2013年10月7日 星期一

Double Ten Day 雙十節 2 (中)

The Chinese here was written by 張青史, while the English was written by me.  This version of "Taiwanese Holiday Stories" (台灣節日故事) was published by Windmill Illustrated 風車圖書 in 2012.

Double Ten Day (Taiwanese Independence Day)
(National Calendar, October 10)

滿清自入關統治中國以後, 對漢族採取婒酷的壓迫政策.  到了清朝末年, 官府腐敗無能, 官吏肆意搜刮人民的財物, 百姓生活痛苦不堪, 因此內亂四起.  加上列強不斷的侵略中國, 清廷屢戰屢敗, 只得割地賠款, 堂堂的中華民族受到如此的侮辱, 不僅使國人的自尊心大受打擊, 甚至連國家也面臨覆亡的命運.  After the Manchus* took administrative control of China, they imposed very oppressive policies upon the Han people.  By the end of the Ching Dynasty, the officials had become very weak and without ability, and these officials wantonly plundered the private property of citizens.  The lives of many people were difficult, and for this reason there was unrest in many places.  Added to this were the incursions of foreign powers into China, and the many reversals suffered by the Ching army.  The Ching court was forced to either partition the country or pay reparations, and the noble Chinese people were insulted by this.  It was not only a heavy blow to the people's pride, but the country also faced extinction.

國父孫中山先生看到這種情形, 知道民族已經面臨存亡關頭, 如果不推翻滿清政府, 中華民族將會陷入萬劫不復的地步.  於是毅然決然的集合許多愛國同志, 秘密進行革命工作.  When Dr. Sun Yat-sen witnessed these developments, he knew that the people faced a life-threatening crisis.  If the Ching Dynasty was not resisted, the Chinese people would approach a point of no return.  For this reason he gathered many patriots together, and secretly planned a revolution.

公元1894年, 中日爆發"甲午戰爭", 結果清朝戰敗, 被迫簽訂不平等的"馬關條約", 將台灣與澎湖割讓給日本.  在這件事情上, 滿清政府的腐敗無能展露無遺.  於是孫中山先生組織興中會, 倡導國民革命.  從那時起, 轟轟烈烈的革命行動便一次接一次的展開.  In 1894, the Sino-Japanese War erupted between China and Japan.  The Ching Dynasty lost this war, and was forced to sign the unfair Treaty of Shimonoseki, thus ceding the islands of Taiwan and Penghu to Japan.  In this matter the corrupt and inefficient nature of the Ching government was made obvious to all, and at this point Dr. Sun Yat-sen convened the Revive China Society, advocating a nationwide revolution.  From that time, revolutionary activities increased.

Wuchang Uprising

革命行動前後共有十一次 , 其中以第十次的廣州起義最壯烈, 犧牲也最慘重; 不過, 促使滿清皇帝退位, 建立中華民國的則是第十一次的武昌起義義.  因為這次起義是發生在辛亥年, 所以又稱作"辛亥革命".  There were 11 revolutionary activities in all.  Listed tenth among these activities was the most heroic of all, the Guangzhou Uprising.  This uprising was also the most costly, but it led to the abdication of the Ching Emperor and the establishment of the Republic of China.  The Wuchang Uprising was the eleventh revolutionary activity.  Because these uprisings happened during the same year as the Shinhai Uprising, they are called the "Shinhai Revolution."

清宣統3年(公元1911年)8月19日, 駐守在武昌的新軍工程第八營熊秉坤等人首先發難.  接著, 各營相繼響應, 革命軍氣勢如虹, 人人奮勇向前.  武漢三鎮首先光復, 不久, 各省也陸續被革命軍佔領.  清朝皇帝見大勢已去, 只好宣布退位.  During the third year of Emperor Puyi**(1911) on August 19, the eighth battalion of the new army was ordered to Wuchang.  The revolutionary army met the Ching forces, and everyone fought courageously.  Wuhan municipality was the first to be liberated, and the other provinces were slowly occupied by the revolutionary forces.  After the Ching Emperor saw these these disasters unfold, the only thing he could do was to abdicate.***

武昌起義是在農曆的8月19日, 換算成陽曆正是10月10日.  這是一個特殊而且直得紀念的日子.  因此, 政府特別訂定這一天為"國慶日", 又稱作"雙十節".  The Wuchang Uprising occurred on the nineteenth day of August in the lunar calendar, which is October 10 in the solar calendar.  This is a special and worthwhile day that ought to be remembered.  Because of this, the government has proclaimed that this day is "National Celebration Day" [Independence Day], and it is also called "Double Ten Day".

現在, 每年雙十節, 總統府前廣場都會舉行盛大的慶祝活動, 有時還會舉行閱兵典禮.  At the present time, during Double Ten Day every year, there is a big celebration in front of the Presidential Manor.  Sometimes there is also a military ceremony.

Presidential Manor, in Taipei.  Sometimes referred to as the "Presidential Palace"

Related Entries 相關的文章:

Moon Festival/Mid-Autumn Festival 中秋節 (中)
禁煙節 Non-Smoking Day
Foreign Relations
Dragon Boat Festival 端午節 2

*The Manchus are another name for the Ching.  "Ching" is more often spelled as "Qing," though I am using the less common "Ching" because it sounds more like the Chinese word.

**Much of this is chronicled in the movie "The Last Emperor."  Though Puyi was on the throne, it was the Empress Dowager who was making all the decisions.  Puyi was only 5 years old at the time.

***The above story was written for children, so they have eliminated the controversial Yuan Shikai 袁世凱 from the narrative.  Yuan Shikai was a general in the employ of the Ching court, and he was later appointed the second President of the Republic of China.  He is seen by many as a "Judas figure" in the Chinese republican movement, since he later attempted to transform the Republic of China into his own dynasty.