stroke by stroke...***

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*I'm thinking there's more to this story, but I've never read "The Romance of the Three Kingdoms 三國演義" so I'm not entirely sure what the significance of the red flowers is.

**This is a translation/adaptation of a story by O. Henry.

***But if it had been rainy and windy outside, how did the paint dry?  Maybe I'm overthinking this story, or maybe it made more sense in the original English version.

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