2016年4月14日 星期四

了解台灣遠洋漁業: 六個問答 "Understanding Taiwan's Deep Sea Fishing Industry: Six Questions and Answers

The Chinese text below was taken from Greenpeace's 2016 spring issue.  下面的中文取自"綠色和平2016年春節的成果報告".

I don't always agree with Greenpeace, but I read their newsletters and I have been a member.  They have a lot to say about many environmental issues, though I think they have a tendency to overlook any local factors that they find inconvenient.  我不完全贊同"綠色和平"的看法, 可是我會看他們的成果報告, 而且我也是他們的會員.  他們提出許多的環保議題, 但是這些報告中卻看不到這些議題的完整的面向與探討.

Taiwan's deep sea fishing industry was also discussed in the Conventional Industries (2) entry, the Fishing Ports of Taiwan entry, and in the Cheng Gong Fishing Port entry.  我以前也在Conventional Industries (2), Fishing Ports of Taiwan, 和Cheng Gong Fishing Port成功漁港討論過台灣遠洋漁業


了解台灣遠洋漁業: 六個問答
Understanding Taiwan's Deep Sea Fishing Industry: Six Questions and Answers

新政府即將上任, 所有關心環境的人, 能否期待未來將實現更多對環境友善的政策?  過程中, 絕不能少了您的關注.  去年十月以來, 在您的支持之下, 綠色和平藉由政策建議, 法規遊說, 專注推動改善台灣遠洋漁業的管理.  為什麼?  唯有台灣的法規與國際接軌, 並有效賞行, 才能更有效地守護區域以至全球海洋的生物多樣性. As a new administration takes over, all of those who care about the environment are wondering what kinds of environmentally-friendly policies will be enacted in the future.  We must all, of course, be attentive to this process.  Since October of last year, and with your support, Greenpeace has offered its advice with regard to policies and lobbying regulations, and has concentrated on the improved management of Taiwan's deep sea fisheries.  Why?  It is only when Taiwan conforms to regulations and international standards, and with effective implementation of these regulations and standards, that we can more effectively protect both our local fisheries and the biodiversity which the oceans of the world provide.

Pacific Saury 秋刀魚

1. 台灣, 是遠洋漁業強權?  Is Taiwan an "Offshore Fishing Power"?

是的.  全球九成的魚貨都來自六大遠洋捕魚國的船隊, 臺灣是其中之一.  臺灣的遠洋漁業年產值居全球前三位, 達400多億元, 其中, 鮪延繩釣產業規模全球排名第一, 作業漁場遍佈世界三大洋區.  您喜歡秋刀魚嗎?  去年, 臺灣秋刀魚年產量蟬聯世界第一.  Yes.  Taiwan is counted among the six fleets that fish 90% of the world's fishing stocks.  Taiwan's yearly catch from deep sea fishing is the world's third largest, amounting to more than 400 billion NT.  In this context, Taiwan's longline tuna fishing industry ranks first worldwide within the three major ocean fishing areas.  Do you like Pacific saury?  Last year, Taiwan's Pacific saury catch was the largest in the world. 

2. 遠洋漁業, 對台灣有多重要?  How Important is the Deep Sea Fishing Industry to Taiwan?

遠洋漁業除了為台灣帶來豐富收益, 也因為漁業合作打開許多外交機會.  臺灣22個邦交國中, 太平洋島國就佔了六個.  在許多重要的區域漁業管理組織中, 台灣都是正式會員, 而非僅止於觀察員身分.  遠洋漁業是台灣以產業實力參與國際社會的例證.  In addition to the prosperity that deep sea fishing brings to Taiwan, there are also the diplomatic opportunities that cooperation among deep sea fishermen engenders.  Of the 22 countries with which Taiwan has diplomatic ties, 6 of these are Pacific island nations.  Taiwan is a full member, not merely an observer, of many important local fishery management organizations, and Taiwan's ability to capitalize on its deep sea fishing industry makes its participation in the international community an established fact.*

3. 遠洋漁業, 究竟出了什麼問題?  What Problems Really Accompany Deep Sea Fishing?

您是否同意, 作為遠洋漁業強權, 法規也應與國際接軌?  Do you agree, that as a "deep sea fishing power," Taiwan should abide by [domestic] regulations and international standards?

台灣遠洋漁業管理的癥結在於船隊太多, 但管理不善.  漁業署不論人力或經費, 都不足以有效監控龐大的船隊.  多數漁船待在公海數月, 甚至數年也不需進港, 成為管理上最大漏洞.  現在漁業資源持續減少, 競爭越來越激烈, 不少漁民鋌而走險, 進行非法漁業.  臺灣現有法規無法有效遏止, 成為在區域漁業組織或國際會議上一再被指陳的問題.  The real problem with Taiwan's deep sea fishing industry is that the fleet is too large, and that it is not well regulated.  The Fisheries Department has neither enough people nor funds to effectively monitor a large fleet.  Most fishing boats remain on the high seas for months or even years without entering into any port, and this is the Fisheries Department's greatest weakness.  At the present time, the fishing industry's resources continue to decline, competition grows, and many fisherman take risks and/or engage in illegal fishing.  Taiwan's present laws cannot halt this trend, and in both regional and international fishing organizations [illegal practices] have become a bone of contention. 

4. 歐盟發給黃牌, 為什麼?  What Does it Mean When the EU Issues a Yellow Card?

因為長期以來管理不力, 去年十月, 歐盟將台灣列入打擊IUU不合作第三國警告名單, 如不改善, 可能施以經濟制裁禁止海鮮出口.  Due to long term mismanagement, in October of last year the EU placed Taiwan third on its list of countries not complying with its IUU [fishing] regulations.  If Taiwan fails to improve, the EU may impose economic sanctions and ban imports of [Taiwanese] seafood.

為了維護台灣多數辛苦的合法漁民, 捍衛其生活與工作權利, 綠色和平主張, 應修法大幅提高罰則, 執行進步的管理政策, 諸如增加觀察員覆蓋率, 電子漁護日誌或電子觀察員改善監控技術, 和其他國家聯合海上巡邏等.  In order to protect Taiwan's many hard working and law-abiding fishermen, to defend their lives and right to work, Greenpeace has argued that laws should be amended and penalties increased.  With this should come the implementation of improved management policies, such as increasing the number of observers, the use of electronic journals, the use by observers of electronic surveillance technology, and international maritime patrols.


5. 經濟制裁, 改善更快?  If Economic Sanctions are Imposed, Will the Situation Improve Faster?

絕非如此.  歐盟是全世界最大的魚類消費市場, 從2008年開始, 歐盟希望從市場端出發改善產業鏈.  以經濟制裁的角度出發, 歐盟積極與各國協商, 希望各國盡力打擊非法漁業.  Far from it.  The EU is the world's largest market for fish, and from 2008 it hopes to improve their market from the suppliers upward.  The EU actively consults other countries with regard to the economic sanctions it opposes, and it is hoped that all countries will do their utmost to combat illegal fishing.

之前歐盟曾經對菲律賓, 韓國也發出過類似的警告, 韓國與菲律賓都因此而加強了管理, 包括重新修改法規, 加強對非法行為的制裁.  Previously the EU issued similar warnings to both the Philippines and South Korea, and for this reason both countries improved the management of their fishing industries.  This improvement included new legislation and regulations to stem illegal activities.

如升高為紅牌禁止海鮮進口, 台灣最主要的海鮮市場美國與日本也可能跟進, 影響嚴重.  然而, 台灣的損失, 絕對不只是經濟收益.  If seafood imports [into the EU] are banned with the issuance of a red card, it is possible that Taiwan's two most important export markets, the US and Japan, will follow suit, and the impact of this will be very serious.  The loss to Taiwan, however, will not only be economic in nature.**

您能想像嗎?  如果有一天, 台灣所代表的不再是溫暖的人情, 自然美景或美食, 而是非法漁船橫行, 濫捕, 濫抓?  台灣有許多美好事物足以自豪, 非法漁業絕非其中之一.  Can you imagine?  What if one day Taiwan is not known for the kindness of its people, its natural beauty, and its cuisine, but is known instead for the widespread practices of illegal fishing, overfishing, and excessive catches?  Taiwan has many things to be proud of, but illegal fishing is definitely not one of them.

6. 現在, 正是法規改善的良機?  Is Now Really the Best Time to Improve Legislation?

是的.  "漁業法" 從1929年立法以來, 從未作大幅調整, 現在是台灣重新整頓漁業管理的良機.  修法影響層面廣大, 政府應召開公聽會, 收集漁民, 公民團體的意見, 而除了法規修正與立法, 為了確保真正落實, 還需要配套措施.  Yes.  Since the "Fisheries Act" of 1929 never had any real impact, now is the time to revolutionize the management of Taiwan's fishing industry.  In order to amend the law to reflect the will of the majority, the government should hold a public hearing to hear suggestions from both fisherman and the general public.  In addition to new and amended laws, and these [new and amended laws] being implemented effectively, we also need [other] supporting measures.

也因此, 除了推動法規修訂, 未來是否能有效執法, 也是綠色和平一大關注重點.  As a result of this, in addition to promoting amended legislation, in the future effective law enforcement is also necessary, and this is one of the issues that Greenpeace is focusing on.

"Who is the King of Longline Fishing?"

Related Entries 相關的文章:

Development in Taitung 2 台東的發展
台東的鯉魚山傳奇 "The Legend of Taitung's Carp Mountain"
十大建設對營造業發展之助一益 "The Ten Big Projects Help Expand the Construction Industry"
A Miserable Day in Chr Shang 糟糕的池上戶外教學

*It should be noted that several of these 22 countries are not worth bothering with.

**Doubt it would ever happen.  The US values Taiwan for other, geopolitical purposes too much.  And Japan?  That would be like the pot calling the kettle black.
 

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