2017年5月21日 星期日

2就要這樣拜! 拜拜宜忌一本通 This is How You Worship! A Comprehensive Guide to the Dos and Don'ts of Worship (2 of 2)

The information below was taken from 就要這樣拜!  拜拜宜忌一本通 This is How You Worship!  A Comprehensive Guide to the Dos and Don'ts of Worship.  The Chinese was written by Good Friends Studio, and the English was written by me.  以下的內容來自就要這樣拜!  拜拜宜忌一本通這本書.  下列中文的部分是好朋友工作室作者的書裡節錄的.  英文的部分則是我寫的.

Also, this will be the last entry on traditional Chinese religion for a while.  I may return to this subject next semester, or I might do something else entirely.  I was thinking of using Taiwan's transportation infrastructure as a theme, though there is certainly a lot still to be said about traditional Chinese beliefs.  Old or new?  Traditional or modern?  If you have a preference, maybe you can tell me.  還有.  這個文章應該是關於中國傳統宗教的最終.  我不一定下學期還討論這種事情.  我考慮下學期探索台灣的交通基礎設施, 或是繼續中國傳統信仰, 這個範疇還有很多可以討論.  古代的還是現代的?  傳統還是今日的?  如果你有不同的想法, 請讓我知道.1

Oh, and one more thing.  If these entries have made you curious about traditional Chinese religion, I encourage you to visit your local temple, "ceremonial money store," or religious festival.  To be sure, some of the people at some of the temples (or stores) are less than friendly, but there are also temples (or stores) where they're happy to greet visitors, happy to explain things, and happy to interact with foreign people.  還有件事.  如果這些文章讓你對傳統中國信仰很好奇, 建議你參觀附近的廟, 金香鋪, 或是廟會, 一定更有趣.  當然有的廟或店裡的人不是很親切, 可是還有更多廟和金香舖的人不是這樣子.  他們歡迎你的光臨, 又很願意跟外國人介紹他們的宗教信仰.

And in the case of religious festivals, the sooner you see them the better.  Faced with the rising cost of insurance, new environmental regulations, and lack of interest from "modern-thinking" Taiwanese, many of these festivals are shrinking every year.  Some city and county governments have come up with more "eco-friendly" alternatives, but if you ask me these new inventions really aren't the same thing.  A Chinese religious procession without firecrackers?  Without the burning of ceremonial money?  It seems to me that they might as well not bother.  以傳統祭典來說, 早一點去參觀了解比較好.  各廟會都面臨保險費提升, 環保法規越來越多的限制, 即愈來愈多有 "現代想法" 的台灣人的問題, 所以這種傳統活動的規模逐年變小.  有的縣市舉辦 "環保的" 傳統活動, 可是我覺得這樣子的活動根本不同.  沒有鞭炮的廟會?  沒有燒金紙的廟宇?  我覺得這樣就乾脆不用舉辦了.

祭拜用的香束 Incense Used for Worship

台灣常見到的祭拜香束分為黑, 黃, 紅三種.  黑色常被用在喪事及祭拜鬼魂, 黃色或紅色的香則可用來祀神祭祖及其他各種喜慶.  一般來說, 二尺以下的香多用於家庭祭祀, 二尺以上的香則用於寺廟等場合.  The types of incense commonly used for worship in Taiwan include the black, yellow, and red kinds.  The black type is usually used for funerals and to appease malignant spirits.  The yellow or red kinds can be used for spirits, ancestors, or in any festive occasion.  In most cases, incense sticks less than two feet long are used for home worship, and those longer than two feet are used for temples and related areas.

焚香的意義在於藉著裊裊雲煙, 明光火星及四散香氣上達神界, 引領神明循香下凡, 享用善男信女們準備的豐富祭品, 聽見人們的祈願, 在祭典的儀式中, 占有不可或缺的地位.  Clouds of incense travel from this world to the world of the spirits, to encourage the gods to receive sacred offerings from humankind, and to hear their entreaties.  Incense is indispensable with regard to this kind of ritual observance.

線香 Incense Sticks

排香 Incense Bundles

環香 Incense Coils

香末 Incense Powder

上香的方式 How to Burn Incense

上香, 是向神明表示敬意以及傳達心願的一種儀式.  藉由焚香上升的煙霧, 將我們想要傳達的事情帶給天上的神明, 是與神明溝通最普遍的方式.  Burning incense is a ritual signifying one's respect for the gods.  The clouds which waft up from the incense allow us to pass messages to gods in the celestial realm, and [this burning of incense] is the most common way of communicating with the spirit world.

持香的方式 How to Present [or Hold] Incense

祭拜神明時, 以右手持香, 再用左手扶住右手, 將雙手放於胸前, 然後上舉至鼻頭處, 不可超過眉毛和頭頂, 接著彎腰行禮, 背部呈半月形.  拜三拜後, 可向神明說出姓名, 生辰, 家住何處, 所求何事, 接著再三拜, 心誠則靈.  若是空手朝拜, 則雙手合十, 同樣上舉至鼻頭處, 接著彎腰行禮.  When worshiping the gods, hold the incense in your right hand, and place your left hand over your right.  Hold your hands in front of your chest, and then raise your hands up to the level of your head.  Do not raise your hands above your eyebrows, and bow from the waist, making a half moon shape with your upper torso.  After doing this three times you can tell the god(s) your name, your date of birth, where you live, and the nature of your request.  Then bow three more times and concentrate upon your prayer.  If you are arriving before the gods without incense, place your hands together, raise them to the level of your head, and bow three times in the same fashion.

另外要特別注意的一點是, 祭拜神明時持香的數量必須是奇數, 一般以1, 3, 5, 7支為佳.  In addition, be aware that the number of incense sticks held/presented before any god should be odd, and not even.  In most cases presenting incense in multiples of 1, 3, 5, or 7 is best.

插香的方式 How to Place the Incense

以傳統習俗來說, 插香時應使用左手, 因為人們在生活中習慣使用右手做許多事, 較為汙穢, 對神明不敬.  另外插香應先將一炷清香插在香爐的正中央, 再將第二炷香插在面向神像的右方, 最後將第三炷香插在面向神像的左方.  插完香後, 記得要雙手合十再拜三拜, 才算完成整個插香的程序.  With respect to traditional folk beliefs, incense should be placed inside the pot/ash with the left hand.  Because people usually use their right hand for doing things, it is regarded as "more polluted," and not appropriate to use on the gods' behalf.  You should also place the incense into the middle of the pot/ash, with the next stick of incense placed to the right of the god, and the next stick of incense after that placed to the left.  After placing your incense, you should put your hands together and bow three times in order to properly conclude the ritual.

祭拜的水果與禁忌 Fruits Used for Worship and Related Taboos

在祭拜神明或好兄弟時, 有一些水果是禁止祭拜的, 因為其諧音會招來不好的東西或是不禮貌等等, 在祭拜時千萬要特別注意才行, 不要讓無心之舉帶來無妄之災.  In the worship of gods or wandering spirits some fruits are forbidden.  This is because the sound of their names attracts "bad things" or is considered bad manners.  When worshiping your should always be aware of this, and not let ignorance [of proper etiquette] invite misfortune.

不能拜神的水果 Fruits Unsuitable for Worship

芭樂, 番茄, 釋迦 (鳳梨釋迦): 祭拜神明的水果忌用籽多且籽可食的水果, 據說這一類水果的籽因為可吃又不太好消化, 容易隨著排泄物一起排出, 被視為不潔之物, 所以不能拿來拜神明.  Guava, tomatoes, sugar apples ("pineapple sugar apples"): fruits containing many seeds, or fruits containing edible seeds are unsuitable for worship.  It is said the fruits containing edible seeds are not easily digested, and their nutritional value is [too] easily excreted.  [This type of fruit] is viewed as being "unclean," so it should not be offered to the gods.

不能拜好兄弟的水果 Fruits That Shouldn't be Offered to Ancestors or Other Spirits

香蕉, 李子, 梨子, 鳳梨: 祭拜好兄弟時忌用諧音為 "旺來" 的鳳梨, 以及諧音為 "招你來" 的香蕉, 李子, 梨子等三種水果, 否則, 好兄弟可是會因為你的誠心 "招待" 而到家裡來拜訪.  Bananas, plums, pears, and pineapples: when making offerings to wandering spirits it is forbidden to offer pineapples because of their (nick)name, "prosperity is here." Bananas, which sound like "please come here," and also plums and pears sound, to the spirits, like an invitation to "stay awhile."

適合拜拜的水果 Fruit Suitable for Worship

通常拜拜時所說的 "四果" 指的並不是四樣水果, 而是指四季時令水果.  拜拜時應以1, 3, 5樣奇數水果為主, 或是3, 6, 9的倍數, 而適合祭拜的水果則有: 蘋果, 桃子, 李子, 棗子, 葡萄柚, 柚子, 橘子等等, 其中又以蘋果有 "保平安", 柚子有求 "有子" 的吉祥話最理想.  The "four fruits" usually mentioned in connection with worship are not just four different kinds of fruit, but rather fruits from four different seasons.  When worshiping, fruits should be offered in ratios of 1, 3, and 5, or 3, 6, and 9.  Fruits suitable for worship are apples, peaches, plums, dates, grapefruit, pomelos, and oranges.  Within these fruits, apples carry the special significance of "preserving peace," and grapefruit signify "being fruitful."*

1. If it helps you decide, I've got the book "Taoism" 道教 on my desk, and another book called "Taiwan's Temples Tell Stories" 台灣廟宇說故事 at home.  At home I've also got a book about trains, a book about the development of the shipping industry, and a book about the Taiwan's infrastructure projects over the years.

*"Fruitful" as in "bearing children."