一九00年, 移居美國舊金山的日本人, 送了一部新奇時髦汽車祝賀皇太子大婚. 宮內省一試, 結果車子煞不住, 一頭栽進皇居的豪溝裡. 日本歷史上的第一部汽車最終因潛在的危險, 被鎖進倉庫陪蚊子. In the year 1900, a Japanese man who had moved to San Francisco sent the Crown Prince a car as his wedding gift. After the car was brought to his residence, they couldn't get it to start, and it was parked in a ditch outside. Seen as potentially dangerous, this first car in Japanese history was later placed in a warehouse, where it had only mosquitoes for company.
台灣的第一部汽車, 也有戲劇化的一生. The story behind Taiwan's first car was similarly dramatic.
一九一二那一年春天, 台北街道出現了第一部汽車. 不像日本, 車主是尊貴的王子, 台灣史上第一位車主是當時知名旅館 "日の丸館" 的經營者杉森與吉. 杉森很早就移住台灣, 依始政五十年台灣草創史 一書記載, 一八九五年六月十七日, 日本開始統治台灣, 七月七日杉森就來台北了 (按, 同書別處另記作九月十二日). 他在離台北火車站不遠的北門街 (今博愛路, 開封街一帶) 經營旅店, 和 "朝陽號" 並稱當時最好的兩家旅館. 杉森買進汽車, 一方面自家使用, 也拿來迎送客人. In the spring of 1912, the first car was seen on the streets of Taipei. Unlike Japan, the owner of this "first car" wasn't a prince. The owner of this first car in Taiwanese history was Sugimori Yoshiyoshi, owner of the famous Hinomarukan (Day Pavilion) Hotel. Sugimori moved to Taiwan very early on, and his presence here was recorded in the "50-Year Annual of Taiwan's History."
The Japanese administration of Taiwan began on June 17th, 1895, and Sugimori arrived on the island the following July (the same book lists his day of arrival as the 12th in another section). He lived not far from the Taipei Train Station, on Bei Men Street (the area that is now the intersection of Bo Ai Road and Kai Feng Street). He operated both the Hinomarukan Hotel and the Chao Yang Hotel, which were considered the best hotels at the time. Sugimori bought the car for his own use, and also for transporting guests to and from his hotels.
|Car from 1912.|
這部車在台北街頭拉風了兩年, 一九一四年 (大正三年) 十一月七日凌晨三點二十分, 突然就從杉森的 "日の丸館" 起火, 西風助長火勢, 延燒兩個小時, 附近八十六戶燒毀, 隔天報紙標題寫著 "領臺以來の大火". 台灣有史以來第一部汽車, 就在史上大火裡, 燒得只剩骨架. 後來, 車子的骸骨捐給工業學校作為輔助教學之用. 結局似乎比日本的第一部車更加慘烈. This car was seen on the streets of Taipei for two years, until Sugimori's Hinomarukan Hotel suddenly caught fire in on November 7th, 1914, at 3:20 in the morning.1 The chief of the western district was called upon to put out the fire, it burned for two hours, and 86 other buildings in the area were burned down. The headline of the following day's paper read "A Great Fire Comes to Taiwan." Thus, Taiwan's first car was burned down to its frame in Taiwan's first big fire. Afterward this frame was donated to a vocational school for instructional purposes. Its fate seems more tragic than that which met Japan's first car.
從一九三二年 (昭和七年) 創刊的雜誌台灣自動車界的照片看, 一九一四, 一五年左右台灣的汽車, 跟現代房車的形體截然不同. 外觀上類似西方的馬車, 還沒有車門的裝置, 但前頭已有兩枚圓圓的瓦斯頭燈. 杉森的車子應該與之相去無多. From the pictures published in the magazine "Taiwan Automobile World" from 1932 onward, one can see that the styles of cars used in 1914 or 1915 were very different from what we know today. The cars looked more like Western (horse) carriages, and were without doors. The fronts of the cars, however, had a pair of round headlamps. Sugimori's car was probably very similar.
一九一二年春天, 杉森與吉買進台灣的第一部車, 同年冬天, 第二部車隨後載運到基隆港. 買下這部美國Jackson 32型汽車的也是一家旅館, 位於台北火車站前的 "台灣鐵道旅館". 鐵道旅館創辦於一九0八年, 樣樣走在文明先端, 原先以馬車迎客送客, 此時改用汽車, 再添時髦. In the spring of 1912, Sugimori Yoshiyoshi bought Taiwan's first car. In the winter of the same year, the second car was shipped through Keelung Port. It was another hotel that purchased this American Jackson 32 - the "Taiwan Railway Hotel" located in front of the Taipei Train Station. The Taiwan Railway Hotel was opened in 1908, and although this dignified hotel originally used a horse and carriage to transport guests, it later switched to the more fashionable automobile.
|The "Sunrise Theater"|
相隔沒幾個月, 知名戲院 "朝日座" 的專務 (總經理) 高松豐次郎一口氣從日本進口五部汽車, 做起租車生意, 一九一三年元月二日起, 固定載客往返台北和北投之間. 這是台灣營業車的第一頁. Only a few months later the famous "Sunrise Theater's" General Manager, Kojiro Takamatsu, ordered five cars from Japan which he intended to rent. From January 2nd, 1913 his customers were shuttled back and forth between Taipei and Beitou, and the vehicles thus used became the first commercial vehicles in Taiwan.2
日本時代的汽車雜誌曾說, 那年頭是腳踏車和人力車盛行的時代, 汽車被視為藍血貴族階級的專有物. 高松豐次郎的創舉, 時機上嫌早些, 經營一年多, 就關門大吉了. Japanese automotive magazines of the time tell us that during that year bicycles and rickshaws were the main modes of transportation, and that cars were viewed as very expensive toys for the aristocracy. Kojiro Takamatsu's rental business made some money, but it closed down for good after a year.
"日の丸館" 的第一部車, 最早曾請一位叫高橋由義的人載著杉森老闆試乘過, 高松豐次郎為了做生意, 則特別從東京聘來兩位 "運轉手" (汽車駕駛). 駕駛的名字被清楚記錄下來, 一個叫 "和田源治郎", 後來返回東京. 另一個 "尾花安三郎" 則繼續留在台灣, 離開租用汽車公司後, 改任鐵道飯店的司機. The Hinomarukan Hotel's first car was driven by a man named Yui Takahashi, who chauffered his boss Sugimori around. Kojiro Takamatsu was a businessman, and brought two "navigators" (automobile drivers) over from Tokyo. The names of these two drivers were also recorded. One of them was named Wada Toruro, and he returned to Tokyo. The other was named Yanzaburo Ozaka, and he remained in Taiwan, working as a driver for the Taiwan Railway Hotel after he left the car rental business.
|"The Hall of Barbarous Peoples" (Taiwan's aboriginal tribes) at the below-mentioned Taiwan Business Conference. In terms of inter-cultural relations, "our" Japanese overlords weren't off to a good start.|
一九一六年以前, 台灣全島擁有的汽車數量, 用一雙手就可以數完了. 但這一年四月總督府大張旗鼓舉辦的 "台灣勸業共進會", 給自動車的發展注入新的契機. 由於是商業大會, 一些總公司在日本的店號, 紛紛從日本內地運來汽車以壯聲勢. 一時間, 台北變出二十幾部邊跑邊發爆破噪音的汽車奔馳. 從此以後, 台灣社會對現代汽車有更多認識, 車輛愈來愈多, 用途也愈來愈多元. 到一九二五年, 昭和年代開始, 短短十年, 台灣的汽車界已經非常熱鬧. Before 1916, all of the cars in Taiwan could have been counted on two hands. But during April of this year, the Japanese Colonial Administration held the large "Taiwan Business Conference," in which it gave special attention to the development of the automobile market. As a result of such business conferences and the efforts of a few companies in Japan, the market for automobiles slowly spread outward from the home country. After a while, the sound of more than 20 roaring vehicles could be heard in Taipei, and after this Taiwanese society developed a much deeper understanding of the automobile. There were more and more cars put to more and more uses. By 1925, during the beginning of Emperor Showa's reign, and only about 10 years later, the automotive scene in Taiwan was very lively.
由現存昭和七年到十二年的幾十本汽車專門雜誌台灣自動車界來看, 台灣當時的車業頗為繁榮. 有許多車店, 販賣各廠牌知名汽車, 跟現在的光景沒有太大差別. 車店外排著成堆的新車; 新年度的新款汽車到台灣, 會舉辦所謂的新車發表會. 單台北專門的車公司就達九家, 販賣的廠牌眾多, 有雪佛蘭, 奧斯摩比, 龐帝克, 別克, 福特, 樸利茅斯 (Plymouth), 克萊斯勒, 道奇, 凱狄拉克, 全為美國廠牌汽車. Several specialist automotive magazines have been preserved from the the seventh to twelfth years of Emperor Showa's reign. From a perusal of "Taiwan Automobile World" we learn that Taiwan's auto industry was very prosperous. There were many car dealerships selling every type of car, and the current market for cars is not so different. New cars were lined up in front of every dealership, and when new models were released each year they held a car show. There were nine exclusive car dealerships in Taipei alone, selling every brand of car from Chevrolet, to Oldsmobile, to Pontiac, to Buick, to Ford, to Plymouth, to Chrysler, to Dodge, to Cadillac, to every other brand of American car.
汽車可能是當時最貴的動產, 以福特一九三二年出產的名款<型來說, 號稱一罐汽油可以跑八十到八十五哩, 全車安裝玻璃, 標準型的價格是四千三百七十五圓. 這個金額之大, 必須比對當時的所得. 大學生在那時非常稀罕, 畢業初期的月薪是普通上班族的兩, 三倍, 也只有六十圓. 換言之, 也要傾其六年的薪水, 才買得到美國進口轎車. At the time, cars were probably the most expensive mobile goods that anyone could own, at least until Ford released the Model T in 1932. This car could go 85 miles on a single can of gas, and a standard model equipped with glass windows sold for 4,375 yen.
This price must be compared to the wage of the average college graduate at the time. Back then very few people graduated from college, and their average monthly pay, two or three times that of the average worker, was only 60 yen. In other words, they would have to save about 6 years' pay for an imported American car.
|The 1935 Nissan Datsun. (Datsun later became one of Nissan's sub-brands)|
若不買高級進口車, 也有較便宜的選擇, 雖然對普通人家仍是天價. 日本戰前已能自產汽車, 對台灣而言, 就是所謂的 "國產車". 以一九三五年 "日產自動車株式會社" 生產的Datsun來看, 三種等級, 價位在一千八百五十圓到兩千圓之間. If people didn't want to buy a fancy imported car, there was also a cheaper option. Although the price for the average person was still astronomical, Japan produced its own model of car before the Second World War. In Taiwan this car was known as the "national car." In 1935 the "Nissan Automatic Car Co. Ltd." began producing three types of this Datsun, and the price ranged from 1,850 to 2,000 yen.3
所有的貴重物品, 鑽石, 鋼琴或汽車, 價格永遠只會為難中下階層. 日治時期的幾個台籍大戶人家, 板橋林家, 霧峰林家都有闊氣少爺買轎車. 高雄陳家年輕的第二代陳啟川 (戰後曾任高雄市長) 就買了克萊斯勒, 汽車雜誌曾刊登他站在自家門前和愛車的合照, 並稱他是 (頂尖車主). Yet as with all prized possessions, whether they be diamonds, pianos, or cars, it's difficult to offer the same good at a price that normal people can afford. During the Japanese Colonial Administration only a few Taiwanese households could afford the luxury of owning cars, and these few households included the Lin Family in Banqiao and the Lin Family in Wu Feng (Taichung City). There was also Chen Shun-chuan, a second generation member of Kaohsiung's Chen Family (he became the mayor of Kaoshiung City after the war), who bought a Chrysler. An automotive magazine shows a picture of him with his car, calling him a "top car owner."4
以前的車牌隨便車主掛車頭任何位置, 有的放左, 有的放右. 車牌上面, 只寫地區和編號 (北XXX), (中XXX), (東XXX). 從昭和七年到十二年的台灣自動車界雜誌, 可以陸續看見北區 (含宜蘭) 車號從 "北187", 累積到 "北1504". In former times license plates were mounted on the front of the car, wherever the owner chose. Some were on the left, others were on the right. On the license plate was stamped the car's district and number, for example "north XXX," "central XXX," or "east XXX." From an issue of "Taiwan Automobile World" published during the seventh year of Emperor Showa's reign, you can see that license numbers for the north district (including Yilan) started from "north 187" and extended to "north 1504."
|Temple festival in Taipei, 1930.|
這麼多的車對一九三0年代, 有二十五萬人的台北, 開始有建立交通秩序的必要. 除了街頭出現交通警察指揮車輛外, 一九三一年, 台灣交通史上的第一次 "交通安全週" 也於九月十日展開, 全面灌輸現代社會基本的交通規範. 宣導重點從最基本的 "左側通行" 開始. 為此, 台北幾十個重要地點放置看板, 寫著 "交通安全左側通行". 一些交通標語也出爐了, 像是提醒駕駛人 "左小迴い右大迴い" (左轉小彎右轉大彎) 以及 "左極樂右地獄". 還有放宣導電影, 發下一萬五千枝小旗給小學生等等. With so many cars on the road in 1930, and with 250,000 people living in Taipei, establishing traffic regulations became a necessity. Aside from traffic policemen appearing on city streets, in 1931 [the government sponsored] the first "traffic safety week" in Taiwan's history. On September 10 a set of traffic regulations was also implemented. These regulations started from the very basic "drive on the left," and signs were placed around several important spots in Taipei to remind people to drive on the left side. Other automotive terms also entered the vocabulary, such as "small switch right [and] small switch left" (make a big turn left, make a small turn right) and "left to heaven, right to hell." Instructional movies were shown, and 15,000 small traffic flags were given to elementary school students.
昭和初年, 開車不再是買了就上, 必須通過考試. 方式跟戰後大同小異, 一樣有實地試驗, 學科試驗和身體檢查三項. 台北的路考就在圓山運動場的操場. 學科考試部分除了駕駛專門知識, 還考 "地理及常識" 題目像是內閣總理大臣是誰, 台中州警務部長是誰, 解釋甚麼叫 "赤化". By the end of Emperor Showa's reign, it wasn't enough to just buy a car, you also had to take a test. This test was very similar to the one used after the war. It included a driving section, a written section, and a physical checkup. The Taipei driving test was conducted on the athletic field in Yuan Shan Stadium. In addition to questions about driving, the written test included questions about "geography and common sense." There were questions asking who the Prime Minister of the Cabinet was, who the Minister of the Taichu Prefecture5 Police Bureau was, and what the color red meant.
通過考試的不只日本人, 也有台灣人; 不只男人, 也有女人. 很難想像, 今年快一百歲的台灣女性, 曾經七, 八十年前, 就會握方向盤. 而且她們不是千金小姐, 玩車兜風, 相反的, 她們以開公車, 卡車為業. 新竹的田英妹, 宜蘭的詹盡, 松山的林阿苓, 她們敢於先行, 挑戰社會既有風氣, 難怪當時充滿陽剛味的汽車雜誌, 都迫不及待專題報導她們的故事. And it wasn't only Japanese people who passed the test, but also Taiwanese. It wasn't only men, but also women. It's hard to believe, but Tseng Jing-chi, who will celebrate her 100th birthday this year, received her license 80 years ago. The women who earned their licenses weren't just rich women who wanted to play around with cars, but rather commercial truck drivers. Ying Mei from Hsinchu, Jhan Jin from Yilan, and Lin A-ling from Song Shan were all first to challenge society's expectations. No wonder male-oriented car magazines of their time couldn't wait to cover their stories.
Related Entries 相關的文章:
The Airport MRT
What's Going on with the Taitung County Government 台東縣政府最近動向 2
Paradise on Vacation 天堂在放假
Driving from Taitung City and Back Again 從山區開回來台東市
1. The Chinese includes the year of the Japanese Emperor's reign, but I left this part out.
2. Not entirely sure that "Sunrise Theater" is the best translation, since the name might have had another meaning in Japanese. The cars thus rented were rented with drivers, because getting a car to work in the early 1900s was a bitch.
3. I believe this was the Datsun Type 12.
4. These people are referred to by name because they left behind sprawling mansions which are now historic sites. I've been to the Lin Family Residence in Banqiao, and while it won't blow your mind it's definitely worth visitng.
5. Taichu Prefecture was where present-day Taichung City now is.