|Construction begins on the Jung Shan Freeway|
十大建設對營造業發展之助益The Ten Big Projects Help Expand the Construction Industry
邁入1970年代以後, 台灣面對了一連串的外交失利. 就在台灣的國際處境面臨驚濤駭浪之際, 年邁的蔣介石總統也宣告了接班計畫, 任命自己的長子蔣經國出任行政院長, 企圖力挽狂瀾, 就在"莊敬自強, 處變不驚"的口號聲中, 台灣進入了"蔣經國時代". At the beginning of the 1970s, Taiwan faced a series of diplomatic defeats, and Taiwan's place within the international community was uncertain. During this time the elder President Chiang Kai-shek declared a plan for his succession, and it was decided that his oldest son, Chiang Ching-kuo would ascend to the office of President in his stead. Chiang Ching-kuo would attempt to rally Taiwan behind his slogan "Self-strengthening of the village, change through moderation," and in this manner Taiwan entered "the era of Chiang Ching-kuo."
1972年5月29日, 蔣經國組閣, 他在擔任閣揆的第十天, 就宣布了"十項行政革新", 其新人新政整飭政風的態勢馬上令人刮目相看. On May 29, 1972 Chiang Ching-guo formed a cabinet, and during the tenth day of his administration he announced "ten administrative reforms" which would breathe new life into the government through new policies, and through the appointment of new officials.
1973年11月12日, 在國民黨十屆四中全會上, 蔣經國正式宣布推動十大建設, 將以五年的時間完成, 並特別強調"今天不做, 明天就會後悔". On November 12, 1973, during the fourth plenary session of the 10th Kuomintang Congress, Chiang Ching-kuo formally announced the promotion of the Ten Big Projects, which were to be completed within in five years' time. With this he emphasized the idea that "What is not done today will be a disappointment tomorrow."
進入1970年代之後, 中華民國政府在國際上的地位逐漸被中華人民共和國政府取代, 首先是1971年4月美國宣布決定將釣魚臺交給日本. 接著, 1971年10月25日, 聯合國大會通過第2758號決議, 正式決定由中華人民共和國取代中華民國, 成為在聯合國代表中國的政府, 因而各國相繼與中華民國政府斷交, 轉與中華人民共和國建交, 其中以1972年9月日本宣布與中華人民共和國建交, 最讓國人感到挫折. 1978年12月16日, 美國總統卡特宣布, 美國將與中華人民共和國建交, 此與讓台灣的外交挫敗達到最高峰. In the 1970s, the Republic of China's role within international affairs was slowly taken over by the People's Republic of China. This process can be traced back to the American government handing the Diaoyutai Islands back to Japan in April of 1971. After this, on October 25, 1971, the United Nations General Assembly passed resolution 2758, which formally gave the Republic of China's seat to the People's Republic of China, and recognized the People's Republic of China as the rightful government of China. Because of this resolution, the other governments also ceased to recognize the Republic of China, and began to establish relations with the People's Republic. On September 1972, Japan switched recognition to the PRC, which also frustrated many. Then, on December 16, 1978 the US President Carter established formal relations with the People's Republic, and with this Taiwan's diplomatic defeat was total.
十大建設內容及原先進度與規劃 The Details of the Ten Big Projects, Their Planning and Progress*
1. 交通建設 Transportation Projects
1a. 南北高速公路 The North-South Freeway - 1971年8月開工, 預計工程總經費193億元, 即今中山高速公路 Construction was begun on August of 1971, and the budget was set at 19.3 billion NT dollars.
1b. 西部鐵路電氣化 The Electrification of the West Coast Railways - 1971年8月獲行政院通過, 計畫向國外貨款6,500萬美元 (約新台幣26億元) In August 1971 this project was passed by the Executive Yuan, and the plan called for a budget of 65 million US dollars (about 26 billion NT dollars).***
1c. 北迴鐵路 The Northern Cross-Island Railway - 1973年7月由行政院刻定, 預計工程總經費為20.7億元 The Executive Yuan resolved upon this project in July 1973, and proposed a budget of 20.7 billion NT dollars.
1d. 台中港 Taichung Port - 1971年7月確定財務計畫, 工程總經費為83億元, 1973年10月開工 In July 1971 the financial plan was decided upon, and the total cost of this project was set at 8.3 billion NT dollars. Construction was begun on October 1973.
1e. 蘇澳港 Su Ao Port - 1970年列入行政院所刻定的"海路空十年運輸發展計畫" In 1970 the Executive Yuan included this in the "10 Year Plan for Air, Land, and Maritime Transportation Development."
1f. 中正國際機場 Chiang Kai-shek Memorial Airport - 1970年列入行政院所刻定的"海路空十年運輸發展計畫," 即今桃園國際機場 In 1970 the Executive Yuan included this in the "10 Year Plan for Air, Land, and Maritime Transportation Development." This airport is now called Taoyuan International Airport.
2. 重化工業 Renewed Industries
2a. 一賞作業煉銅廠 A Copper Smelter - 1971年11月成立中國銅鐵股份有限公司, 即今中國銅鐵廠 In November of 1971 the Chinese Copper Smelting Corporation Ltd. was created, and the smelter is now referred to as the China Copper and Iron Plant.
2b. 石油化學工業 The Petrochemical Industry - 1973年6月開始廠址土地微收, 即今仁大石化工業區, 林園石化工業區 On June 1973 areas were appropriated, and these areas are now known as the Ren Da and Lin Yuan Petrochemical Industrial Zones.
2c. 大造船廠 A Large Shipyard- 1972年4月, 高雄造船廠籌備處成立, 即今中國造船廠 In April 1972, the administrative division in charge of creating Kaohsiung's large shipyard was created. This shipyard is now know as the China Shipyard.**
3. 發電工程 Electrification Projects
3a. 核能發電廠 Nuclear-Powered Electric Plants - 1970年9月台電公司宣布"電源開發十年計畫," 計畫中包括建置核能發電機3部, 1970年11月核一場於台北的石門動工. In September 1970, the Taiwan Electric Corporation announced its "10 Year Plan for the Development of Electric Power Sources." Included in this plan was the installation of 3 nuclear reactors. In November of 1970, construction of the first reactor was begun in Shr Men, Taipei County.
|Board game for the Ten Big Projects|
Related Entries 相關的文章:
台灣幸福百事 "100 Fortunate Things in Taiwan"
"Conventional Industries" (3)
"Conventional Industries" (2)
*This last section was presented in chart form in the book, and was much easier to read in that format. Unfortunately, entries in this blog develop problems if I paste charts from other word processing programs into them, so I elected to present the information as a list.
**Presently owned and operated by the China Ship Building Corporation 臺灣國際造船股份有限公司, or CSBC.
***Presumably borrowed from the US government. The US government was offering Taiwan a lot of development assistance during this time.
**** This is a long, complicated story, and can be traced all the way back to the creation of the Republic of China in 1911. Those interested should consult Immanuel Hsu's excellent "The Rise of Modern China."