2015年12月30日 星期三

台灣鳳梨的歷史 A History of Taiwanese Pineapples

The Chinese text below was taken from "The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Conventional Industries" 一看就懂台灣博覽, published by Walkers Cultural 遠足文化事業股份有限公司 in 2013.  The Chinese text was written by 呂理政and吳連賞, and the English text was written by me.  下面的中文文章是出自一看就懂台灣博覽這本書.  這本書是遠足文化事業股份有限公司2013的作品. 中文的部分是呂理政跟吳連賞寫的.  英文的部分是我從中文翻譯的.

鳳梨是典型熱帶水果, 含有鳳梨酵素(Bromelin)*等各種營養, 可幫助人體消化動物蛋白質.  鳳梨的果實像鳳尾, 俗名"旺來"外型跟波羅蜜也很相似, 所以也叫波羅, 是台灣民俗上表示吉祥的水果.  台灣的鳳梨罐頭產量曾經是世界第一, 堪稱是最具台灣特色的水果之一.  The pineapple is a fruit typically found in the tropics.  It contains bromelain and is very nutritious.  It helps the body digest animal proteins.  Pineapple has a vinelike appendage, and this jackfruit-shaped fruit is often referred to as "Kwang Lai" or "Prosperity's Arrival."  For this reason it is also called "polo," [a Chinese word resembling the word for jackfruit].  In Taiwanese culture it is viewed as an auspicious fruit.  Once Taiwan's canned pineapple production became first worldwide, the pineapple was also referred to as one of Taiwan's most characteristic fruits.

台灣鳳梨產業起源於鳳山 The Taiwanese Pineapple Industry Begins in Feng Shan

根據"諸羅縣誌"及"淡水廳誌", 清康熙中期台灣南部已有鳳梨栽植的記錄.  但日治時代初期, 台灣的鳳梨才發展為經濟產業.  日本明治三十六年(1903), 日商岡村庄太郎在鳳山設立台灣第一家鳳梨工廠, 開啟了台灣鳳梨產業的序幕.  As recorded in both the Jhu Luo County Annal and the Danshui Record, pineapple was harvested in south Taiwan as early as the middle of Ching Kang-shi's reign.  After the Japanese occupation, Taiwan's pineapple industry was developed and made more economical.  During the 36th year of Emperor Meiji's rule (1903), the businessman Okamura Shotaro set up Taiwan's first pineapple cannery in Feng Shan, and this marked the beginning of Taiwan's pineapple industry.

Feng Shan's Pineapple Cannery at the Height of Production

鳳山, 員林曾是鳳梨罐頭中心 Feng Shan and Yuan Lin Become Pineapple Canning Centers

岡村在鳳山設立鳳梨工廠後, 日本明治四十一年(1908)日本罐頭業權威濱口富三郎也在彰化設立鳳梨工廠, 隨後將工廠遷到員林, 當時鳳山與員林成為台灣的鳳梨罐頭業中心.  當時年產量約兩萬箱.  After Okamura Shotaru set up his pineapple cannery in Feng Shan, during the 41st year of the Emperor Meiji's rule (1908), the Japanese canning concern Hamaguchi established a pineapple cannery in Chang Hua.  This cannery was later moved to Yuanlin.  At this time Feng Shan and Yuanlin became centers of pineapple canning, and their output was around 20,000 boxes a year.

日本在台灣實施鳳梨外銷補貼 The Japanese Implement Export Subsidies in Taiwan

日本大正十四年(1925), 日本人引進開英種鳳梨, 開始在屏東內埔從事大規模栽培, 隨後其他農場也陸續種植鳳梨.  日本昭和四年(1929)更在台灣實施三年鳳梨外銷補貼政策, 促使台灣鳳梨外銷蓬勃發展.  During the 14th year of Emperor Yoshihito's reign (1925), the Japanese introduced the "British"** type of pineapple to Taiwan.  Large-scale cultivation was also begun in Pingtung's Neipu area during this time, and many other agricultural areas began to grow pineapples.  In the 4th year of Emperor Hirohito's reign (1929), three more years of export subsidies were implemented for pineapples in Taiwan, and Taiwan's pineapple exports were promoted vigorously.

二次大戰前台灣年產鳳梨世界第三 Before the Second World War, Taiwan's Yearly Production of Pineapples Was Third Worldwide

日本昭和十三年時(1938), 台灣年產鳳梨167萬箱, 是日治時代的最高記錄, 在當時全球市場占有率僅次於夏威夷和馬來西亞, 居世界第三.  招和十六年(1941)太平洋戰爭爆發, 因裝罐材料及肥料供應中斷, 工廠也遭到盟軍炸毀, 鳳梨產業大幅蕭條萎縮.  In the 13th year of Emperor Hirohito's reign (1938), Taiwan's yearly production of pineapples exceeded 1,670,000 boxes.  This was the highest output during the Japanese Imperial Administration.  At this time Taiwan's share of the global market was second only to Hawaii and Malaysia, and Taiwan was third worldwide.  During the 16th year of Emperor Hirohito's reign (1941), the Second World War erupted, and canning equipment and fertilizers were in short supply.  Canneries were also the targets of Allied bombs, and the pineapple industry experienced a dramatic downturn.

Feng Shan's Pineapple Cannery Today

光復後民營鳳梨加工業蓬勃發展 After Liberation, Taiwan's Pineapple Industry Experiences a Boom

台灣光復後, 政府成立台灣鳳梨有限公司, 將日治時代留下的鳳梨產業合併, 民國四十年起, 鳳梨產業復興五年計畫帶動了工廠陸續復工.  民國四十四年政府實施耕者有其田, 將鳳梨有限公司出售民營, 成立了"台灣鳳梨股份有限公司", 自此鳳梨加工成為蓬勃的事業.  After Taiwan was liberated [from the Japanese], the government established the Taiwan Pineapple Company, Ltd.  This company consolidated the holdings left behind by the Japanese.  In the 40th year of the new government [1951], production was resumed at the canneries ***, with the implementation of a five-year plan.  In the 44th year of the new government [1955], plans were made to continue tilling the fields, but to privatize the company.  The Taiwan Pineapple Company was then established, and [from that point] the Taiwanese pineapple industry experienced a boom.

台灣鳳梨罐頭產量曾經位居世界第一 Taiwan's Pineapple Canning Industry Becomes First Worldwide

民國四十七年, 台灣西部22家鳳梨工廠取得協調, 將鳳梨原料委由台灣省罐頭工業同業公會統一收購分配, 穩定了鳳梨產裝銷的秩序.  到民國五十二年台灣鳳梨罐頭輸出量達23萬箱.  民國六十年代, 台灣鳳梨罐頭產量曾經居世界第一位, 年產量達到410萬箱, 其後因為不敵其他熱帶開發中國家的低成本加工, 台灣鳳梨外銷逐年衰退, 逐漸轉型為國內鮮果供市場.  In the 47th year of the R.O.C. calendar [1958], 22 pineapple canneries on the west coast of the island formed an association, in which the Canned Pineapple Association of Taiwan Province agreed upon a purchase agreement for the acquisition of raw pineapple.  [This agreement] stabilized the production of canned pineapple.  In the 52nd year of the R.O.C. calendar [1963], the output of canned pineapple amounted to 230,000 boxes.  In the 60th year of the R.O.C. calendar [1971], Taiwan's canned pineapple production became first worldwide, with a yearly output of 4,100,000 boxes.  From this point, Taiwan's pineapple industry experienced a yearly decline, due to competition from other developing tropical countries where the cost of processing was lower.  The industry then gradually turned to domestic markets.

Map of Pineapple Production During the Japanese Occupation

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*"Bromelin" is a misspelling of bromelain.

**"British" in what way?  I have no idea.  I only know that 1) pineapples wouldn't grow well in Britain, and 2) there's a picture of it here.

***Not sure if they mean "cannery" or "canneries" here.  Was production restarted at both the Feng Shan AND the Yuanlin cannery?  Or only the Feng Shan cannery?