2015年5月15日 星期五

雲豹 - 從動物王國上消失的傳奇 "The Clouded Leopard - From the Animal Kingdom to the Realm of Legend"

The following article appears in the book "Wildlife of Taitung."  It discusses the Formosan clouded leopard, which is a subspecies of clouded leopard that may be extinct.  以下的文章出自台東縣野生動物這本書.  介紹的是台灣雲豹.  台灣雲豹是亞洲雲豹的一種.

張簡琳玲 Jang Jian Lin Ling
弘光科技大學 通訊學院
Hungkuang University, School of Communications

台東位處台灣東南隅, 除了北邊和西南邊分別與花蓮縣和高雄縣, 屏東縣接壞外, 整個西半部都與中央山脈連接在一起, 境內群山環繞, 不但是野生動物的天堂, 也是雲豹迷們寄託希望之所在, 因為在那中央山脈的南端, 就是大家傳說中的"雲豹的故鄉".  Taitung is located in southeast Taiwan.  With the exception of the northern and southeastern parts of the island, areas such as Hualien County, Kaohsiung County, and Pingtung County are all connected by the central mountain range.  The areas enclosed by mountains are not only a refuge for wildlife, but are also places in which many hope to find the clouded leopard.  For this reason the southern end of the central mountain range is referred to as "the clouded leopard's hometown."

討論台東是否有雲豹 (Neofelis nebulosa) 其實就是討論長久以來許多人所質疑的"台灣 (福爾摩莎島) 是否有雲豹"的問題 (列如http://nc.kl.edu.tw/bbs/archive/index.php/t-22478. html; http://nature.hc.edu.tw/vbb/showthread.php?t=8596).  從地理與生態來看, 儘管台灣是雲豹族群分布的最北界, 早年台東茂盛的森林和豐富的野哺乳類動物提供了供養雲豹族群的可能性, 而島上的另一大型哺乳動物 - 雜食性的黑熊也讓肉食性的雲豹在台灣島嶼的生態環境得以佔一席之地.  然而在文獻上還是缺乏明確的證據和充分的記錄佐證"雲豹存在福爾摩莎島"的說法.  原住民倒是在他們的文化中保留了"有可能"的證明.  在訪談的過程中有些原住民的語言存在對應"雲豹"的詞彙 - IKULOU或LIKULOU, 例如在南部的布農族皆然.  此外, 排灣族, 魯凱族有很多的傳說與雲豹有關.  魯凱族的祖先與雲豹有特別密切的關係, 因此他們在打獵時會避開雲豹, 在排灣族則稱能夠獵到雲豹者為勇士, 他們獻給頭目的雲豹, 毛皮與獸頭會被保留下來裝成背心與帽子, 頭目在豐年祭或重要慶典中穿戴.  因此, 雲豹背心與頭飾在排灣族成為階級的標示, 在訪談及五年祭中僅見頭目與一位祭師示現.  曾經在大武鄉的村落, 有人展示購自中國的雲豹背心, 相較於頭目們已經保存二世代之毛皮的柔軟光滑, 進口毛皮觸感乾硬而粗糙.  頭目遺憾地表示處理毛皮的方法已不知不覺中隨物種的消失不復存在: 這末嘗不是一種文化的遺失?  另外, 有人展示裝飾山豬與雲豹牙齒所裝成的頭飾, 如果實陷, 那一定曾經有一為數不小的雲豹族群活動於南部的山林間!  In any discussion of whether the clouded leopard (neofelis nebulosa) still exists, one must first discuss the problem of whether or not Taiwan (Formosa) ever really had such an animal.  (For example: http://nc.kl.edu.tw/bbs/archive/index.php/t-22478. html; http://nature.hc.edu.tw/vbb/showthread.php?t=8596).  

From the geographical and ecological points of view, Taiwan would have been the most northerly habitat for a clouded leopard population.  In an earlier time the lush forests and abundant mammals found in Taitung would have sustained the clouded leopard and omnivores such as bears.  There is, however, a lack of clear evidence or documentation for the presence of clouded leopards.  

Interviews with native peoples provide some linguistic evidence for the presence of the clouded leopard, such as the words "ikulou" and "likulou" in the southern Bunun dialect.  In addition, the Paiwan and Rukai tribes have many legends concerning the clouded leopard, and the Rukai claim a particularly close relationship to the animal due to the fact that the clouded leopard is considered to be a friend of their ancestors.  For this reason the Rukai avoided hunting the clouded leopard.  

In the Paiwan tribe it was claimed that warriors hunted in the name of this animal, and that their chief was consecrated to the clouded leopard.  They fashioned vests and hats from the hides of these animals, and the chiefs would wear these vests and hats during important festivals and celebrations.  For this reason the vests and hats became identified with Paiwan culture, and these vests and hats are only shown by holy men, during important festivals, that occur only every five years.  

Villagers in Dawu Township displayed a vest made from a Chinese clouded leopard hide.  This soft, glossy hide had been preserved for two generations, and was much softer than similar hides imported from China.  The village elders regretted the fact that the process for tanning such hides has been lost, possibly because of the leopards' disappearance.  Does this represent a cultural loss as well?  Furthermore, people have produced headdresses adorned with both wild boar tusks and clouded leopard fur.  If these animals were truly trapped in the southern mountain forests, the population of these leopards must have been very small.

解開身世之迷 Uncovering the Mystery

儘管 "最後一隻野生雲豹在1983年踏入陷阱後即在台灣絕跡 "是大部分文獻的說法 (見張簡2002) 許多人仍不放棄尋找雲豹在台灣山林的蹤跡, 除了媒體的報導外還有人提供爪痕及雲豹的照片, 都是為了證明 "雲豹媒然存在台灣的山林", 但因為無法進一步確認而存疑, 農委會特有生物研究ˋ保育中心與林務局合作, 曾經花了三年的時間在雲豹可能出沒的區域包括台東, 深入山林進行調查並佈下上百部紅外線相機試圖埔捉雲豹的身影, 可惜並無斬獲, 間接地支持 "台灣雲豹已經絕跡".  Although some literature indicates that the last clouded leopard to be trapped before their extinction was acquired in 1983, many people (see 2002 photos) continue to look for clouded leopard tracks in the mountain forests of Taiwan.  Foreign media sources have also publicized photos of the clouded leopard, all to prove that this animal still exists in the area.  Yet because there is no way to authenticate such photos, the COA Endemic Species Conservation Center and the Forest Service spent three years searching in Taitung and other areas for the clouded leopard.  They placed hundreds of infrared cameras in the mountain regions, all without success, and concluded that "the clouded leopard is already extinct."

以形質與基因為基礎的最新研究結果顯示, 原本一屬一種四亞種的雲豹在一百四十萬年前分布於南亞島嶼大路的兩個族群已分化成二個不同的種 (http://frontiersinzoology.com/content/4/1/15).  為解開 "台灣雲豹" 之謎 - 是否有, 從那裏來, 在缺乏其亞種的雲豹DNA以及 "台灣雲豹" 的DNA狀況下, 與美國國家衛生研究院 (National Institute of Health, NIH) 的 Dr. O'Brien研究室合作,將包括在國立博物館以及原住民處取得的共6件雲豹組織樣本寄送比對.  在6件樣本中有4件樣本是無效樣本: 另2件樣本中有一件與中國的雲豹樣本在基因上很接近,有1件樣本在基因序列上跟其他樣本有較多的差異 (http://clouded leopard.org/Documents/Val_CB_2006.pdf), 但要確認是否就是 "台灣雲豹" 則需要更多的樣本.  The latest research incorporates genetics, and has concentrated upon a genus of four leopard subspecies, each 1.4 million years old and inhabiting islands in southern Austronesia.  This genus differentiated into two distinct species (http://frontiersinzoology.com/content/4/1/15).  

To unlock the riddle of the Formosan clouded leopard - if there is such a thing - one must first determine how its DNA differs from that of other Asian clouded leopards.  The National Museum acquired six samples from aboriginal sources, and sent six of these to a Dr. O'Brien at the National Institute of Health (NIH) for testing.  Of these six samples, four were declared invalid and the other two samples were very similar to the clouded leopard genotype seen in Mainland China.  One of the samples displayed many marked differences with the Mainland Chinese type, however (http://clouded leopard.org/Documents/Val_CB_2006.pdf), and further samples are needed before determining whether or not this is the real "Formosan clouded leopard." 

傳奇之外 Legends Aside

雲豹以牠美麗的雲斑, 敏捷的身手與神秘的生活型態吸引了許多人的關注, 牠們在地球上的族群量不多, 而且還在急遽減少中.  生物的演化自有其節奏, 經過時間與大自然洗禮而能存活下來的族群都是物種中的強者.  如果雲豹真的曾經自在地蹤橫於台東的山林間, 牠們的消失不但令人遺憾也是傳遞了某種警訊.  The clouded leopard, with its beautiful markings and natural grace, has attracted a lot of attention with regard to conserving this endangered animal.  The number of clouded leopards is small, and is also decreasing.  Some of this decrease is due to the natural wax and wane of evolutionary forces, in which survival of the fittest is paramount.  If the clouded leopard really did cross over into the mountain forests of Taiwan*, their disappearance is not only unfortunate but can also serve as a warning.

野生動物也是一種資產, 牠們可以帶動觀光產業, 例如烏干達的大猩猩 (Mountain gorilla) 保護區布溫迪國家公園 (Bwindi National Park), 肯亞以各種野生動物為主的國家公園 (其中Lake Nakuru National Park在1986即因 [拯救犀牛行動] 而聞名): 野生動物也可以凝聚社區的意識, 發展獨特的社區文化, 例如以 "親善鮭魚城市" 著稱的西雅圖, 護魚有成的達娜伊谷鄒族山美社區: 野生動物當然也可以媲美文化古蹟加入世界遺產的型列, 例如以生態博物館著稱的 "加拉巴哥群島 (Galapagos Islands)" 早在1978年即被聯合國列為世界遺產.  Wild animals are also a natural resource, in that they are a valuable part of the tourism industry.  Examples of this include Uganda's mountain gorillas, and their protected area within Bwindi National Park.  Kenya has also created a number of national parks to preserve its wildlife, within which Lake Nakuru National Park, created in 1986 to preserve the rhino population, is the most famous example.  Wild animals can heighten community awareness and enrich unique local cultures.  An example of this is the "goodwill salmon city"** program created in Seattle, or fishery conservation efforts by the tanayiku tribe in Taiwan.  Wildlife is also of course part of our world heritage, and institutions such as the ecological museum established in the Galapagos Islands in 1978 by the United Nations World Heritage organization exemplifies this understanding. 

十九世紀索瓜米西族的西雅圖酋長曾經提醒人們, "假如人們唾棄了大地, 其實他們就是在唾棄自己".  今天台灣土地與土地上的生命經歷著尋常的浩劫, 印證了西雅圖酋長所說的 "任何發生在大地上的必將同樣地降臨在祂的子民身上".  每一個動物在 "大地拼圖" 都佔有一個位置, 人類可以選擇讓圖面上的缺塊增加, 也可以努力維持它的完整.  因此, 除了反省我們應該要有更積極的行動, 為土地, 生靈, 還有依賴大自然的人類.  雖然再見雲豹現跡台東的山林是一個遙遠的期待, 維護台東自然環境的多樣性與永續性倒是實際而且可行的行動.  During the 1900s Chief Sealth, of Seattle's Western Suquamish tribe, offered this counsel: "If people demean the land, they demean themselves."  In today's Taiwan, ecological disasters demonstrate something else he said: "Everything upon the land is connected, and constitutes a single body."  Every animal is part of a great puzzle, and humans can choose to sacrifice a piece of this puzzle only by sacrificing the integrity of the whole.  For this reason we must take more aggressive action with regard to the land, its creatures, and the people which depend upon both.  Although the discovery of new clouded leopard tracks within Taitung's forests is unlikely, protecting the diversity and resiliency of Taitung's natural environment is a practical action we can all take.

Related Entries 相關的文章:

Famous Birds 有名的鳥
Pheasants of Taiwan 台灣的野雞
Robert Swinhoe
布農族的百步蛇朋友 The Bunun Tribe's Friend: the Hundred Pacer 

References 參考文獻: 

臺東縣野生動物 Wildlife of Taitung 行政院農業委員會特有生物研究保育中心 2009
台灣雲豹山中傳奇待解的謎 (自由新聞網)
辨認雲豹身分 專家出馬 (中山大學 West - BBS  西子灣站)
台灣雲豹山中傳奇待解的迷 (大紀元)
"After 13-Year Quest, Clouded Leopards Confirmed Extinct in Taiwan" Scientific American, May 2013
Formosan Clouded Leopard (Wikipedia)

*Taiwan was connected to Mainland China by a land bridge when sea levels were lower.  Many animals migrated onto the island during this time.

**For the life of me I couldn't figure out what this "goodwill salmon city" is.  I checked a lot of Chinese and English websites in Seattle, and came up with... nothing.  Whatever it's called in English, it's certainly not "goodwill salmon city."