2017年3月26日 星期日

Taiwanese Culture 台灣文化 (2 of 3)


What follows below was taken from The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Taiwan Culture (一看就懂台灣文化).  If the title sounds familiar, it's because I introduced another book in the series, the Illustrated Encyclopedia of Conventional Industries last year.  以下的內容來自一看就懂台灣文化這本書.  如果你覺得書名似曾相, 可能是因為我以前介紹過類似的書籍一看就懂台灣博覽.

The Chinese was written by Wang Song-shan, Li Kwang-ti, and Hong Li-wan.  The English was written by me.  下列中文的部分是從王嵩山, 李匡悌, 洪麗完這三個作者的書裡節錄的.  英文的部分則是我寫的.

Below are excerpts from the 生命禮俗 ("Rites of Passage") section, or pages 98-107 in the book.  這一次的文章是出自"生命禮俗"單元來的, 自98到107頁.

生命禮俗 Rites of Passage
 

1. 出生禮 Birth Rituals

每個人從出生到生命結束之間, 首先會經歷 "出生禮", 接著有 "成年禮", "婚禮", "壽禮", "喪禮" 等基本生命禮俗; 在每一個過程中, 當事者與親友的社會角色和人際網路, 會有調整而進入新的生命階段.  In the time between birth and death, each person passes through a birth ritual, a rite of adulthood, a wedding, a rite of seniority, and a funeral, along with other rites of passage.  As one passes through each stage of life, one enters into a new web of relationships with friends and family, and each stage requires its own set of adjustments.

接生 Delivering the Baby

生產時, 傳統社會是請 "先生媽" 或 "產婆" 到家裡來接生, 後來西醫逐漸普及, 孕婦都到醫院產檢及生產.  During childbirth, the traditional practice is to invite a "first-delivered mother" or midwife to the household to deliver the baby.  Yet as Western medical practices have taken hold, mothers now go to hospitals for checkups and deliveries.

拜床母 Worshiping the "Bed Mother"3

嬰兒出生三天後便要準備供品, 金紙, 在床邊祭拜床母, 感謝其保佑孩子.  祭拜時間不能太久, 未來孩子的動作才會快速.  Three days after the baby's birth, offerings and ghost money should be placed before the Bed Mother.  This is done to thank her for her protection of the child.  The duration of this ceremony should not be too long, so that later the child will move quickly.

坐月子 Sitting Out the Month

產婦生產後身體虛弱, 傳統上會在一個月內 "坐月內" (坐月子), 多吃一些營養食物, 滋補身體, 在這期間有很多飲食禁忌, 也不能外出或碰冷水, 避免遭受風寒, 影響健康.  A woman's body is very weak after birth, and within the first month it is traditional to "sit for a month" (or sit out the month).  [During this time the new mother] eats healthy foods in order to recover her physical strength.  There are many foods that are forbidden during this time, and [new mothers are] also forbidden from going out, and coming into contact with cold water.  This prevents colder temperatures from affecting their health.1

三朝報酒 "San Jhao," Recompensing with Wine

嬰兒出生三天後要洗特別的澡, 水中放入桂花心 (喻富貴), 柑橘葉 (喻吉祥), 龍眼葉 (喻子孫滿堂), 以及石頭 (喻頭硬, 膽狀); 之後抱到廳堂拜神佛及祖先, 稱為 "三朝禮", 並分送 "油飯", "雞酒" 給親友, 稱為 "報酒."  Three days after birth, the baby must undergo a special bath, in which the hearts of osmanthus flowers (called "fu guei"), citrus leaves (called "ji shiang"), leaves from the dragon eye tree (called "dze suen man tang"), and rocks (called "tou ying," "dan jhuang") are placed.  Afterward the baby is brought into the living room, and the gods, the Buddha, and the ancestors are worshiped.  This is called "the San Jhao ritual."  [At this time] sticky rice and "chicken wine" are given to friends and family.  [The giving of these gifts] is called "recompensing with wine."2

剃髮 A Shave

滿月時, 由族長或是剃頭師傅為嬰兒 "剃髮", 同時準備紅蛋 (喻升官), 石頭 (喻做膽), 銅錢十二個 (喻富有), 蔥 (喻聰明) 等.  剃頭時要對嬰兒說祝福的話; 有些人家把剃下來的胎髮做成 "胎毛筆" 留作紀念.  After a month has passed, either the head of the family or a barber will shave the baby's hair off.  At the same time [the family] will prepare red eggs (called "sheng guan"), stones (called "dzuo dan"), 12 coins (called "fu you"), onions (called "tsong ming"), and other things.  Auspicious words must be spoken to the baby while its head is being shaved.  Some people will use the shaved hair to make a "baby hair brush" as a souvenir.

滿月 A Full Month

嬰兒滿月時, 準備油飯或蛋糕等祭拜神明與祖先, 並分送親友.  若曾向註生娘娘祈子許願者也會到廟裡拜神答謝.  When the baby is one month old, sticky rice, cake, or other offerings must be taken to the temple and placed before the gods and ancestors.  These offerings are later given to friends and relatives.  If new parents have previously prayed to Ju Sheng Mother3 for a child, they will also visit the temple to express their thanks to her.

作四月日 Fulfilling Four Months

滿四個月時, 要為嬰兒 "收涎", 以紅線串著餅乾十二或二十四個, 掛其胸前, 由長輩剝餅抹去唾液, 稱為 "作四月日".  After four months, the baby must "receive its teeth."  12 or 24 biscuits are tied around the baby's neck on a red string, and with these biscuits the elders give the baby something to teethe on.  This is called "fulfilling four months."4

作度晬 Celebrating the First Birthday

滿週歲稱為 "作度晬", 親友送禮來祝賀, 嬰兒的父母則回贈紅龜粿, 並且帶著嬰兒祭拜祖先後, 還會安排 "抓周" 儀式.  抓周是將十多種物品放在嬰兒面前, 隨他任意抓取, 以預測將來的職業發展, 可說是中國版的幼兒性向測驗.  After a year the baby "reaches its first birthday," and family and friends give gifts as a means of congratulation.  The parents in turn give red glutinous rice cakes, and take the baby to the temple to worship his or her ancestors.  A "grab a path" ritual is also arranged.  During this ritual, ten or more objects are placed before the baby [on the floor or bed], and the family watches to see which object the baby will grab.  Whatever object the baby grabs indicates its future career path, and you could also say that this is the Chinese version of a personality test.
 

2. 成年禮, 壽禮 Rites of Adulthood, Birthday Rituals

成年禮 The Rite of Adulthood

許多父母會透過超自然的力量和信仰, 為孩子祈福, 希望孩子順利長大成人, 因此有 "成年禮" 的生命禮俗.  Many parents share a belief in supernatural powers, and as a way of easing their child's growth into an adult there are many "rituals of adulthood."

謝神 Thanking the Gods

小孩在成年之前, 為求順利成長, 父母會帶其到廟裡祈求註生娘娘, 七娘媽等保護.  當孩子受神明庇佑長到滿十六歲時, 家長便會帶孩子準備相關的供品, 於七娘媽生或神明生時, 到廟宇敬拜感謝神明使孩子平安順利長大成人.  Before a child reaches adulthood, and in order to ensure that it reaches adulthood without incident, parents will take their child to the temple to ask the Ju Sheng Mother and the Seven Mothers for their protection.  Once the child has reached 16 years of age, the parents will prepare offerings for the Seven Mothers, or other spirits as a way of thanking them for watching over the child until he or she has reached adulthood.

謝天公 Thanking the Lord of Heaven

孩子出生後身體不適或較難養育時, 會向玉皇大帝 (天公) 和三界神明許願, 當孩子平安順利長大到成年 (滿十六歲) 或結婚時, 就延請道士誦讀經文, 並準備豐盛供品答謝, 俗稱 "作十六歲謝天公".  When a child is born sickly, or is otherwise difficult to take care of, prayers will be offered to the Jade Emperor (The Lord of Heaven) and the Gods of the Three Realms.  Once the child has safely reached adulthood (at 16 years of age) or has been married, [the family] will ask a Taoist monk to chant sacred texts, and will prepare bountiful offerings as a way of expressing the family's thanks.  This ritual is called "giving thanks to the Lord of Heaven for 16 years."

集體成年禮 The Group Rite of Adulthood

行政院文化建設委員會提倡舉辦集體成年禮, 以滿十八歲的年輕男女為主, 在國曆三月二十九日青年節前後, 由各地縣市政府機關, 學校, 寺廟舉行集體成年禮, 讓參加者一起分享成長的喜悅.  A committee assembled by the [central government's] Department of Culture has suggested holding group rites of adulthood for men and women who have reached 18 years of age.  Around March 29, just before and just after Youth Day, departments within the city and county governments, schools, and temples will hold a group rite of adulthood.  [This activity] allows those attending to share in the joy of growing up.

大生日 The Big Birthday5

傳統上五十歲以上才能稱 "壽", 之後每十年做一次大壽稱為 "大生日", 家族會在壽星家中聚餐, 演戲來慶祝.  六十歲稱 "下壽", 七十歲稱 "中壽", 八十歲稱 "上壽", 九十歲稱 "耆壽", 百歲稱 "期頤".  In traditional beliefs, those reaching 50 years of age can be called "shou."  Afterward, every tenth birthday is called a "big birthday."  As a way of celebrating [this event], the family will host a dinner and performances at the person's house.  The 60th birthday is called the "lower shou," the 70th birthday is called the "middle shou," and the 80th birthday is called the "upper shou."  The 90th birthday is called the "very old shou," and the 100th birthday is called "the centennial."

拜壽 Praying for Longevity

過生日時, 壽星親友準備壽幛, 壽聯, 壽禮等作為祝賀; 出嫁的女兒加送雞, 酒, 蛋等禮物, 父壽加送裘, 鞋, 帽, 母壽則送裘, 金簪, 俗稱為 "拜壽", "敬壽".  壽星的家屬則準備壽金與鞭炮, 與壽星一起敬拜神明, 祖先, 祈求保佑長壽康泰.  On a person's birthday, their family prepares birthday scrolls, birthday banners, and birthday gifts as a means of congratulation.  Daughters who have married [outside the family] send gifts of chicken, wine, and eggs.  For a father's birthday one gives a fur coat, shoes, and hats.  For a mother's birthday one gives a fur coat or gold hairpins, and this ritual is called "praying for life" or "praying for longevity."  The family of the person celebrating their birthday also prepares ceremonial money and firecrackers, and they go to the temple, so that they can pray to their gods and ancestors for protection, a long life, and health.

問壽 Asking for Longevity

女兒逢父母親六十歲下壽時, 依習俗必須為父母準備 "壽衣", 供他們百年之後使用, 稱為 "問壽".  When a woman's parents reach 60 years of age, it is customary for her to prepare their burial clothes.  This is for their use after they reach 100 years of age, and this ritual is called "asking for longevity."

拜七星娘娘 Praying to the Seven Star Goddess

在孩子年滿十六歲的七夕, 客家父母會帶孩子到廟裡拜神明感謝其保佑, 或是七夕晚上在家中向北方祭拜七星娘娘或是註生娘娘, 祭拜供品包括梳子, 鏡子, 針線, 香菸, 扇子, 胭脂, 香水, 圓仔花, 七姑星花等.  On the seventh day of the seventh month, during the child's 16th year6, Hakka parents will take their children to the temple, to pray to the gods and thank them for their protection.  Either this, or during an evening seven days before, they will remain in their house, facing north, and will pray to the Seven Star Goddess or the Ju Sheng Mother.  Offerings [to these deities] include combs, mirrors, needles, cigarettes, paper fans, rouge, perfume, globe amaranth flowers, or sea-blites.


3. 傳統婚禮, 婚前禮 Traditional Wedding, Pre-Wedding Rituals

傳統婚禮關係著家族薪火的延續, 是重要的生命禮儀.  台灣河洛人, 客家人及其他族群的婚禮習俗同中有異, 各地的儀式內容也有不同, 但是都十分注重儀式的莊重與吉祥意涵.  A traditional wedding represents the passing on of certain observances within a family, and is an important ritual in people's lives.  Among Hakka and other minority groups, weddings differ with regard to rituals observed, but in all types of wedding there is a concern for ceremony and [giving the marriage] an auspicious beginning.

說媒提親 The Marriage Proposal

台灣傳統社會多賴媒婆介紹, 才能促成婚事.  古代說媒還會送雁鳥到女方家, 因雁較難找, 後來以鵝或雞替代.  現在社會盛行自由戀愛, 通常請現成的媒人到女方家提親.  In traditional Taiwanese society, it is customary to consult a matchmaker before a wedding.  In ancient times, they would send a wild goose to the woman's family, but finding such geese was difficult, and so later domesticated geese or chickens were used as a substitute.  In modern society, it is normal to marry for love [instead of marriage being arranged between families], and a prearranged "matchmaker" will be sent to the woman's family to propose marriage.

問名 Asking About Someone's [Good] Name

訂婚前男方在徵得女方同意聯婚後, 便著手進行 "問名", "提字仔" 或 "討生時" 步驟.  男方將男子生辰八字, 以及三代祖先姓名, 名諱, 里居, 經歷等寫在稱為庚帖的紅帖上, 由媒婆交給女方, 交換女子生辰八字, 三代祖先姓名等的庚帖.  Before the [official] engagement, but after the bride's family has given its consent, the couple must "ask about [the betrothed's] name," "recommend [their] character," or "discuss their doings."  The husband consults a fortuneteller, researches his family's names three generations back, taboos regarding these names, his place of residence, and personal history, and he writes this information on a red "geng card."8  The matchmaker gives this card to the bride's family, in exchange for a similar card about her family names, place of residence, and personal history.

訂婚 Getting Engaged

舉行婚禮前須先有訂婚儀式, 俗稱 "送定".  男方請媒人攜帶禮餅, 豬蹄, 麵線, 桂圓, 米酒, 罐頭, 糖果, 豬肉, 羊肉, 喜酒, 糕仔, 荖花等十二種禮物至女方家.  女方會將禮餅分贈親友, 以表示自家女兒業已訂婚, 此即所謂的 "分餅".  Before the wedding is held, [couples] must attend an engagement ritual called "sending the decision."  The husband brings wedding cookies, pig's feet, noodles, dragon eyes, rice wine, canned goods, candy, pork, lamb, wedding wine, cake, and flowers to the bride's house, comprising 12 gifts in all.  The bride's family gives the wedding cookies to family and friends, and this signifies the woman's engagement.  This whole process is also referred to as "sharing cookies."

結婚六禮 The Six Wedding Ceremonies

傳統婚姻禮俗的有 "六禮" 程序, 包含 "納采", "問名", "納吉", "納徵", "請期" 和 "迎娶" 等六項, 換成現在的名詞就是, "說媒提親", "議婚 (問名, 換庚帖)", "過聘 (訂婚)", "請期, 送日子 (完聘)" 和 "結婚迎娶 (迎親)".  A traditional wedding ceremony is composed of six procedures, and these are the "first meeting," "asking about someone's good name," "making arrangements," the "acceptance," "setting the date," and "the marriage."  The modern name for these six procedures is "announcing a match and alerting the family," "discussing the marriage (asking about someone's good name, exchanging "geng cards")," "the engagement," "setting the date, setting a day (completing the engagement)" and "the wedding ceremony (welcoming the family)."

請期 Setting the Date

訂婚後, 男方將新娘八字送請命相師選定挽面 (開容), 裁衣 (開剪), 安床, 娘娶, 出轎, 入房等事宜時刻寫於紅紙稱 "日頭".  將日頭, 日頭餅和米糖, "金, 香, 炮, 燭" 四樣與 "蓮蕉芋, 五穀仔, 生鐵, 炭" 四樣, 託媒人送女方家稱為請期.  After the engagement has been decided upon, the man's family will send the woman to a fortuneteller, and [the fortuneteller] will select the dates on which she is to have her makeup done, have her dress tailored, when the [wedding] bed is to be installed, when the wedding is to be held, when she is to be taken to her wedding, and when she is to enter the bridal chamber.  These [dates/times] are written upon a red paper called the "rh tou".  [After receiving the "rh tou"], the husband-to-be sends "rh tou cookies," rice candy, the four offerings of gold, incense, fireworks, and candles, and the four offerings of lotus root, the five grains, pig iron, and charcoal to the woman's home, and this is referred to as setting the date.

謝天公 Thanking the Lord of Heaven

結婚前夕, 選定吉時, 備豐盛葷素供品, 延請道士誦經, 讀疏文, 以及加演傀儡戲或大戲, 向玉皇大帝和眾神明祝禱, 感謝多年來的護佑.  On the eve of the wedding, offerings are placed in the temple at an auspicious time.  A Taoist monk chants sacred texts, and a puppet show or drama is enacted for the enjoyment of the Jade Emperor and other gods.  This is a way of thanking them for many years of protection.

安床 Installing a New Bed

按照慣俗, 男方於結婚前一天要選吉時安放新床, 而且晚上不能空床或是讓準新郎一人獨睡, 必須由男童陪睡, 有早生貴子的意涵.  In accordance with custom, on the day before the wedding the husband must install a new bed.  During the evening [before the wedding], the bed cannot remain empty, and the husband-to-be cannot sleep alone.  A male child must sleep [with the husband], so that he can father a male child sooner.

現代婚禮 Modern Weddings

除了傳統婚禮外, 有人因為宗教信仰, 或是受到公證, 集團婚禮觀念影響, 會採用現代式的婚禮, 例如: (一) 佛化婚禮, (二) 天主教婚禮, (三) 基督教婚禮, (四) 公證結婚, (五) 集團結婚 (聯合婚禮), (六) 異國婚姻等.  Aside from traditional weddings, people also take part in other kinds of weddings, either because of their religious beliefs or because they want to take part in public or group weddings.  [In such cases] they choose modern types of wedding ceremony, such as: (1) a Buddhist wedding ceremony, (2) a Catholic wedding ceremony, (3) a Protestant wedding ceremony, (4) a public wedding, (5) a group wedding (collective wedding ceremony), or (6) a type of wedding from a foreign country.



4. 傳統婚禮: 正婚禮 Traditional Weddings: Formal Weddings

迎娶 The Wedding

古代親迎之日, 新郎戴冠身著莽袍, 騎馬或坐子婿轎, 以花轎迎娶, 新娘則穿戴鳳冠霞披; 現代社會普遍穿西式白紗禮服, 禮車迎娶.  男方帶豬腳, 雞, 魚牲禮和轎斗圓給女方, 用以祭拜祖先, 答謝父母養育之恩.  In ancient times, the bride and groom would wear traditional robes, and either ride horses or be carried on a cart or a sedan to their wedding.  In modern society, it is customary to wear Western clothes, and go to the wedding ceremony by car.  The groom brings the three offerings of pig feet, chicken, fish, and [a type of] wedding cake to the bride, and these are placed before the ancestors as a way of thanking them for their care.

食姊妹桌  The Bride Eats with Her Sisters

出嫁前, 新娘與姊妹們團圓會餐, 以示依依不捨之情.  菜餚有祝賀之意, 如食雞能起家, 食紅棗年年好, 食肉丸萬事圓等.  Before the marriage, the bride shares a meal with her sisters, and this represents the leaving of her family behind.  The dishes are served as a means of congratulation.  Eating chicken and jujubes brings good fortune to the family.  Eating meatballs brings longevity.

辭祖 Leaving One's Ancestors

男方抵達女方家迎娶時, 將帶來的供品敬獻女方神明和祖先.  新娘再由媒人牽引出大廳, 由女方舅父或長輩點燭祝福, 敬告女方神明和祖先, 新娘並跪別父母.  When the groom comes to the bride's house [just before] the wedding, he brings offerings for the bride's gods and ancestors.  The matchmaker then brings the bride into the living room, and the bride's elders, aunts, and uncles light candles as a way of telling their gods and ancestors that she is adopting new parents.

上轎擲扇 Throwing the Fan from the Car

新人坐上喜車後, 新娘從車上丟出一把繫著紅包的扇子, 由女方家屬派人撿拾, 表示新娘從此與娘家舊姓脫離關係.  丟扇子也有因 "扇" 與 "善" 同音, 而有 "留善給娘家" 之意.  After the couple are seated in their vehicles, the bride throws a fan containing a red envelope [from the car or sedan], and someone from her family will be sent to pick it up.  This represents the bride leaving her family [name] behind.  Throwing the fan ("shan" [in Chinese], which is a homonym for "good") also signifies "giving good to the bride's family."

踩瓦過火 Stamping the Tile and Stepping Over the Fire

新娘進入男方家前, 要先踩破一塊瓦片, 俗稱 "破外口", 即把不好的東西留在外面, 把好的東西帶入男方家門; 然後跨過一火爐, 有為新娘除穢淨身與帶來興旺的思意.  Before the newly married bride enters her husband's house, she must break a tile with her foot.  This is called "breaking outside [the house]".  In this way the "bad things" are left outside the house, and the good things are brought into it.  Afterward they step over a fire, which purifies the bride and brings good luck into the house.

拜堂 Praying at the Altar

新娘進入家內大廳與新郎一同拜堂, 由男方長輩或母舅主持 "拜堂" 儀式, 上香祭拜神明和祖先.  接著再拜父母, 之後夫妻交拜.  The new bride enters her husband's family's living room with her new husband, and they pray before the family altar.  The husband's parents, aunts, and uncles then take part in a "praying" ceremony, burning incense for their family's gods and ancestors.  The new bride also prays to her husband's parents, and afterward the couple pray to each other.

入洞房 Entering the Bridal Chamber

新郎新娘進洞房後, 對座 "食新娘圓" (吃甜湯圓), 有團圓之意.  After the new bride and groom enter the bridal chamber, they must eat sweet soup balls or "feed the new bride soup balls."  This [custom] signifies togetherness.

喜宴 The Wedding Banquet

結婚當天由男方宴請親朋好友, 過去農業社會, 喜宴多在自家門前.  請總鋪師來外燴, 俗稱 "辦桌"; 現在則多選擇在里民活動中心或餐廳舉辦.  On the day of the wedding, the husband's family invite their friends and [extended] relatives to a banquet.  In a rural society [this banquet] would take be held in front of their house, and cooks would be called in to cook the food there.  This is called "putting out the tables."  Nowadays most people choose to [host this banquet] at a civic activity center, or a restaurant.

壓茶甌 Offering the Tea Cups7

宴席結束後, 男方家族長輩坐在正廳, 新娘端茶向長輩一一獻茶, 長輩以紅包回贈新娘, 稱為 "壓茶甌".  此時長輩會說些吉祥話, 又稱為 "吃新娘茶".  客家習俗則是新婚第二天, 新娘要 "見拜" 親有長輩, 依序敬茶, 逐一尊稱, 親友則答話祝賀同時回贈紅包.  After the banquet, the elders of the husband's family sit in the living room, and the bride serves them tea.  The elders give the bride red envelopes, and this is called "offering the tea cups."  During this time the elders speak auspicious words [to the bride], and this is called "drinking the new bride's tea."  Hakka people also have a custom in which the new bride "prays in person" to the elders on the second day after the wedding.  [After this] she serves them tea, one by one, and they in turn offer her congratulations and red envelopes.

歸寧 Going Back

新婚後數日, 新婚夫婦返回女方娘家作客, 稱為 "歸寧" 或 "回門".  新人攜帶伴手禮敬拜娘家神明或祖先, 女婿以紅包分贈女方親友, 女方家準備午宴款待.  以前女方要準備糕餅, 雛雞一對 (公母各一) 與甘蔗一對, 讓新人攜回男方家, 現在則多以帶路雞禮籃代替, 象徵繁衍子孫, 甜密偕老.  Several days after the wedding, the new husband and wife return to her family's house as guests, and this is called "going back" or "going back through the door."  The new husband brings offerings for his wife's household gods and ancestors, and the husband's mother will give red envelopes to the bride's friends and family.  The wife's family will prepare a hospitable lunch, and before this lunch they will prepare cakes and cookies, a pair of chicks (male and female), and a pair of sugar cane stalks.  The new husband will take these gifts back home.  Nowadays a chicken gift basket is often used as a substitute.  This practice signifies the bearing of many children, and the joys of growing old together.


5. 喪禮 Funerals

台灣傳統喪禮主要是採用道教化的儀式, 也有採用佛化喪禮, 天主教喪禮, 基督教喪禮等儀式; 近年來提倡環保自然葬, 例如樹葬或是海葬.  這些喪禮提供人們在親人身故時, 以莊重的儀式來追思與紀念.  The most prevalent type of Taiwanese funeral ritual is Taoist in nature, though people also observe Buddhist, Catholic, Protestant, and other types of funeral.  In recent years, more environmentally friendly types of funeral have become more popular, such as burials beneath trees, or burials at sea.  Funerals help people remember and preserve the memories of their loved ones.

發喪 The Funeral Notice

將親人亡故的訊息向親友發佈, 稱為 "發喪".  Letting friends and family know about the loved one's departure is called the "funeral notice."

示喪 Announcing the Funeral

喪家在大門上張貼告示, 以白紙黑字寫著 (嚴制) (父死時用), (慈制) (母死時用) 或 (喪中) (指晚輩去世, 長輩尚在者) 等字樣.  The deceased's family posts notices outside their doors.  [These notices] are on white paper, and written with black ink.  If one's father has died, [the notice] says "yan jr."  If one's mother has died, [the notice] says "tse jr."  If more distant relatives have died, [the notice reads] "funeral in progress," or something like that.

辭生 "Taking Leave of One's Body"

將亡者抬入棺內前, 家屬會為亡者準備最後一次告別餐宴, 有六或十二道菜, 由道士或家屬作勢挾菜餵亡者吃, 稱為 "辭生".  Before the deceased is placed in the coffin, the surviving family will prepare a meal on his or her behalf, consisting of 6 or 12 dishes.  A priest or family member will then [act as if they are] feeding the deceased [one last time], and this is called "taking leave of one's body."

大殮 "The Big Interment"

將穿好壽衣的亡者, 依擇日師擇定吉時抬入棺木中安置好, 稱 "入木", 又稱 "入殮" 或 "大殮".  After the deceased has been placed in his or her funeral robes, the deceased is placed in his or her coffin on the day prescribed by the priest.  This is called "entering the wood," and also "entering the coffin" or "the big interment."

守靈 Watching Over the Spirit

遺體入殮到出殯前, 須派子孫在靈堂前看守, 為守靈.  From the time the body is interred to the funeral, the male descendants must keep watch over the spirit in the place set aside for mourning.

出殯 The Commencement of the Funeral

出殯日, 清掃廳堂後, 放置大竹籮, 籮中放燃燒的火爐, 十二碗菜, 發粿, 竹籮旁放米桶.  火爐表示旺盛, 十二碗菜表示子孫有得吃, 發粿象徵發財, 米桶則有團圓之意.  On the day of the funeral, after the space set aside for mourning has been cleaned, a large bamboo container is set out, and a fire is kindled inside of it.  [Alongside this are arranged] 12 dishes and "fa gao" cakes, and next to the fire is set another container holding rice.  The fire represents abundance, the 12 dishes represent one's descendants having enough to eat, the "fa gao" cakes represent good fortune, and the container of rice represents a coming together.

家祭, 公祭 Household and Public Prayers

出殯日舉行告別式, 主要是家祭和公祭, 讓親族, 朋友以及機關團體祭拜和拈香.  After farewells are said on the day of the funeral, it is important that the family and friends of the deceased offer their prayers.  These family, friends, and other groups pray and burn incense [during this time].

作七 "Observing Seven"9

死後每七日要做一次法事, 祭祀或請道士, 和尚念經, 稱為 "作七"; 從 "頭七" 到 "七七" (又稱 "滿七") 一共要做七次法事, 也有以每十天為一旬作法事祭拜, 稱為 "作旬", 最後為 "作百日".  Every seven days after the death, [the family] must make offerings at the temple, and have a Taoist monk chant [for the deceased's spirit].  This is called "observing seven," and from the "first seven" to the "seventh seven" (also called the "full seven"), this ritual is performed seven times.  There is also the ritual of worshiping at the temple every ten days, which is called "observing ten," and the last of these [ten] rituals is called "observing the 100 days."

作對年 The Yearly Observance

逝世週年舉行祭典, 稱為 "作對年".  此日結束後, 才算脫去孝服.  A religious ceremony is held one year after the funeral, and this is called "the yearly observance".  After this day, mourning comes to an end.

作忌 (作忌日) The Observance of the Dead (The Day of the Observance of the Dead)

親人亡故後的第二次逝世紀念日, 即稱為 "作忌".  此後, 年年以此日為忌日, 準備供品祭祀亡親.  The second anniversary of the family member's death is referred to as "the observance of the dead."  After this, sacrifices are offered at the temple in remembrance of the departed, once a year on this day.

Related Entries 相關的文章:

Taiwanese Culture 台灣文化 (1 of 3)
台灣民俗由來 The Origin of Taiwanese Customs (4 of 4)
台灣民俗由來 The Origin of Taiwanese Customs (3 of 4)
The RTcarrefourhypermart 大家愛潤樂買福 

1. This type of thinking has a basis in Chinese medicine, which regards the temperature of the body as being very important. 

2. Many of the other names for the flowers, leaves, and rituals in this section are homonyms for auspicious things in Chinese culture.  The same is true for the following section, "A Shave."

3. The Bed Mother and the Ju Sheng Mother were introduced in the 台灣民俗由來 The Origin of Taiwanese Customs entries.  Any other deities found in this section can also be found there.

4. The word 涎 literally means "saliva."  The baby's teeth would be coming in, and these biscuits give it something to "soak up its saliva." 

5. "Shou" or 壽 could be translated as "life" or "long-lived."

6. This "seventh day of the seventh month" (七夕) is a holiday in itself.  Too complicated to go into here, but it has to do with the Seven Stars Goddess. 

7. "Offering" here is a bit too subtle.  It's more like "pressing," in the sense of pressuring them to drink (more) tea. 

8. Hard to translate 庚 ("geng").  It's kind of like "past history."

9. "Observing" in the sense of "ritual observance," not "observing" in the sense of seeing.

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