2017年4月23日 星期日

Taiwanese Culture 台灣文化 (3 of 3)


What follows below was taken from The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Taiwan Culture (一看就懂台灣文化).  If the title sounds familiar, it's because I introduced another book in the series, the Illustrated Encyclopedia of Conventional Industries last year.  以下的內容來自一看就懂台灣文化這本書.  如果你覺得書名似曾相, 可能是因為我以前介紹過類似的書籍一看就懂台灣博覽.

The Chinese was written by Wang Song-shan, Li Kwang-ti, and Hong Li-wan.  The English was written by me.  下列中文的部分是從王嵩山, 李匡悌, 洪麗完這三個作者的書裡節錄的.  英文的部分則是我寫的.

Below are excerpts from the 民間信仰 ("Folk Beliefs") section, or pages 110-158 in the book.  A lot of this section is very "local," and/or has been covered in other entries, so there are parts I'm leaving out.  這一次的文章是出自"生命禮俗"單元來的, 自110到158頁.  這一個單元很 "在地," 有些內容也在其他的文章討論過, 所以重複的內容就不寫了.

民間信仰 Folk Beliefs


1. 民間信仰 Folk Beliefs1

台灣的民間信仰由於社會族群, 自然環境和政權變遷等因素, 融合了道教, 佛教, 儒教, 泛靈信仰, 以及多種外來宗教, 逐漸形成特殊風貌與多元文化的內涵.  Taiwanese folk beliefs come from the ethnic groups within [Taiwanese] society, from the natural environment, from changes in government, or from other factors.  [These folk beliefs] combine religious elements from Taoism, Buddhism, Confucianism, Animism, and other, imported religions.  These religions have gradually taken on special characteristics within Taiwanese culture, and [have in turn] made this culture more distinctive.

道教 Taoism

道教為東漢張陵所創, 其製作道書與科儀, 被尊為 "天師".  主要奉祀三清道祖和玉皇大帝.  Taoism was founded by Zhang Ling during the Eastern Han Dynasty, [during which time] he wrote many books on Taoism and created many Taoist rituals.  He came to be called "the heavenly teacher."  [Taoists] worship the Lords of the Three Realms and the Jade Emperor.

佛教 Buddhism

佛教源自印度, 傳入中國後又發展出許多宗派, 台灣的佛教主要是清代從閩粵移民傳入的臨濟宗和曹洞宗, 佛寺主要奉祀釋迦牟尼佛和觀世音菩薩.  Buddhism came from India, and [this faith] was later divided into many sects after it was passed into China.  The major Taiwanese Buddhist tradition was brought here during the Ching Dynasty, by immigrants from Fujian and Guangdong.  [These immigrants subscribed to] the Linji and Caodong2 schools [of thought].  The [most] important deities at Buddhist temples are the Gautama Buddha and Guanyin.

儒教 Confucianism

儒教主要以儒家的學說為基礎, 尤其是孝道的觀念, 重視祭祀祖先, 促使宗族團結互助.  Confucianism is based on the doctrines set down by Confucius, the most important of which are his doctrines concerning filial piety.  [This faith] places importance on the worship of ancestors, and members of a group working together.

泛靈信仰 Animism3

泛靈信仰是人類古老的信仰, 包括自然, 亡靈, 庶物的崇拜, 以及巫術, 禁忌等.  Animism is the oldest of mankind's spiritual beliefs, and includes the worship of nature, spirits, and other things.  It also [includes a belief in] witchcraft and taboos.

文神部眾神職司表 Chart of Gods and Their Jobs4

I. 至上神: 天公 (玉皇大帝) The highest god: The Lord of Heaven (Jade Emperor)
     A. 司生: 南斗星君 The Judge of the Living: The King of the Southern Stars5
     B. 三界公 The Lords of the Three Realms
          1. 上元天官 The Heavenly Officer of the Upper Realm
          2. 中元地官 The Earthly Officer of the Middle Realm
          3. 下元水官 The Aqueous Officer of the Lower Realm
     C. 司死: 北斗星君 The Judge of the Dead: The King of the Big Dipper

II. 中央行政神 Gods of the Central Administration
     A. 教育: 孔子, 魁星夫子 Education: Confucius, Master Kui Shing
     B. 學務: 文昌帝君, 孚佑帝君 Learning: King Wenchang, Lu Dong-bin
     C. 農務: 神農大帝 Farming: The God of Farming
     D. 工務: 巧聖先師 (魯班公), 荷葉仙師 Public Works: The First Architect (Lord Lu Ban), The Divine Teacher He Ye
     E. 商務: 關聖帝君 (關公) Business: Guan Yu (Lord Guang)
     F. 醫務: 保生大帝 (大道公) Medicine: The Life-Protecting Emperor (The Lord of the Great Way)
     G. 航務: 天上聖母 (媽祖), 水仙尊王 Shipping [Transport]: The Heavenly Mother (Matsu), The Venerated Kings of the Water
     H. 漁業: 四海龍王 Fishing: The Dragon King of the Four Seas
     I. 娛樂: 田都元帥 Entertainment: Marshal Tian Du
     J. 音樂: 西王爺 (北營亂彈) Music: The Prince of the Western Chin (Leader of the North Battalion)
     K. 驅邪: 玄天上帝, 太子爺 Exorcism: The Dark Emperor, Lord Tai Dze
     L. 除疫: 王爺, 厲鬼 Casting Out Disease: The Prince, Li Guei
     M. 生育: 註生娘娘, 十二婆姐, 花公, 花婆 Fertility: Ju Sheng Mother, the Twelve Maidens, The Lord of Flowers, The Lady of Flowers
     N. 女藝: 七星娘娘 (七娘媽) Feminine Arts: The Seven Star Ladies (Seven Mothers)
III. 地方行政神 Local Administrative Gods
     A. 守護神 Gods of Protection
          1. 延平郡王 (台灣) King Yanping (Taiwan)
          2. 廣澤尊王 (泉人) The Venerated King Guang Dze (Chuanjou)
          3. 開漳聖王 (漳人) The Sacred King and Developer of Jangjou (Jangjou)
          4. 三山國王 (客人) The Lords of the Three Mountains (Hakka)
     B. 司法神 Judicial Gods
          1. 城隍, 土地, 二十四司官 The City God, Tu Di [Gong], The 24 Officials
          2. 青山王, 境主公, 五營 The King of Ching Mountain, The Lord of the Realm, The Five Battalions
IV. 陰府行政官 Officials in the Underworld6
     1, 2. 東嶽大帝 (嶽帝爺), 地藏王 (地獄救主) The Emperor of the Eastern Mountain (Lord of the Mountain), Kshitigarbha (The Savior of Hell)
          A-J. 一殿: 秦廣王, 二殿: 楚江王, 三殿: 宋帝王, 四殿: 五官王, 五殿: 閻羅王, 六殿: 卞城王, 七殿: 泰山王, 八殿: 都市王, 九殿: 平等王, 十殿: 轉輸王 First Palace: Jiang Dze-wen, Second Palace: King Chu Jiang, Third Palace: Emperor Song, Fourth Palace: The Fifth Kingly Official, Fifth Palace: (King) Yama, Sixth Palace: King Bian Cheng, Seventh Palace: The King of Tai Mountain, Eighth Palace: The King of the City, Ninth Palace: The King of Justice [another name for "King" Yama, who also inhabits the Fifth Palace], Tenth Palace: The King of the Great Wheel
               a. 文判 The Judge of Literature
               b. 武判 The Judge of Warfare
               c. 牛爺 The Lord of Cattle
               d. 馬爺 The Lord of Horses
               e. 七爺 The Seventh Lord
               f. 八爺 The Eighth Lord
               g. 鬼役 The Ghost Servant
               h. 刑役 The Servant of Punishment



2. 常見神祇 Popular Gods

台灣常見的神祇是: 玉皇大帝, 觀音菩薩, 天上聖母, 玄天上帝, 三官大帝, 福德正神, 保生大帝, 王爺, 關帝聖君, 三山國王, 開漳聖王, 釋迦佛祖等, 在全台眾多寺廟中供奉, 但是各地神祇名稱與造型有所不同.  The gods often seen in Taiwan are: The Jade Emperor, Guanyin, The Heavenly Mother [Matsu], The Dark Emperor, The Lords of the Three Realms, Tu Di Gong [Lord Tu Di, or the Earth God], The Life-Protecting Emperor, The Regal Lords, Guan Yu [Lord Guang], The Lords of the Three Mountains, The Sacred King and Developer of Jangjou, and the Gautama Buddha.  [These gods] are worshiped in many temples in Taiwan, though their names and appearance vary.



3. 欣賞媽祖廟 Enjoying Matsu Temples

台灣媽祖廟眾多, 又極富建築之美, 其中多座廟宇已被列為文化資產, 走入每一座媽祖廟, 有如參觀豐富, 精緻的民間信仰與藝術博物館, 其中呈現的歷史意義, 建築藝術, 佛像特色等, 都值得細細欣賞, 深入瞭解.  There are many Matsu temples in Taiwan, and the aesthetic appeal of these buildings has led to many of them becoming cultural artifacts.  [When you] enter any Matsu temple, it is like entering a museum dedicated to folk beliefs and folk arts, in which one finds historical importance, architectural skill, and the characteristics of Buddhist iconography.  [These temples are] all worth enjoying in detail, and [should be] understood in depth.



4. 鹿港天后宮 Lu Gang's Queen of Heaven Temple

鹿港天后宮位於彰化鹿港, 創建於清康熙年間, 幾經修建才成為三進二院的恢弘建築格局, 為縣 (市) 定古蹟寺廟.  Lu Gang's Queen of Heaven temple is in Lu Gang [Municipality], Chang Hua [County].  It was built during the reign of the Ching Emperor Kang Shi, and after many remodels it was divided into the three sections and two courtyards [that we know today].  It is one of the county/city temples protected as historic sites.



5. 火儀式 The Fire Ceremony

台灣民間寺廟有前往歷史悠久, 香火鼎盛或有分靈關係的大廟進香的慣俗, 目的往往在於迎取大廟的香火, 藉以傳承祖廟的歷史記憶或取得象徵大廟神明的靈力.  例如, 白沙屯拱天宮每年往北港朝天宮進香的目的, 即是為了求取北港媽祖的香火.  Taiwanese folk temples have a long history.  There are many traditions regarding the burning of incense and which gods are to be worshiped, and the purpose behind these traditions is to celebrate the temple's history, or to receive spiritual power from the gods.  For example, every year at Bai Sha Tun Temple [the people will take part in a religious procession] to Beigang's Chao Tian Temple.  This is done to receive blessings from [the goddess] Matsu in Beigang's temple.7

火儀式時, 朝天宮的住持, 以金紙引取朝天宮主殿光明燈中的火, 並將燃燒的金紙放入朝天宮 "萬年香火爐" 中, 拱天宮的執事人員則不斷將金紙投入萬年香火爐中燃燒; 待萬年香火爐內裝滿香灰後, 法師從萬年香火爐中杓取三瓢香灰到拱天宮得火缸, 儀式便告圓滿完成.  During the fire ceremony, the resident monk in the Chao Tian Temple will burn ghost money over a fire in the main hall.  Later the ghost money is placed inside Chao Tian Temple's "10,000 Year Furnace," and the holy men within the temple will continue to add ghost money to the fire.  After the furnace is full of ash, a priest removes three scoops of this ash and the 10,000 Year Furnace is placed in a wooden case.  A this point the ritual is concluded.8

在儀式過程中, 朝天宮光明燈的火, 象徵朝天宮媽祖的靈力, 這種無形的媽祖靈力, 透過金紙燃燒形成灰的物質形式來分享, 傳承並延續.  While the ritual is being enacted, the Chao Tian Temple is full of light, as if illuminated by the goddess Matsu's spiritual power.  This type of invisible "Matsu power" is shared through the burning of ghost money, and is passed on through generations.



6. 王爺 The Regal Lords9

歷來許多生前有功於社稷鄉里, 或是傳說中保護人民的男性神祇, 經過敕封之後即可晉升王爵成為王爺. Whether a real person who lived in a fishing village long ago, or a male god of protection, these [beings] were later promoted to the post of "regal lords."

王爺故鄉 The Regal Lords' Hometown

台南在台灣是開發最早的地區, 建有二百多座王爺廟, 大多分布在靠海區域, 自古就有 "王爺故鄉" 之稱.  Tainan was the earliest [Chinese] area to be developed, and has [had?] more than 200 Regal Lord temples.  Most of these temples are near the ocean, and in old times Tainan was called "the Regal Lords' hometown."



7. 迎王祭典 The Welcoming the King Festival

迎王祭典盛行於台灣南部各地, 起源自對於瘟神王爺的畏懼, 但隨著人們對千歲爺信仰的改變, 迎王祭典的性質也漸由 "逐疫" 轉變為 "祈福."  The Welcoming the King Festival began in south Taiwan, and originated with the Regal Lord's power to cast out pestilence.  Yet as beliefs in the Regal Lords changed, the Welcoming the King Festival's original purpose of "casting out disease" became "praying for good fortune."

西港刈香 The Burning of Incense in Shi Gang

由台南西港慶安宮主辦的 "刈香醮典", 俗稱 "西港香" (又稱西港仔香).  是南瀛地區 "五大香" 之一, 每三年逢地支年丑, 辰, 未, 戌等, 在農曆四月中旬定期舉辦.  The burning of incense during the "jiao" ceremony at Tainan's Ching An Temple in Shi Gang is called "Shi Gang Shiang" (or Shi Gang Dze Shiang), and is one of the "five big incense festivals" in southern Taiwan.  This festival is held every three years, during the "chou," "chen," "wei," and "shu" days of the fourth month on the lunar calendar.10



8. 東港迎王平安祭典 Dong Gang's Welcoming the King Peace Festival

屏東東港地區每逢丑, 辰, 未戌年舉行迎王平安祭典, 其特色為祭典時間長, 祭典組織綿密, 參與人數眾多, 儀式形式與內容豐富, 王船建造美觀雄偉等, 尤以王船 "陸上行舟" 蔚為壯觀, 是台灣三大宗教民俗盛會之一.  Every year during the "chu," "chen," "wei," and "shu" days on the lunar calendar, Dong Gang in Pingtung County will host its Welcoming the King Peace Festival.  This festival lasts a long time, is very complicated, and many people attend it.  The appearance and significance of this festival are very interesting, and includes the construction of the Regal Lord's majestic ship.  Most spectacular of all is the "landing of the Regal Lord's boat."  This is one of Taiwan's three major folk religious festivals.



9. 龍山寺 Longshan Temples

台灣龍山寺源自福建泉州晉江安海龍山寺, 主祀觀音菩薩.  全台著名的五座龍山寺, 依建置先後為台南, 萬華, 鳳山, 鹿港, 淡水.  台灣龍山寺的建築規模和精美, 堪稱是台灣傳統工藝的極致表現, 廟內的祭典, 廟會也是鮮活的常民文化大觀.  Taiwan's Longshan temples are derived from Hai Long Shan Temple, which lies on the Jin River in Chuan Jhou, Fujian Province [in Mainland China].  At these temples Guanyin is worshiped.  There are five famous Longshan temples in Taiwan, and these are to be found in Tainan, Wan Hua [Taipei], Feng Shan [Kaohsiung], Lu Gang [Chang Hua], and Danshui [Taipei].  The design of the Longshan temples represents the apex of traditional Taiwanese architecture, and the ceremonies and festivals held within them represent the best of [Taiwanese] folk culture.

觀音信仰 Belief in Guanyin

觀音菩薩圖象十分常見, 但是種類多, 變化大.  佛教經典上說觀音菩薩的悲心廣大, 眾生遭遇災難, 只要一心稱念觀音世菩薩名號, 菩薩立即尋聲解難, 協助信眾難苦得樂, 故有 "大慈大悲觀世音菩薩" 的稱呼, 以及 "家家阿彌陀, 戶戶觀世音" 的讚譽.  The image of Guanyin is seen often, but [her image] comes in many varieties and has changed a lot over time.  The Buddhist scriptures state that Guanyin is very compassionate, and that in times of distress people should pray with all their hearts to Guanyin so that she can take away their troubles, and ease her believer's difficulties.  In ancient times she was called "the compassionate and merciful goddess Guanyin," and it was also said that "every house believes in the Buddha, and every family believes in Guanyin."


10. 城隍爺 The City God (Lord of the City)

"城隍" 信仰源自於古時對城牆與護城河的崇拜, 後來逐漸人格化為陰間的地方官一 "城隍爺".  城隍爺是地方行政中的司法神, 掌管人間善惡的記錄, 通報, 死者亡靈審判和移送之職.  The belief in a "city god" dates back to the worship of city walls [fortifications] and moats.  Later [these beliefs] gradually anthropomorphized into the "Lord of the City."  The Lord of the City is the god of the central [celestial] administration, and he records the good and bad deeds of every person.  He reports these deeds back to the gods that sit in judgement over the dead. 

台灣府城隍廟 Taiwan Prefecture's City God Temple

位於台南市青年路, 是台灣歷史最悠久的城隍廟, 相傳建於明永曆二十三年 (1669), 被列為國定古蹟寺廟.  廟中擁有為數眾多的匾額和楹聯, 三川殿門前的龍柱與石獅, 雕工細緻, 栩栩如生, 值得細細品味.  [This temple] is in Tainan City, on Ching Nian Road.  It is the oldest City God temple in Taiwan, and was build during the 23rd year of Emperor Ming Yong, in 1669.  It was declared a national historic temple by the government, and in the temple you will find many plaques and couplets.  [There are also] ornate dragon pillars before the doors and stone lions.  The stonework is very detailed, looks very lifelike, and is worth a close inspection.


11. 三山國王 The Lords of the Three Mountains

發源於中國廣東粵東地區的民間信仰, 廣東三座山一獨山, 明山, 巾山的三位山神, 隨著當地移民向外擴展, 成為粵東, 香港, 台灣及東南亞等地的民間信仰.  The folk belief [in these gods] comes from Guangdong Province in Mainland China.  [There are] three mountains in Guangdong, [and they are] Du Mountain, Ming Mountain, and Jin Mountain, [each with its own] god.  As people from this area migrated to other places, the folk belief [in these gods] spread to Hong Kong, Taiwan, and other places in Southeast Asia.

古蹟級三山國王廟 Ancient Lords of the Three Mountains Temples

目前台灣有一百三十座以上的三山國王廟, 其中五座建廟達二百年以上, 並且已被列為古蹟寺廟保護: At one time Taiwan had more than 130 Lords of the Three Mountains temples, and five of them were more than 200 years old.  The following historic temples have been set aside for preservation:
     新莊廣福宮 (建於1780年) Shin Juang [New Taipei] Guang Fu Temple (built in 1780)
     雲林三山國王廟 (建於1809年) Yunlin [County's] Lords of the Three Mountains Temple (built in 1809)
     鹿港三山國王廟 (建於1737年) Lu Gang [in Chang Hua] Lords of the Three Mountains Temple (built in 1737)
     台南三山國王廟 (建於1742年) Tainan [City's] Lords of the Three Mountains Temple (built in 1742)
     屏東九如三山國王廟 (建於1651年) Pingtung [County] Jiou Ru Township's Lords of the Three Mountains Temple (built in 1651)11


12. 虎爺 Lord Tiger

台灣廟宇中所供奉的虎爺, 有虎將軍, 虎爺將軍以及虎爺公等不同的尊稱.  虎爺追隨的主神以保生大帝和土地公為主, 這與民間流傳保生大帝, 土地公的伏虎傳說有關.  In Taiwanese temples Lord Tiger is revered in many forms, such as General Tiger, Lord Tiger, and Grandfather Tiger.  Lord Tiger serves the Life-Preserving Emperor and Tu Di Gong, and worship of him can be traced to the legend of the pet tiger kept by both the Life-Preserving Emperor and Tu Di Gong.12


13. 齋教 [The Chinese] "Religion of Fasting"

齋教在清朝代從中國傳入台灣, 日治時期曾經盛極一時, 全台多達二百多座齋堂, 信徒人數眾多, 近年來由盛轉衰, 但其在台灣宗教史上曾扮演重要角色.  可讓人瞭解台灣佛教的多元面貌和傳統基礎所在. The "Religion of Fasting" came to Taiwan from China during the Ching Dynasty, and [adherence to this religion] reached a peak during the Japanese colonial administration.  There are [were?] more than 200 temples dedicated to this religion, and multitudes of followers.  Its popularity has faded in recent years, but it has played an important role in Taiwan's religious history.  [An appreciation of this religion] can give people an understanding of Buddhism's various aspects and its basis in tradition.

Related Entries 相關的文章:


Taiwanese Culture 台灣文化 (1 of 3)

1. Foreign readers will probably notice that Christianity is missing from this list.  This omission is, I think, a mistake.  Christianity has a long history in Taiwan, and remains an important part of many communities. 

This section might also lead one to think that the religious traditions described are separate in most contexts, but you'd have to go back pretty far to find distinctive strains of Taoism, Buddhism, or some other faith.  In terms of what most traditionally-minded Taiwanese people believe, these religions are often mixed together indiscriminately, with little regard for doctrinal purity. 

2. The Linji School and the Caodong schools are types of Chan Buddhism.  Chan Buddhism is a type of Mahayana (Great Vehicle) Buddhism combined with elements of Taoism.

3. It doesn't say so in this book, but many of these animistic beliefs are thought to go back to the aboriginal tribes Chinese settlers first encountered, and/or intermarried with when they first settled the west coast of the island.

4. In the book this really is a chart.  I've found that inserting charts into Blogger makes the HTML "weird," so I converted the chart into an outline.  It probably goes without saying that many gods aren't to be found on this chart, and that many of their alternate names are not listed.  To make matters even more confusing, some of these gods are aspects of each other.

English translations for godly titles such as 爺, 公, and 王 vary.  Where possible, I tried to use the most commonly seen translation.

5. These "Southern Stars" are six stars in the Sagittarius constellation. 

6. Deep waters here.  Many of these underworldly personages are also historical figures, and this section also leans heavily toward Buddhism.  I wasn't able to find a lot of information on some of these deities, and some of the translations offered are approximations. 

7. Bai Sha Tun 白沙屯 ("place of white sands") connotes Matsu.  Part of the "rao jing" 繞境 ceremony is referred to as "crossing the white sand(s)."  Both of the temples mentioned in this section are Matsu temples, but Beigang's is far older.

8. According to the diagram in the book, the ritual is actually more complicated than what is described in the text.  A statue of Matsu is passed over the flames several times during the ritual. 

9. I've seen these deities' name translated as "The Princes" elsewhere, but this sounds strange to me so I'm going with "The Regal Lords."  "The Royal Lords" is another possibility.

10. The "jiao" ceremonies were described in the 台灣民俗由來 The Origin of Taiwanese Customs (4 of 4) entry.  香 is synonymous with "incense" or even "burning incense" in this context.  The terms as the end of this section are special days that occur every month of the lunar calendar.


11. This last date is incorrect.  It's not that old.  I know this because I visited the place a few weeks ago!  There are pictures in the Driving between Jia Yi and Pingtung 在嘉義, 屏東一帶開車 1 entry.  The dates on the other temples seem to be correct.

It should also be stated that the people immigrating from Guangdong and spreading the worship of the Lords of the Three Mountains were Hakka.  This type of worship is often sited as a feature of their culture.

12. The most often seen depiction of him is in his tiger form.  He is also shown as a man with a tiger head, or as a man wearing a tiger hat.  The "tiger hat Lord Tiger" has to be the cutest god ever.

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