2017年11月10日 星期五

台灣西方文明初體驗 The Influence of Western Civilization on Taiwan (3 of 4)

The information below was taken from 台灣西方文明初體驗 ("The Influence of Western Civilization on Taiwan").  The Chinese was written by Chen Rou-jing, and the English was written/translated from the Chinese by me.  以下的內容來自台灣文明初體驗這本書.  下列中文的部分是從陳柔縉作者的書裡節錄的.  英文的部分則是我寫的.



飛機 Airplanes

一九0三年十二月十七日是美國萊特兄弟完成人類首飛的日子.  雖然他們的 "飛行者一號" 才飛短短十二秒; 雖然國際航空聯合會登記的最早飛航, 不是萊特兄弟, 而是法國的桑托斯.  杜翼特, 駕駛雙X機 "雙14" 離地兩公尺飛了六十公尺; 雖然有人懷疑萊特兄弟藉海灘斜坡之助起飛, 見證人又只有寥寥五人, 但這些似乎都無損人類對萊特兄弟駕駛 "飛行者一號", 完成古今人類飛行夢想的認定.  On December 17, 1903 the American Wright Brothers became the first people to fly, even though their "Flyer 1" only flew for a short 12 seconds.  The International Aeronautical Federation, however, does not credit the Wright Brothers with the first recorded flight, and instead gives credit to the Frenchman Alberto Santos-Dumont, who piloted his "Twin 14" from a height of 2 meters to 60 meters above the ground.  And although people deride the Wright Brothers for using beach slopes to assist their takeoff, and only having five witnesses present, this takes nothing away from their achievement with regard to realizing people's age-old dream of flight.

一九0三年, 萊特兄弟撕下人類航空歷史的第一頁後, 聞名世界開始跑出許多所謂載夢的 "飛行家", 他們不斷挑戰天空屋頂的高度.  世界首飛十一年後, 台灣島上空也出現第一架飛機的身影.  After 1903, once the Wright Brothers had turned the first page in the history of human aviation, many "aviators" throughout the world began to pursue their own dreams of flight.  They fought an unceasing battle against the heavens.  11 years after the first flight [had taken place], the first plane appeared in the skies over Taiwan.


原來是有個叫 "幾原知重" 的日本飛行家, 從美國學得一身技藝回東方, 來過台灣計畫飛行表演, 但回日本不久生病, 飛機和計畫給了一樣留美的野島銀藏.  一九一四年三月二十一日, 有七十二位原住民聞風而下山, 蹲在飛機螺旋槳後頭好奇這雙人造大鳥, 等野鳥飛機的發動機運轉, 爆炸一般的聲音, 捲起

激烈的強風, 他們趕快轉身跑開, 一邊驚叫; "是暴風啊!"  In the beginning there was an aviator from Japan by the name of "Kohara Seigo" who studied aviation in America and brought this knowledge back to the East.  He originally planned on giving a flight exhibition in Taiwan, but shortly after his return to Japan he fell ill, and both his plane and the planned exhibition were passed on to Nojima Ginza, another man who'd studied aviation in America.  On March 21, 1914, 72 members of an aboriginal tribe heard the noise [of the plane] and came down from the mountains out of curiosity.  They followed the noise to find two "artificial birds."  Once the engines of these "wild birds" roared to life, the sound was deafening and a strong wind assailed them.  They quickly ran away, shouting "It's a storm!"


The parade ground.

就在今天台北市新店溪旁中華路二段, 水源路的南機場, 即日本時代的馬場町練兵場, 三月二十一日早上十點三十六分, 野鳥銀藏舉起左手, 現場三萬多人屏息以待, 幾乎忘記要吞口水, 七萬隻眼珠聚集在蠢蠢欲動的飛機身上.  霎時, 野鳥的助手放開飛機, 滑行四十公尺後, 喝采聲瞬間直破台北的天際, "萬歲!  萬歲!  萬歲!" 練兵場內外一片像黑白浪花漂蕩, 大家不是揮手帕, 就是向天空猛揮帽子.  During the Japanese colonial administration, on the present site of Taipei City's Jung Hua Road section 2 (near the Xindian River and the southern airport on Shui Yuan Road), there was a parade ground.  On the morning of March 21 at 10:36 a.m., Nojima Ginza raised his right hand while 30,000 people sat on the edge of their seats - all too excited to swallow.  70,000 eyes were glued to the planes as [a group of] assistants rushed out, and thrust the propellers into motion.  After taxiing 40 meters, a tremendous roar filled the skies over Taipei [as Ginza took to the air].  "Ten thousand years!  Ten thousand years!  Ten thousand years!"  The [crowds] inside and outside the parade ground looked like a field of black and white flowers as people waved handkerchiefs and doffed their hats.


野鳥銀藏的飛行僅四分鐘, 但時間長短無關緊要, 跟萊特兄弟的十二秒一樣, 依然寫下台灣航空史動人的第一頁.  Nojima Ginza's flight lasted 4 minutes, but the duration was not the most important thing.  As with the Wright Brothers [in America] and their 12 second flight, [this event] marks the first page in the history of Taiwanese aviation.


為了迎接這歷史性的時刻, 當年總督府鐵道部頗有行銷觀念, 發行了參觀台灣首飛的八折乘車券.  擔心人潮引發人力車哄抬車資, 相關部門也限制從台北火車站載客到練兵場的車費在十五錢以下.  As a way of promoting this historic event, that year the Colonial Administration's Department of Railways issued a 20% discount voucher for those visiting Taiwan's first flight.  [They did this because] they worried that the number of people visiting the event would exceed the number of rickshaws available to take them.  The Department of Railways also set a 50 yen ceiling on the price of tickets to Taipei Station.



Police station in Fengyuan, Taichung City.  Building dates back to
Japanese Imperial Administration.

多數西方文明傳入台灣的管道是日本向歐美學習, 台灣再轉道由日本傳入, 台中豐原人謝文達就是在日本千葉縣的伊藤飛行學校學習, 成為台灣第一位飛行家.  一九二0年, 他在家鄉台中做了 "鄉土訪問飛行".  一九二三年, 也是台灣知菁士紳組團向帝國議會請願爭取成立台灣議會運動的第三年, 謝文達曾飛越東京, 灑下幾十萬張宣傳單, 東京街頭一時散落 "給台灣人議會!" "殖民地總督獨裁主義是立憲國日本的恥辱" 的傳單.  Most of the aspects of Western culture passed into Taiwan were passed from Europe and North America via Japan.  In this way Taiwan was doubly influenced by the Japanese.  In Fengyuan, Taichung County, Xie Wen-da studied aviation in Chiba Prefecture, Japan, and became Taiwan's first pilot.  In 1920, he embarked upon his "local flight" around his hometown.  In 1923, the Taiwan Gentlemen's Club held the Third Annual Taiwan Sports Conference with the Imperial Council's permission, and [at that conference] Xie Wen-da flew to Tokyo.  [As he arrived in Tokyo] he released tens of thousands of leaflets which rained down on Tokyo streets, [these leaflets imploring], "Give the Taiwanese their own Council!"  [At that time], the fact that the Governor of Taiwan was appointed by the Japanese Emperor was a source of friction between Taiwan and Japan.


日本時代, 共出八位台灣籍飛行士, 其中排序第五的楊清溪卻教人記憶最深, 可能與他返台做飛行表演途中機毀人亡有關.  和謝文達因戰受傷, 終止飛行生涯比起來, 楊清溪劃下的句點更令人多幾分不捨.  大概也因此, 回顧楊清溪生前種種的文字, 遠多過號稱 "台灣第一" 的謝文達.  In Japanese times, there were eight Taiwanese pilots altogether, but the fifth of these, Yang Ching-shi is best remembered.  This is probably because of his death, resulting from an accident during one of his return flights to Taiwan.  Like Xie Wen-da, his flying career was also brought to an end by an injury, and his writings have also given people food for thought.  He is ranked behind Xie Wen-da, [who is often referred to as] "Taiwan's Number One."


照史 (與楊清溪的姊夫林東辰熟識.  林東辰時為臺灣日日新報記者) 所著高雄人物第一輯指出, 一九三三年, 楊清溪係向兄長壽款兩千圓, 向日本陸軍買偵察機, 整修之後取名 "高雄號", 是當時全日本民間僅有的六架私人飛機之一.  According to both Yang Ching-shi's older brother Lin Dong-chun's testimony and an interview with him published in The Taiwan Daily News, and also the first book of Figures in Kaohsiung's [History], in 1933 Yang Ching-shi borrowed 2000 yen [?] from his older brother Chang-shou.  He used this money to buy a reconnaissance aircraft from the Japanese army, which he named "the Kaohsiung" after it underwent repairs.  It was one of only six private aircraft in Japan at that time.**



Yang Ching-shi and the "Kaohsiung."

一九三四年十月十七日起, 二十六歲的楊清溪開始了他的鄉土訪問飛行.  當時人形容飛機沿途所經的地方 "無處不是萬人空巷, 人人翹首仰望, 似乎都有一種難以形容的快樂與鼓舞."  On October 17, 1934, the 26 year old Yang Ching Shi began his visits to various towns.  People at the time described the places where he visited as having "streets teeming with people, where everyone strained to see, where it was hard to describe the level of their excitement."


楊清溪飛行事跡, 最讓人回味無窮的倒非旁人種種的追述, 而是刊登於報紙臺灣新民報的楊清溪手記.  楊清溪彷彿給讀者他的眼睛, 雖然讀者不能飛登上青天, 一樣可以隨他的文字鳥瞰台灣山川大地, 周旋於詭譎的雲層之中, 楊清溪寫道: "其中最耀眼的還是白得如銀河的淡水河.  悠悠的河流, 與陸地上的眺望大異其趣.  ...大台北很鮮豔, 可能是紅磚建築烘托, 彷彿一幅西洋畫....  驟然, 飛入沉鬱的黑雲裡, 伸手不見五指... 碰上最險惡的黑暗, 只好將機艙關起來, 盲人騎瞎馬." 楊清溪從容對應, 終於衝向明亮的南台灣天空.  台南長榮中學師生在操場排成 "祝" 字歡迎這位校友, 他低空飛過投下花束, 差一點撞到竹林.  高雄的小學母校數百人聚集, 楊清溪說: "成黑色的凝結, 揮動小旗, 歡迎遊子回來, 我想到那裡面有親戚和隔壁流鼻涕的小孩, 不禁熱淚盈眶."  The aeronautical accomplishments of Yang Ching-shi were very inspiring, but what gave people a feeling of closeness to him were the accounts of flying he wrote for the Taiwan New People's Daily.  In these accounts it is as if Yang Ching-shi lent the reader his eyes, and although they weren't actually able to ascend the heavens they could, through his words, participate in his flights over Taiwan's mountains and rivers.  


Writing about his spiraling ascent into the clouds, Yang Ching-shi wrote: "What draws the eye most is the movement of the clouds, as if drawn along by a silver-hued river.***  The views of the land from this languid river vary greatly... to see the contrasts of Taipei [from above], the red brick buildings baking in the sun, the brightness of the ocean to the west... and then to fly into the blackness of the clouds, where even your five fingers are invisible before your face... When one encounters such darkness he can only draw the cockpit closed.  A blind man injures whatever horse he rides."  


Yang Chi-shi pressed on, however, and eventually arrived into the clear skies over south Taiwan.  Teachers and students at Tainan's Chang Rong Junior High stood together to form the character for "congratulations" to welcome [Yang Ching-shi], a former student at their school.  As he came down at a low altitude he almost struck a stand of bamboo trees nearby.  Hundreds of people gathered at his elementary school in Kaohsiung, where Yang Ching-shi said: "As the black, waving flag [of this school] greets its prodigal son, I can't help but think of my relatives here, and of the children next to them with runny noses.  [Thinking of this], I can't help but shed tears."


除飛行士外, 戰前只有極少數台灣民眾搭乘過飛機, 其中台籍貴族院議員許丙的太太葉白曾留下她的搭機感想.  依許丙長子許伯埏 (一九一九年生) 的回想錄記載, 許丙太太於一九三一年秋天搭上飛機, 是因民航機進行營業前測試, 招待少數官民試飛遊覽.  她飛了短短十分鐘左右, 在空中俯瞰, 並不感覺恐怖, "房子如火柴盒, 人像螞蟻一樣走動."  許伯埏推想, 他的母親葉白可能是台灣第一位搭飛機的女性.  Aside from the pilots, prior to WWII only a very small number of Taiwanese people rode on airplanes.  One of these was the Ye Bai, the wife of council member Xu Bing, who left behind her impressions of riding on a plane.  From Xu Bing's grandson Xu Bo-yan (born in 1919) and his Memoirs [we learn that] Xu Bing's wife boarded a plane in the fall of 1931, on a People's Airline test flight which took a small number of officials on a short tour.  She only flew for about 10 minutes, and did not feel frightened when looking down upon the land from the air.  "The houses were like matchboxes," she said, "The people moved about like ants."  Xu Bo-yan goes on to add that this mother Ye Bai was possibly the first Taiwanese woman to ride upon an airplane.



Stewardesses working for the China Airlines Company.

中國第一家民營 "中國航空公司", 於一九三0年開始營運, 台灣民航則以一九三五年十月八日, 日本航空輸送株式會社的 "雁號" 飛機飛台北福岡線為濫觴.  在此前一年的七月二十七日, 也有一次盛大的招待遊覽飛行.  所招待的七十二位官民, 分十三趟搭 "雀號" 升空.  第一批的總督中川建藏, 說也是第一次搭飛機.  被分在第六批的台籍貴族院議員辜顯榮, 應是唯一的台灣人乘客.  事後, 辜顯榮受訪指出, 在飛機上看台北市, 好像排列著火柴盒, 農田像切塊的豆腐.  又說他已經知道坐飛機很安全舒適.  以前去日本, 要花四天 (搭船), 坐飛機只需十小時.  以後去日本開會, 應該改乘飛機.  China's first privately owned airline, "The China Airlines Company," was started in 1930.  Taiwan's People's Airline dates back to October 8, 1935.  The Japan Aeronautical Transport Co. Ltd.'s "Goose" airliner flew back and forth between Taipei and Fukuoka.  On July 27 of the previous year, there was also an "official diplomatic inspection tour," in which 72 officials split into 13 groups and flew the "Sparrow" [around the island].  The first imperial governor to ride an airplane was Tadashi Nakagawa.  


The first Taiwanese person to ride [as a passenger] on a [commercial] plane was probably Senator Gu Shian-rong.  After his flight, Gu Shiang-rong [also] said that the houses of Taipei looked like matchboxes, and that the fields looked like pieces of tofu.  He went on to say that he regarded air travel as very safe and comfortable.  Where going to Japan once took 4 days by boat, riding an airplane reduced the trip to only 10 hours.  He planned on taking a plane he next time he had to go to Japan for a meeting.


定期台日航線開始營運後, 第一年載客一千兩百一十六人, 其中多少台灣人無法辨知.  但日治時期, 即使富貴家族往返日本, 也多只是搭船, 搭飛機的少之又少.  據報載, 一九三七年六月, 曾有一位八十歲老太太莊阿隨搭機回台灣.  莊阿隨在日治之初, 就是女中豪傑, 能在屏東家鄉騎馬指揮壯丁.  八旬之年敢坐飛機也不會太令人驚歎了.  After regular Taiwan-Japan routes started operating, 1,216 people flew during the first year.  We have no way of knowing how many of those passengers were Taiwanese people, but during the Japanese colonial period even wealthy families returned to Japan via boat, and very few took planes.  It was reported that in June 1937 an 80 year old woman by the name of Juang A-sui took a plane back to Taiwan.  She was well respected in her hometown Pingtung, and was known to be very brave.  That she rode on a plane at her advanced age should come as no big surprise.


女性首先介入航空業的, 不外空中小姐.  一九三八年台灣開始有空中小姐, 日本時代稱 "エア·ガール", 即譯自英文 "air girl" 的外來語.  第一次只招募兩位, 要求學歷在高女以上, 身高一五六公分以下, 父兄同意, 未婚, 二十歲左右等等條件.  最後出線者為兩位北一女畢業的日本女性 "波多美智" 和 "村田千鶴".  Women first entered the air travel industry as stewardesses.  In 1938 the first stewardesses appeared in Taiwan, and during the Japanese colonial administration they were called "hikaru" or "air girls" in English.  In the beginning, only two women met the desired qualifications, which were a level of education above high school, a height below 156 cm, consent from fathers and brothers, unmarried, and an age of around 20.  The two women who successfully applied were two graduates of the Taipei Girl's School, Yoshitomo Hata and Murata Chizuru, both Japanese.


一九四一年日本偷襲珍珠港, 太平洋戰爭爆發, 台灣的天空開始出現嚇人的美國轟炸機.  雖然大人急於躲進防空洞, 但是天真無知的小孩依舊看飛機如天上的大鳥一般, 興奮得對飛機揮手歡呼.  其中隱藏的心情, 和十五世紀達文西畫航空器圖沒什麼不同, 和現代派老詩人紀弦寫下 "我從小就想飛" 也一樣.  紀弦在詩的前三句寫著: "我從小就想飛  我從小就想飛  我從小就想飛".  相信百年, 千年以後, 人類還會執著這個近乎本能的, 純真的夢想, 繼續飛行.  In 1941 the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor, and war erupted across the the Pacific.  Allied bombers were glimpsed fearfully in the skies over Taiwan.  Yet even as the important people scurried into air raid shelters, children ignorant of the realities of war greeted the planes flocking through the sky with open arms.  Their sense of joy was akin to that of Da Vinci, drawing pictures of flying machines in the 15th century.  It was also akin to the modern poet Ji Shian, who wrote "From my childhood I wished to fly."  The first three lines of Ji Shian's are, moreover: "From my childhood I wished to fly / From my childhood I wished to fly / From my childhood I wished to fly."  It's easy to understand why so many years later people still hold on to this simple dream of flight.



Allied bombing run over Taiwan.

Related Entries 相關的文章:


台灣西方文明初體驗 The Influence of Western Civilization on Taiwan (2 of 4)

台灣西方文明初體驗 The Influence of Western Civilization on Taiwan (1 of 4)
The Airport MRT
Paradise on Vacation 天堂在放假

*You know what would have been a more interesting way to approach this topic?  To discuss the development of military aviation in Mainland China leading up to World War II.  The Allies spent a lot of time, personnel, and money to train the Kuomintang troops under Chiang Kai-shek, and this probably had a bigger effect on modern Taiwanese aviation than whatever the Japanese did.  Omitting this important episode in Taiwan/China's history seems like a strange oversight on the author's part.


**In the Japanese Empire, that is.  Including Taiwan.


***銀河 or "silver (hued) river" is a reference to the Milky Way.  In Chinese this makes more sense than in English.


P.S. Gotta say some of the more poetic descriptions of flight in this chapter were killing me.  I glossed over a couple for the sake of economy.  The 80 year old woman described near the end is probably a lot more than "brave," but after showing that particular section to a couple Taiwanese coworkers, and having them both tell me "I don't really know what this is supposed to mean," I just shortened it to "brave."

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